These flows are essential to life in general and are extremely useful to humans and all other species. Replenishable natural capital consists of stocks of nonliving resources that are continually recycled through their interaction with living resources over long periods such as the interaction between surface mineral components and living organisms that produces fertile, stable soil.
The condition of renewable natural capital stocks obviously influences the quality, quantity, and renewal rate of these essential, replenishable, natural capital stocks, and vice versa. Cultivated natural capital arises at the dynamic interface of human, social, and natural capital. This interface produces agroecological systems and amenity plantings that may be more or less self-sustaining, depending on their design and management.
Cultivated capital forms a continuum between renewable natural capital and manufactured capital and may be closer to one or the other, depending on the degree of transformation of the landscape, the genetic material, and the subsidies e. It is often forgotten that, in all cases, both cultivated resources and manufactured capital are derived from renewable, replenishable, and nonrenewable natural capital.
This transformation of natural to human-made capital is. Restoring Natural Capital: Definitions and Rationale 5 mining the stock of renewable, replenishable, and nonrenewable natural capital, thereby reducing it for future use, unless it is restored where it has been used up or degraded. Ecological Restoration and Restoration of Natural Capital The Society for Ecological Restoration International s Primer on Ecological Restoration SER defines ecological restoration as the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed, but it is a much broader concept.
The goal of ecological restoration, according to the SER Primer, is a resilient ecosystem that is selfsustaining with respect to structure, species composition, and function, while integrated into a larger landscape and congenial to low impact human activities.
Ecological restoration is intended to repair ecosystems with respect to their health, integrity, and self-sustainability SER Lewis cogently adds that ecological engineers attempt to address both the restoration of damaged ecosystems and the creation of new sustainable systems in a cost effective way. The restoration of natural capital is any activity that integrates investment in and replenishment of natural capital stocks to improve the flows of ecosystem goods and services, while enhancing all aspects of human well-being.
In common with ecological restoration, natural capital restoration is intended to improve the health, integrity, and self-sustainability of ecosystems for all living organisms. However, natural capital restoration focuses on defining and maximizing the value and effort of ecological restoration for the benefit of humans, thereby mainstreaming it into daily thought and action and promoting ecosystem health and integrity.
Natural capital restoration activities may include but are not limited to 1 the restoration and rehabilitation of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems; 2 ecologically sound improvements to arable lands and other lands that are managed for useful purposes; 3 improvements in the ecologically sustainable utilization of biological resources; and 4 the establishment or enhancement of socioeconomic activities and behavior that incorporate knowledge, awareness, conservation, and management of natural capital into daily activities.
Those motivated by a biotic rationale for restoration, as explained by Clewell and Aronson , and whose concern lies with the perpetuation of biodiversity, may raise a concern here. They may argue that natural capital restoration s human-centered focus will obscure an essential insight of the restoration and conservation movements that ecosystems and all the processes and species they contain are worth restoring and preserving for their own sake, regardless of their economic or other value to humans.
This is true see chapter 2 ; however, in order to mainstream ecological restoration into the economy chapter 34 , it is also necessary to show how humans will benefit directly from it and how the interaction between economic and ecological systems could be improved through the restoration of natural capital. Rehabilitation and Reallocation In figure 1. General model of ecosystem degradation and possible responses, modified from Aronson et al. In this scheme, disturbance refers to undesirable anthropogenically induced change.
On the right-hand side of the figure, quantity and diversity of ecosystem goods and services refers to their availability, while cost and difficulty of restoration of natural capital are the relative financial and other expenditures and investments required for a continuum of management intervention options. The exact positions of transformed ecosystems, with a range of restoration inputs, depend on many variables, with the most plausible outcomes indicated.
By contrast, reallocation is a term that describes what happens when part of a landscape, in any condition is assigned a new use not necessarily bearing any relationship to the structure or functioning of the pre - existing ecosystems. Whereas, traditionally, restoration seeks a complete or near-complete return to a preexisting state although this is being challenged as a result of the consequences of global climate change , by reassembling the species inventory, stresses, and disturbances, as far as possible, rehabilitation focuses on repairing ecosystem functions, in particular raising ecosystem productivity and services for the benefit of humans.
Where the spatial scale of damage is small and the surrounding environment is healthy in terms of species composition and function, amelioration of conditions in the damaged patch, together with ecological processes such as seed dispersal and natural recolonization by plants and animals can lead to full recovery of resilient, species-rich ecosystems that provide a range of services valued by humans chapter 21 including aesthetic, cultural, and what we may call spiritual services. However, in heavily modified ecosystems, which have crossed one or more thresholds of irreversibility May ; Westoby et al.
Restoring Natural Capital: Definitions and Rationale 7 preexisting species inventory may no longer be feasible. In such cases, only rehabilitation and reallocation are likely to remain as viable, cost-effective alternatives, and any actions to reverse environmental damage should be determined by socioeconomic decision making that takes into account the spatial scale of the degradation, the present and future value of the resource to humans, and the condition and composition of the surrounding ecosystem.
Ecological restoration, rehabilitation, and reallocation can all contribute to the restoration of natural capital and be pursued simultaneously in different landscape units. Throughout this book, the term restoration and hence, natural capital restoration is often used so as to include rehabilitation, whereas reclamation is not employed because of prior connotations Aronson et al.
Rationale for Restoring Natural Capital We now present some basic principles, following Clewell and Aronson , that collectively provide a rationale for the restoration, sustainable use, and enhanced protection of natural capital.
They serve as a template that the editors and authors will use for the evaluation of the case studies, regional overviews, and other contributions in this volume. Principle 1. In setting targets for the restoration of natural capital, our premise is that people of all cultures depend on the products and services derived from natural ecosystems to provide much of their sustenance and well-being Daily ; Balmford et al.
It follows that an improvement in the quantity or quality of natural ecosystems increases human well-being, while degradation causes the converse. We assert that self-sufficient, self-organizing natural ecosystems are appropriate restoration targets because, despite the deficiencies in our understanding of natural ecosystem functioning Balmford et al. In the context of semicultural or cultural landscapes, and humandesigned ecosystems see, for example, chapter 16 , the broader term of restoring natural capital is more readily applicable than ecological restoration, per se.
Principle 2. It has been remarked that anthropogenic global changes, including climate change, have profound implications for ecological restoration and biological conservation Harris et al. However, we argue that the only durable way to increase ecosystem services is by restoring the functions MacMahon ; Luken ; Falk and processes of self-sustaining ecosystems. Such systems will adapt to climate change and evolve as well or better than designer ecosystems.
Furthermore, restoring natural ecosystems on a large scale may actually help mitigate the effects of climate change Clewell and Aronson Finally, climate change scenarios in no way alter the obvious benefits of restoring natural capital. Principle 3. Costs of restoration of natural capital increase as a function of the spatial extent, duration, and intensity of environmental damage, and with the complexity of. This cost increase reflects the increasing number of interventions required to achieve restoration as damage initially depletes the plants and animals for example, overfishing, deforestation , and then destroys the physical habitat for example, through pollution, soil erosion, hydrological or climatic changes , not to mention the preexisting ties and links between people and the landscapes in which they lived and worked.
Like ecological benefits, social and economic benefits from investments in restoring natural capital will generally take longer to be realized where not only ecological injuries but also adverse socioeconomic changes have been more profound and long lasting. Principle 4. Natural capital and manufactured capital are complementary. Increasingly, the limiting factor for economic development is natural capital, and not manufactured capital, as it used to be.
Principle 5. Extinct species can never be recovered nor lost complexity fully understood or restored. Therefore, it is better to conserve or use resources sustainably than to restore, and better to invest in restoring natural capital during the earlier stages of resource degradation and loss of sustainability in managed systems than to postpone restoration activities.
Contribution Here we have indicated that the restoration of natural capital includes ecological restoration, but it also considers the socioeconomic interface between humans and the natural environment, including managed systems such as food, fodder, tree fiber, and fish farms, and the awareness of the importance of natural capital in the daily lives of people. The recognition of the real possibility of restoring natural capital helps build bridges between economists and ecologists who can then develop a set of information and hypotheses to help develop new and sustainable economic pathways while also repairing some of the ecological and socioeconomic damage done in the past.
As has been indicated, restoration and rehabilitation are not the only ways of developing these pathways. Conservation and revised management of resources and anthropogenic systems, as well as the reduction in consumer demand, among other things, are also vitally important. In the following chapters, various authors including, among others, economists and ecologists from various countries consider the theoretical, commercial, financial, and practical implications of restoring natural capital.
The goal is a consilience of ecologists and economists offering practical strategies for redressing the debilitating socioeconomic and political effects of declining natural, social, and cultural capital worldwide. This poses an immense ethical challenge, as well as new conceptual approaches and revised strategy planning.
In chapter 2, therefore, we reflect on the restoration of natural capital from an ethical vantage point before returning to economic, ecological, and political considerations. Clewell Over the past two centuries we have transformed natural capital to the extent that the supply of life-essential ecosystem goods and services for us, and all other organisms on the planet is quite seriously threatened.
This calls for an urgent and active focus on and application of the science, business, and practice of the restoration of natural capital the theme of this book. While the rest of this book deals with the restoration of natural capital from either a theoretical conceptual , practical experiential , or strategic planning perspective, this chapter reflects on the restoration of natural capital from an ethical vantage point.
To do so, we will first demystify the prevailing economic ethic and then discuss sustainability and the contribution of restoring natural capital to the end of creating a new economic and socioecological ethic based on sustainability, fulfilled relationships, and social justice. People and Nature: A Relationship Gone Astray In conventional neoclassical economics the natural environment, though recognized as an essential production factor, is treated under the ceteris paribus all other things being equal assumption.
Mainstream economics thus assumes no quantitative or qualitative change to stocks of natural resources due to substitutability and if there is no change to these stocks they are by definition infinite. Clearly this is an unrealistic proposition, but one with dangerous consequences. On Economics, Values, and Ethics In his penetrating book on ethics and economics, Wogaman states that it is important to distinguish between intrinsic and instrumental values or principles.
An intrinsic value is something that is good in itself, and it requires no further justification. An instrumental value, however, is something that contributes to the fulfillment or realization of an intrinsic value. Instrumental values are, therefore, means to an end and not ends in and of themselves.
The question with which we are concerned is this: what are the intrinsic and instrumental values in prevailing economic theory and thought? The main theoretical construct of modern economics, generally called neoclassical economics, is based on Adam Smith s The Wealth of Nations Smith s central premise is 9. This idea has been developed subsequently as the maximization of consumption, which has become the intrinsic value of neoclassical economics, the key value that requires no further explanation or justification.
The instrumental value is self-interest. Self-interest is the basis upon which people compete with each other to achieve utility or consumption maximization. Self-interest per se is sometimes presented as a typical or normal element of Darwinian natural selection. In this context, however, the principle of self-interest is not applied to assure species survival, but to ensure domination the domination of one individual over another in human society, and of Homo sapiens collectively over the rest of the natural world.
While one can hardly argue against the application of the self-interest principle for the sake of species survival, the consequences of both individual and collective human domination are far reaching. Moreover, Kropotkin, a Russian aristocrat noted both for his libertarian politics and original contributions to evolutionary theory Kropotkin , qualified Darwinism with his insight that evolution involves mutual aid as well as competition.
The zoologist Warder Clyde Allee developed this insight Allee ; see also Bleibtrau ; Gould , while Vermeij provided a significant counterpoint to the view that self-interested domination is the universal norm. In the same vein, we firmly endorse Vermeij s argument that humans, as top consumers, should provide corrective feedback to the economy. It is after all a self-organizing system, which needs to be allowed or even pushed to adapt in such a way as to sustain system stability and survival.
For a variety of reasons, these feedback mechanisms are failing to function: human society, and economies, are not getting a vital, life-sustaining feedback message or are not registering it strongly enough figure 2. The limited feedback, or information blockage, is a result of the market not recognizing that humans are part of a larger ecosystem. As long as our species sees constantly increasing consumption for one and all as its supreme goal, the market will provide all the right signals and information to this end, ignoring the ecological and spiritual consequences.
That maximization of, or growth in, consumption is a principle focus of modern economics, a notion based on the faith in neoclassical or neoliberal economic theory. An outcome of this growth machine model is increased polarization in global and national economics and politics as per divergent outcomes in figure 2.
In some developed countries there is far too much consumption, based as it is on clearly unsustainable levels of material and energy output, while in most developing countries, there is too little per capita consumption, leading to an increase in human vulnerability and chronic loss of dignity and well-being.
Whatever the situation, the flow of information from environmental indicators back to the economy is filtered out. Changing the prevailing ideology will require a new paradigm in which the outcome of the market process is redefined toward a new end we reflect on this in more detail in the next section. This is not impossible since, as we noted earlier, the economy is a selforganizing system.
The market acts and reacts to information and is based on the premise that people have the ability to reflect, analyze, and reinterpret the data that the market provides. It is the general failure of humans to absorb and act on the environmental information that inhibits the much-needed change in values, behavior, and lifestyle. Too little consumption Figure 2. Simplified state and transition model of the global, consumption-based economic growth machine with indications of its various outcomes and environmental impacts.
Overexploitation often begun during colonial periods combined with inequity and maldistribution confounds the problem of underconsumption. However, as ecologists and economists, we understand that making information available is not enough. It is essential that we also contribute to communicating it to the wider society which constitutes the market through education, the media, culture, and all the means available within democratic politics.
That message is that our world sets natural limits to how much we can consume and that we are pushing way past those limits, blindly and recklessly. Ironically and tragically, the human drive to domination, as opposed to survival, threatens not only many other species but also, conceivably in the near future, the survival of the human species itself. Since consumption acts as the intrinsic economic value, consumption gains control over persons who desire to continually consume more.
The supporters of value-free, neoclassical economics deny this. Normative economics is speculative and personal, as Friedman famously wrote; it is a matter of values and preferences that are beyond science. Economics as science, as a tool for understanding and prediction, must be based solely on positive economics, which is in principle independent of any particular ethical position or normative judgments , 4. Within positive economics, the efficiency criterion calculation gains supremacy over all other values, such as fairness, obligation, prudence, honesty, loyalty, sustainability, and practicability Bromley Some would argue see Von Hayek that it is unethical to restrict the market by introducing ethical guidelines, since the outcome of the market process is ethically desirable by definition.
According to this view, the moral solution to all economically related problems would be to extend the boundaries of private property rights to be allencompassing Coase , in other words, the systematic commodification of all public goods, including ecosystem goods and services of all kinds. These guidelines, which Kant and Habermas call a context-relevant common moral denominator, find their expression in the concepts of equality and human rights Kant ; Habermas Commodification and consumerism are biased toward inequality and contribute to the marginalization of the weak in favor of progress and the self-interest of the strong.
Commodification also disregards the fact that the natural environment, in all its diversity and complexity, is valuable. This is because of the difficulty of its valuation in monetary terms, and because some elements within this diversity have no direct value to humans. Many ecologists argue that ecosystems are indeed valuable in themselves, quite apart from their human-use value Jordan That is a strong argument ethically, but it has not made a large enough impact on our societies to save the earth s natural capital from degradation.
The restoration of natural capital argument, by making strong and interlinked economic and ecological cases, should have a much broader appeal and therefore a much deeper impact on public opinion and policymakers, globally and locally. People, however, have to have a sense of purpose to build and maintain dignity, selfesteem, and meaning in their lives, which are of course much wider and deeper concepts than the maximization of consumption Monod This implies that humans, as relational beings, have a fundamental need for fulfilled relationships at many levels that include subsistence, protection, affection, understanding, participation, recreation or leisure, capabilities, creativity, identity, and freedom Max-Neef Therefore, people are not to be seen apart from, but rather as part of, the natural environment.
This relationship requires restoration as well. A Divided World: People Versus Nature The maximization of consumption, as a prevailing value for society, has lead to the establishment of an ideology of economic growth. Heilbronner , 62 eloquently describes this process as leading us to the larger picture that [Adam] Smith had in mind.
We would call it a growth model, although Smith used no such modern term himself. What we mean by this is that Smith shows us both a propulsive force that will put society on an upward growth path [consumption] and a self-correcting mechanism [self-interest] that will keep it there. To grow economically requires an accumulation of manufactured capital.
Manufactured capital is by and large converted or transformed natural capital see chapter 1. This implies an asymmetrical application of the self-interest principle. As a result, not only do people fight each other for resources but collectively perceive their self-interest as being in conflict with the natural world, or as Schumacher ,13 wrote, Modern man does not experience himself as a part of nature but as an outside force destined to dominate and to conquer it.
He even talks of a battle with nature, forgetting that if he won the battle, he would find himself on the losing side. Until quite recently, the battle seemed to go well enough to give him the illusion of unlimited powers, but not so well as to bring the possibility of total victory into view.
This has now come into view, and many people, albeit only a minority, are beginning to realize what this means for the continued existence of humanity. Restoring Natural Capital: A Reflection on Ethics 13 People are fighting nature because they consider themselves to be outside of, or set aside from, nature. A new ethic is required that insists that economics and political economic policies must take account monetarily and otherwise of the cost of consumption of natural capital and ecosystem services.
Humans, in an increasingly crowded world, can no longer permit the ideology of consumption maximization to take precedence over the need for ecosystem resilience and human justice Blignaut a. In sum, economic growth is important, but so are social relationships and relationships with nature, education, law, justice, and so on.
In a holistic approach Smuts , 86 , where ecology and economics are integrated, a new kind of scientifically and ethically based consensus is necessary to address current world problems. It is in this context that sustainability emerges as the signpost of the way forward and the means to restore healthy relationships both within and among human societies, and between people and nature.
Sustainability We argue that fulfilled relationships, with oneself, with others, and with the natural world, are the most desirable of all ethical values frameworks. We consider sustainable development as the most effective instrument for building this framework. Within sustainable development, however, there are strong differences of emphasis. Some proponents stress human well-being, whereas others stress the maintenance of natural processes, sometimes known as ecosystem well-being.
These differences are reflected in two prevailing and often cited definitions of sustainability: 1 Providing for the needs of the current generation without compromising the ability of future generations to provide for their own needs Brundtland Report , and 2 The capacity to create, test and maintain the adaptive capability [of natural ecosystems] Holling et al.
Though these definitions may seem incompatible, in reality they are not. The Holling definition can be interpreted as an ecological prerequisite for the Brundtland definition. In other words, if we do not maintain the adaptive capability of natural ecosystems, we compromise the ability of future generations to provide for their own needs.
The converse is also true. Not only is there a plethora of definitions for sustainable development, the matter is further complicated by the fact that many economists argue that natural capital including untransformed natural capital is not directly required for economies to function and that natural capital can largely be substituted by the growth of manufactured capital figure 2.
This notion of substitutability is known as weak sustainability, the first scenario discussed here Van Kooten and Bulte Weak sustainability presupposes that all forms of capital are completely interchangeable in the process of production, in the estimation of total wealth, in tracking changes in asset values, and in calculating sustainable income Pearce and Turner ; Solow ; Dorfman ; Pezzey and Toman The value system employed is unabashedly anthropocentric and utilitarian.
Second, the strong sustainability notion of ecological economists recognizes that natural and human-made capital are complementary but not substitutable. This is because natural capital is broader than just natural resources of direct use to humans or natural commodities that can be manufactured Daly ; Ekins ; Ekins, Simon, et al. Strong sustainability is a concept currently more favored by ecologists, and their allies among economists, than by most politicians and mainstream.
Four contrasting sustainability paradigms: A Neoclassical perspective: economic growth can continue after natural capital has been depleted. B Environmentalist pessimistic perspective: predicting an economic crash following natural capital depletion. C Ecological economic vision wherein tradeoffs to growth are accepted in favor of maintaining natural capital and a more sustainable economy through qualitative improvement of ecosystem and resource management.
D The possible effects of restoration of natural capital on quantity and stability of human-made capital. Panels A and B are redrawn from Folke et al. Panels C and D are original and previously unpublished. Its central contention is that the internal substitution of different components of natural capital and, above all, its replacement by the other forms of capital, is only possible to a limited degree. This is based on the premise of the precautionary principle and the application of safe-minimum standards for prudent management.
The proponents of strong sustainability affirm that economic growth based on the destruction of natural capital will be unsustainable, because economies require natural, social, and manufactured capital to survive figure 2. Most of those who promote the search for strong sustainability do nevertheless acknowledge the inevitability of tradeoffs, namely that economic objectives often have environmental and social costs figure 2.
In this third scenario quality of goods and services is given equal or greater importance than quantity. This corresponds to the difference between development and growth of socioeconomic systems. The restoration of natural capital has economic costs, but these are greatly. Restoring Natural Capital: A Reflection on Ethics 15 outweighed by its benefits, because it increases the prospects for sustainable development and reduces the threat of economic, social, and ecological disaster figure 2.
A compromise between weak and strong concepts of sustainability is offered by the notion of critical natural capital chapter 3. This term is the product of a conceptual partitioning of natural capital between components that are irreplaceable, and therefore critical, and the remaining kinds that can indeed be replaced.
This compromise allows bridge building between ecologists and economists to go forward in a consensual fashion. More than twenty years ago, Norgaard highlighted two incontrovertible facts of relevance. First, environmental systems are not divisible, a fact that invalidates the neoclassical assumption that all resources are divisible and can be owned which makes the procommodification view implausible. Second, environmental systems almost never reach equilibrium positions, and Furthermore, Norgaard wrote, Critical natural capital cannot be defined.
It is not that there are no thresholds but that there are many, many thresholds that are interdependent, spatially and historically, and sensitive to a history of intertwined perturbations, etc. To base the argument on the existence of something we cannot define puts one in the position of then having to define it if challenged.
Norgaard, 2 January , personal communication Here Norgaard implicitly emphasizes the difference between the limiting aspects of positivist science, which focuses only on the predictive capacity of our epistemological knowledge, and the need for an ethical framework. We need a context-relevant, generally accepted moral determinant to guide us where positivist science cannot take us. The fact that we cannot determine the various threshold limits exactly does not imply that they do not exist.
Indivisibility, disequilibria, irreversibility, uncertainty, and the existence of ambiguous critical components of natural capital lead proponents of strong sustainability to place an ever greater importance on natural capital. They see natural capital not only as a complement to manufactured capital but in fact vital for all life worthy of the name life Ekins, Simon, et al.
In more sober words, substitutability of different forms of capital is limited and inelastic. Therefore, the need to preserve critical natural capital imposes severe constraints on economic growth that depends on the transformation, pollution, or destruction of natural capital.
Failure to respect these fundamental principles has in the past, and could again in the future, lead to ecosystem collapses and, what s more, economic collapse might be brought about by ecosystem collapse Van Kooten and Bulte , The collapse of the Easter Island community, brought about by ecosystem collapse, is a good example Diamond Neoclassical economists consider this view unnecessarily pessimistic and sometimes dub it neo-malthusian.
Yet to ecologists and ecological economists it seems obvious, or selfevident, especially in a crowded world like the one we live in today. Contribution It is evident from the discussion presented that there are definite social, ecological, and ethical parameters within which economic development and growth has to take place.
The pre-. When people decide to restore natural capital, they not only set out to physically and biologically repair degraded, damaged, or destroyed natural capital, they also more or less consciously seek to repair and restore a healthy psychological, social, and spiritual relationship with nature. Investing time, energy, and financial capital in the restoration of natural capital is an acknowledgement that people are part of an intricate web or matrix of relationships that encompasses nature, including other people near and far, other forms of life, other material objects, the economy, and science.
The act of restoring natural capital might be costly in financial terms, but in addition to the augmentation of ecosystem goods and services, it adds both value and meaning to all of these relationships. It contributes to the development or reinforcement of dignity, self-esteem, and restored relationships to past, present, and future generations. These values are not all quantifiable, yet it is possible to determine the monetary value, implicitly or explicitly, of the value of the ecosystem goods and services delivered by restoration.
Such monetary values will, however, always be partial and subject to the underlying ethical framework. To illustrate this point, the next two chapters provide a theoretic framework for both the valuation and the restoration of natural capital from two completely different ideological perspectives.
Restoration provides an essential alternative to the prevailing paradigm of maximizing consumption that can be achieved through an ethical framework based on fulfilled relationships. We recognize the daunting scale of the task of putting these principles into practice in a global societal context where the ideology of growth dominates economics, politics, culture, the media, and education. These practical issues are the focus of the rest of this book. It should be kept in mind that politics, which is the practical social expression of our ethics and our collective values system, plays a key role in shaping our societies and conduct.
In all of these contexts, the strategy of restoring natural capital can, and should, make a difference. We believe that that difference is crucial to the outcome of current debates about the future of our societies and the biosphere within which we live, and without whose goods and services we could no longer exist.
Brown Gaddis In this chapter we show how the application of the basic principles of ecological economics can provide concrete and practical guidelines for deciding if, when, and where to restore natural capital. A mainstream economic approach to the same question is presented in the next chapter. We begin by defining distinct categories of natural capital: source, service, sink, and site. We then propose corresponding strategies for measuring and valuing natural capital as they relate to the restoration thereof and distinguish between critical and noncritical natural capital.
Measurement strategies are evaluated according to their usefulness in attaining the goals of ecological sustainability, social justice, and economic efficiency through the restoration of natural capital. Important Concepts in Ecological Economics Whereas neoclassical economics focuses on the microallocation of scarce aspects of natural capital among different market products, ecological economics focuses also on macroallocation, the apportionment of finite ecosystem structure between economic production economic goods and services and ecological production ecosystem goods and services.
Such an analysis is useful in answering the following types of questions related to the restoration of natural capital: 1. How much restoration is required to support life-sustaining ecosystem functions? When is restoration imperative, and when should restoration be considered based on marginal costs and benefits? When should restoration focus on restoration of ecosystem function or on ecosystem structure?
How should the costs and benefits of restoration be distributed within society and between generations? Addressing these questions in depth requires that we first explore some ecological economic concepts describing the framework with which we approach the restoration of natural capital. Ecological economics also considers efficient allocation important, but it is secondary to the issues of scale and distribution Daly Scale concerns the macroeconomic question of how large the economic system can be relative to the ecological system that sustains and contains it sustainable scale , as well as how large it should be desirable scale.
If we exceed sustainable scale, we must restore natural capital until our ecosystems regain their ability to reliably generate critical life support functions and supply our economy with the raw materials and waste absorption capacity it requires. Efficient allocation entails sacrificing the least valuable ecological services in exchange for the most valuable economic ones. Economic growth beyond the point where ecological costs outweigh economic benefits is inefficient and exceeds desirable scale.
Distribution addresses equity or the apportionment of resources among different individuals. In a market economy, different distributions result in different allocations, so the desirability of a given allocation depends on the desirability of the distribution that generated it. Natural Capital In chapter 1, the various categories of natural capital were identified, and capital was defined as a stock that yields a flow of benefits. Defining natural capital requires that we evaluate the role of ecosystem structure and function in delivering a variety of benefits to society.
First, natural capital in the form of ecosystem structure provides sources of raw materials for economic production, such as timber, fish, and fossil fuels. Equally important are the functions provided by natural capital as ecosystem services for climate regulation, water supply, and so on, and as sinks absorbing and processing society s waste Coddington Although ecosystem services are as essential to our welfare as raw materials, they are dramatically harder to measure.
Finally, we must also value the site or location of natural capital both in terms of its spatial relationship to human society and as a physical substrate for capturing solar energy and rainfall. Though site is neither a good nor a service per se, it is generally the single most important variable in determining the market value of land the substrate on which all terrestrial restoration must occur , and nearly as important in determining the nonmarket values of the ecosystem services it does or could generate.
Most forms of natural capital simultaneously function as sources, services, and sinks, while site strongly influences the value of those functions. For example, a forest ecosystem may regulate and filter water flow service , supply timber for building source , and absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere sink ; its proximity to human populations site heavily influences the value of these other functions.
A key question then is how to value all of these simultaneously for one geographic area and compare it to other areas, which may supply other important ecosystem goods and services. Note that some of these functions are primar - ily beneficial for local residents filtration of water , whereas others provide global services absorption of carbon dioxide.
Restoring Natural Capital: An Ecological Economics Assessment 19 Natural Capital as a Source of Raw Materials The source component of natural capital consists of the stock of raw materials provided by nature that is essential for all economic production and includes renewable, replenishable, and nonrenewable resources.
The restoration of natural capital can increase the stock of renewable and replenishable resources, but not nonrenewable ones; the extraction and use of all these stocks can seriously impair and degrade ecosystem function. Sources can also be characterized as stock-flow resources Georgescu-Roegen Stock-flow resources are physically transformed through production and embodied in whatever is produced. Use is equivalent to depletion, but stock-flow resources can be stockpiled, and humans can control the rate at which they are used.
These resources are appropriately measured as physical quantities, such as cubic meters of timber, barrels of oil, or tons of fish. In addition to being essential to all economic production, stock-flow resources are vital elements of ecosystem structure, the building blocks of ecosystems.
All stock-flow resources are rival in use, which means that one person s use of a given resource leaves less for others to use. Fund-Services: Ecosystem Services and Waste Sink The service component of natural capital consists of the ecosystem services that sustain all life on the planet and are essential inputs into many types of economic production. Ecosystem services are ecosystem functions of value to humans that arise as emergent phenomena when the various elements of ecosystem structure the source component of natural capital interact with one another to create a complex system Costanza et al.
In a selfsustaining system, such services create the conditions that allow the biotic elements of ecosystem structure to reproduce. These services have been categorized in many different ways, but common categories include regulation services, production services, habitat functions, and information services De Groot et al.
Ecosystem services can be characterized as fund-services Georgescu-Roegen In contrast to stock-flows, fund-services are resources that are not physically transformed into what they produce, and hence are not depleted through use human-made fund-services wear out, but natural ones are maintained by solar energy. A fund-service is the result of a particular configuration of stock-flow resources.
Fund-services cannot be stockpiled, the rate at which they are provided cannot be directly controlled by humans, and they are appropriately measured as a quantity of service per unit of time. Most ecosystem services are nonrival in use, which means that one person s use of the resource does not leave less for someone else for example, when one person benefits from the flood control services provided by a healthy, forested watershed, it does not diminish the amount of flood control left for anyone else.
The sink component of natural capital is the capacity of natural systems to absorb and process the waste products of economic production. Ecosystems act on waste in two distinct ways. Biologically active compounds can be transformed through processes such as cellular respiration, nitrification, and denitrificiation.
If sufficiently dilute, waste products from the processing of biotic stocks can actually benefit ecosystems and restoration; for example, sewage is often used as a fertilizer in the restoration of forests. In excessive concentrations or in ratios inappropriate for biological cycling frequently produced by human activity, however, biotic wastes can seriously degrade ecosystems for example, when too much raw. The same is true for some wastes resulting from the use of abiotic stocks, such as CO 2.
In small concentrations CO 2 can benefit restoration, but in the concentrations currently emitted they are major factors in ecological degradation. For example, anthropogenic CO 2 is acidifying the ocean, reducing the viability and calcification of coral reefs Royal Society Ecosystems can also quite literally absorb metals and other persistent compounds by physically binding them to soil particles adsorption or absorbing them as molecules into biological tissue.
Other wastes from abiotic stocks, such as persistent organic pollutants, take an extremely long time to break down, as their name implies, and they probably cause some ecological problems even in small concentrations. Wastes such as heavy metals and other elements can never be broken down. When the flow of any waste into the environment exceeds the capacity of the ecosystem to break it down, the waste will inevitably accumulate, resulting over time in concentrations that seriously degrade the receiving ecosystem.
Although ecosystems can evolve to adapt to high nutrient or high metal environments, the time scale necessary for the natural system to respond is several orders of magnitude larger than the human lifetime, making the loss in ecosystem function permanent as relevant to society. Over very long time spans, these wastes may be transformed through natural processes into less toxic compounds, or buried where they do no harm.
Site Finally, the site component of natural capital refers to land and water as physical substrates capable of capturing solar energy and rainfall. Biotic natural capital source, service, and sink requires this substrate, which is undergoing increasing conversion to economic activities. Site can be quantitatively measured in terms of surface area, solar radiation, rainfall, substrate, and other factors that affect its quality, but in a market economy its monetary value is determined almost solely by its relationship to human population centers.
Thus, throughout most of the world the market value of land in urban areas is generally thousands of times more valuable than otherwise identical rural land. The value of the source, service, and sink functions of natural capital is determined by its proximity to population centers.
Critical Natural Capital While natural capital sustains all life and all economic production, not all natural capital is equally important to human survival. It is therefore useful to define critical natural capital CNC both spatially and functionally, as those components of natural capital that are essential to human survival and for which there are no adequate substitutes Ekins, Simon, et al. In most cases CNC cuts across source, service, sink, and site. This concept is important in addressing the question of when restoration is imperative and when decisions can potentially be left to marginal analysis of costs and benefits.
Many economists argue that manufactured capital is an adequate substitute for natural capital for the extreme version of this argument, see Simon , and therefore there is no such thing as CNC. From this perspective, sustainability requires nondiminishing quantities.
Restoring Natural Capital: An Ecological Economics Assessment 21 of capital as measured by value, though the specific type of capital does not matter. Ecological economists and ecologists, in contrast, generally assume that manufactured capital can substitute for natural capital only at the margin.
For example, tractors and fertilizers can allow sustained yields on smaller and smaller plots of land, but only up to a point we cannot feed the world from a flowerpot Daly and Cobb From this perspective, sustainability requires nondiminishing quantities of CNC. The former position is commonly referred to as weak sustainability and the latter as strong sustainability Neumayer ; see also chapters 2 and 4 for more on the distinction between strong and weak sustainability.
The existence of ecological thresholds and the complex nature of natural capital in which each component is related in some way to every other component complicate the precise identification of CNC. Individual species source components of natural capital exhibit thresholds in the form of minimum viable populations MVP , and if populations fall below this level through harvest or habitat degradation, they become extinct.
Unfortunately, we do not know what constitutes a MVP, which may range in number from many millions to just a few individuals. In a complex system, the loss of one species may trigger the loss of others in a chain reaction. Ecosystems may similarly be depleted below a minimum viable size.
For example, studies suggest that the Amazon rain forest recycles rainfall, but if the forest falls below a certain unknown size there will be inadequate rainfall to sustain the system Salati and Vose Another threshold results when waste emissions exceed absorption capacity resulting in reduced ecosystem function and an eventual accumulation of waste.
Ecosystem thresholds may also be determined by the particular configuration and character of ecosystem structure, not just total quantity. For example, the same area of forest provides different and unequal services if it is fragmented or contiguous forest for a case study in developing forest corridors, see chapter 8.
Multiple ecological thresholds are interconnected in a complex system, and what constitutes a viable level or configuration of a given element of CNC depends on the status of other elements. For example, climate change that results when we surpass the global waste absorption capacity for CO 2 may affect both the minimum viable size of an ecosystem and the MVP of a species. Restoring natural capital may affect the minimum viable size of species or ecosystem and can help them recover from otherwise nonviable states.
Ecological systems science is critical to this approach as restoration of one type of ecosystem may be best accomplished by the restoration of other bordering systems. For example, aquatic restoration streams, lakes, estuaries must be connected to the restoration of at least some of the functions of upstream watersheds forests, grasslands, and wetlands and riparian zones to avoid a return to the degraded state. Determining which and how much natural capital is critical has significant methodological challenges.
However, this determination is of key importance in determining whether ecosystem restoration should be analyzed based on efficiency marginal costs and benefits or whether the value is infinite and should therefore be determined based on science and ethical attitudes toward uncertainty and toward future generations.
However, there are situations in which a particular piece of natural capital may be especially valued for only one or two of these attributes or become far more valuable in a particular place where natural capital is rare. Thus, comparing between source, service, sink, and site also requires appropriate valuation methodologies. Which approach we choose depends to some extent on our objectives and whether we embrace the notions of strong sustainability and CNC rather than weak sustainability.
One objective is to compare the value of natural capital with that of the manufactured capital into which it can be converted. If the weak sustainability paradigm holds, then monetary valuation is perfectly appropriate for both manufactured and natural capital since the two can be substituted for each other.
Though many ecosystem services are not exchanged in markets, economists have developed sophisticated albeit controversial and costly methods for estimating nonmarket values. For example, economists might ask people how much they would be willing to pay, hypothetically, for an additional unit of services provided by a healthy wetland contingent valuation or estimate the monetary damages from a marginal loss of wetland services such as flood control.
Such values could be fed back into price signals via taxes or impact fees for wetland development, for example, theoretically leading to more efficient allocation of wetlands. We must remember however that monetary measures capture only exchange values, which are the value of one additional unit of service; they do not measure use values, which are the benefits from all units available.
Monetary measures are simply not designed to measure any type of nonmarginal change. The distinction between exchange value and use value explains why diamonds, a mere adornment, have a far greater monetary value than water, which is absolutely essential to life. Two major objectives of restoring natural capital are to ensure sustainable scale and just distribution. Many ecological economists argue that these objectives take precedence over efficiency and are incompatible with monetary valuation.
As ecosystem services are created by nature, independent of individual effort, just distribution requires that decisions on their value and allocation be democratic. But most monetary values are derived from estimated demand curves. Since demand is preferences weighted by income, monetary valuation is based on plutocratic principles, not democratic ones.
Monetary valuation also discounts the interests of future generations. Sustainable scale, which is the preservation of CNC, on the other hand protects the interests of the future. In addition, if the strong sustainability paradigm holds, there are no human-made substitutes for CNC, and in a complex system there are unknown thresholds beyond which CNC can collapse.
Crossing the threshold from adequate to inadequate stocks of CNC is catastrophic, not marginal, and marginal valuation is inappropriate. Appropriate measures are physical, relying primarily on science. When evidence suggests that natural capital is nearing a threshold of criticality, restoration in addition to conservation is imperative regardless of cost; though if there are several ways to achieve a goal, then cost effectiveness should be a criterion. Restoring vital function is the priority.
Determining the physical size and configuration of CNC is inherently a question of measuring physical attributes and relies primarily on science. However, our ignorance concerning ecosystem function means that even physical estimates of ecological thresholds cannot be entirely objective. From a sample size of one e. The left figure. DEM - Slope - 0. Eastness - 0. Northness - 0. Mean - 0. Toposcale - 0. Solar - 0. Topmodel -. Toposcale correlates. Hourly wind speed.
Day of Year Prior to this research no DEM was. None of the no-data cells in. Cell Size No. Radiation Receipt Wm-2 Modelled Solar Radiation Receipt 0 1. Time of Day. Frequency of wind speeds for each direction in TBS N NE Frequency log scale. This is a strong limitation. Slope degrees - 0. Eastness index - 0. Northness index - 0. Slope Position index - 0. Mean Curvature - 0. Toposcale index - Solar Radiation 2 - 0.
TopModel -. Slope degrees - To ensure some standardization of the. Elevational Range: Plot 3 Plot 8 Elevational Range: 4. Elevational Range: 2. Elevational Range: 3. For composition, a Jaccard coefficient was.
Quantitative variables elevation, northness, eastness, curvature, slope, slope position,. Plot measured slope 20 SRTM slope. Plot measured northness 0. The size of the search window surrounding each cell the radius is often called. Weight Weight 0. Weighting against distance using Half-Cauchy Weighting against distance using Half-Cauchy distribution - Median Distance 5 cells distribution - Median Distance 9 cells 0. In montane regions, studies. Genera No.
Species No. Individuals No. The most common species were Wettinia sp. Arecaceae with. For this reason. In a heterogeneous environment like Tambito this is particularly the case. Altitudinal Difference Between Horizontal Distance km 2. Plots 1. Northness Difference Eastness Difference. Jaccard Sim ilarity Jaccard Sim ilarity. Table 13 Summary results of compositional similarity analysis with distance and.
The topmodel variable also shows. Species feature only for species Feature No. Plots Restricted to distributed in more than feature 1 plot Planar 2 24 Ridge 7 26 1 Channel 1 24 0 Total Species Restricted No. Species to feature for species Network Feature No.
Plots Restricted to distributed in more than feature 1 plot Planar 6 21 Ridge 4 72 4 Channel 0 0 0 Total Species to feature for species Topoclass No. More indicative of habitat association is. Berger- Plot No. Families No. Table 18 Richness and diversity of plots in Tambito. Renyi Scaleable Diversity Exponential - Tambito. Scale Parameter Plot Figure 50 The Renyi scaleable diversity index for Tambito, indicating to what extent plot diversities can be universally compared.
In this case only continuous variables are used in the. Simpson's Diversity Shannon's Diversity 3. Index and Berger- 0. Parker Index. Figure 51 Relationship between plot diversity and elevation in Tambito.
Figure 52 Relationship between plot richness and elevation in Tambito. Though the. Endemic No. Table 21 Average richness and diversity of plots when separated into three elevational bands. Elevation per se is. If indeed. Modelled Abundance and diversity of 30 hypothetical species along an elevational gradient. Diversity Index and the black line the Berger-Parker dominance. Average model diversity 50 model runs.
There is. Frequency distribution of elevation in the Tambito twin-catchments Frequency of 25m. Average model diversity, weighted based on elevational area 50 model runs 1. Figure 57 Niche model adjusted for the area concept, with more species located in elevations with greater land surface area, and the elevational gradient extended to range form 0m to m.
As shown later in this. Only mean curvature and. However, the regression is not entirely. Relationship between mean curvature and Relationship between toposcale and diversity diversity in Tambito in Tambito 0. Simpson's Diversity. Toposcale, mean curvature and slope position all.
Strongest is the relationship between species richness and. Table 22 Pearson correlation coefficients between plot diversity and richness and. Relationship between mean curvature and Relationship between toposcale and species species richness in Tambito excluding plot 9 richness in Tambito excluding plot 9 60 60 Simpson's Diversity Simpson's Diversity. Residual 2 0 Figure 60 Residual in richness with respect to a polynomial mid-elevational peak trendline.
Modelled Simpson's 0. Diversity 0. However, there is not a technique available that provides a. The most abundant species. Horizontal Distance Curvature Difference. Solar Radiation Difference Toposcale Difference Compositional Similarity and TopModel. Table 25 Summary results of compositional similarity analysis with distance and.
Note that compositional similarity was compared with environmental dissimilarity. Table 26 Summary results of compositional similarity analysis with distance and. Interpreting this. Compositional Similarity and distance from any river channel The micro-scale.
Figure 69 Multi-variate clustering of plots based on all 9 environmental and topographic. Figure 70 Multi-variate clustering of plots based on all 9 environmental and topographic. Species to feature only for Feature No. Simpson's Diversity 80 1. Index and Berger- 70 Richness 60 0.
Parker 50 0. Genera 0. Species 0 0. Relationship between distance from river and diversity in TBS 1. It is a similar story when the variables from the. It is unlikely that the solar radiation significance of eastness is controlling.
In terms of patterns in diversity, clear correlations between terrain characteristics and. This may be due to a greater diversity in light environments. Frequency Frequency 80 60 40 20 50 0 0. Figure 77 Frequency histograms for the three major structural characteristics for all. Structure - Elevation relations for Tambito DBH:Height Ratio 1. These are areas. Fam ily Richness Fam ily Richness 0. Altitudinal Difference m 2. Figure 81 Scatterplots of similarity in distribution of DBH between plot-pairs calculated.
Table 42 Summary results of structural DBH similarity analysis with distance and. The northness. TopModel Difference Figure 82 Scatterplots of similarity in distribution of tree height between plot-pairs. The northness variable produces. However, the significant correlation between. Scattergram of structural similarity DBH against Scattergram of structural similarity Height against compositional similarity compositional similarity 0.
Figure 84 Scatterplots for plot-pairs of compositional similarity against structural. Frequency Frequency. Figure 85 Frequency histograms for the three major structural characteristics for all. Further discussion of these patterns in direct comparison with. Stem Density 0. Table 47 Pearson correlation coefficients and the respective p-values between average. These include flooding frequency higher frequency.
No significant multi-. Family Richness 0. Structural Similarity and TopModel. Figure 89 Scatterplots of similarity in distribution of DBH between plot-pairs calculated. Table 49 Summary results of structural DBH similarity analysis with distance and. Note that structural dissimilarity was compared with environmental dissimilarity. Figure 90 Scatterplots of similarity in distribution of height between plot-pairs calculated.
Table 50 Summary results of structural height similarity analysis with distance and. Toposcale difference Slope Difference 4. Figure 92 Scatterplots of similarity in distribution of DBH between plot-pairs calculated. Solar Radiation DIfference Figure 93 Scatterplots of similarity in distribution of height between plot-pairs calculated.
Table 53 Summary results of structural height similarity analysis with distance and. Eastness difference Difference in distance. Compositional Similarity Compositional Similarity. Jaccard 3 Jaccard. Figure 95 Scatterplots for plot-pairs of compositional similarity against structural. It is important to note that a. In montane forests there are many. Homogenous environment Plot A. Figure 96 Model role of environmental heterogeneity on within-plot diversity in tropical.
Plot A, located in a heterogeneous environment is likely to. Multiple-scales are used because there is insufficient literature. A random control is used in the analysis to. Elevation - Eastness - Curvature - 0. Slope - Topmodel - 0. Topoclass - 0.
Feature - Feature - network. The Pearson. Maximum Minimum No. Cross-Scale Heterogeneity - Random grid 1 0.
Fan et al. Yang et al. The most active compounds were tripterfrielanons A and B with IC50 values of 8. Weissenstein et al. The authors also determined the cytotoxic effect of standardized extract on SKBR3 cancer cells. Finally, W. It is an important plant in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicines due to its wide uses for treatment of several diseases, including cancer Rai et al.
Nema et al. The results showed that 10 whitanolides exhibited cytotoxicity on all cancer lines tested with IC50 values between 0. The lowest IC50 values were 0. Choudhary et al. The extract showed GI50 and LC50 values of 1. Five hundred and ten records of patents were obtained, which were analyzed by means of VantagePoint software VP student, Search Technology.
An irregular behavior of the patent numbers per year could be observed in the timeline — Since an increase on the number of patents was evidenced: and were the most active years with 99 patents and 89 patents, respectively. To date , only 44 records have been found. Considering the distribution of patents per offices top five , it was found that China reported patents, followed by South Korea 66 patents , United States 47 patents , Switzerland 10 patents , and Japan nine patents.
The patents were found from academic institutions, private corporations and natural persons, mainly: e. With the purpose of identifying what the plants validated on the different types of cancer and protected by patents, a correlational matrix was elaborated Fig.
The analysis of the figure showed that S. Nonetheless, individual plants had a highest patent numbers depending on type of cancer, f. On the other hand, the main type of cancer on which the highest medicinal plant numbers 15 have been protected, was lung cancer; followed by, breast cancer 13 plants , and liver cancer 10 plants.
This table contains the names of medicinal plant, patent codes, patent titles, IPC classifications, assignees, and dates. Javeriana Pontificia Jiangsu Simcere Pharm. Zhejiang Academy Medical Sci. Nangjing Trad. Some of the most effective drugs commercially available for the treatment of cancer were isolated from nature plants and perhaps from the plants themselves, the best molecules could be obtained with the benefits mentioned above.
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Cancer 6: — Zhou, S. Curcumin suppresses gastric cancer by inhibiting gastrin-mediated acid secretion. Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that ranks second only to malaria in terms of human suffering in the tropics and subtropics Inobaya et al. Reports by the World Health Organization WHO a showed that at least million people required preventive treatment for schistosomiasis and more than Schistosomiasis transmission has been reported from 78 countries while preventive chemotherapy for schistosomiasis is required in 52 countries where the disease is endemic with moderate-to-high transmission WHO a.
According to WHO b , schistosomiasis causes more than , deaths per year in sub-Saharan Africa. Previous reports by Adenowo et al. Schistosomiasis causes great health, social and financial burden on economies of households and governments in sub-Saharan Africa with profound negative effects on child development, outcome of pregnancy, and agricultural productivity Adenowo et al. Schistosomiasis is more rampant in poor and marginalized rural communities where fishing and agricultural activities are dominant Adenowo et al.
There are two major forms of schistosomiasis, namely intestinal and urogenital caused by five digenean blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma WHO a. Schistosoma haematobium causes urogenital schistosomiasis in Africa, the Middle East and Corsica in France WHO a affecting about 54 countries in total Ojewole Schistosomiasis is spread when the larvae of Schistosoma species are liberated by the infected snail, intermediary host, get in contact with the human host and subsequently penetrate the skin.
Therefore, in humans, schistosomiasis is spread through skin contact with fresh water containing infectious larvae of Schistosoma species. Biomphalaria snails are responsible for the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni, Bulinus snails transmit Schistosoma haematobium while Schistosoma japonicum is spread by the freshwater snail Oncomelania Adenowo et al.
Once inside the human body, the pathogens differentiate into schistosomules, which migrate via the bloodstream to the liver and develop into male and female mature forms Ndjonka et al. After mating, the worms migrate again and relocate at the mesenteric intestinal veins or the venous plexus of the urinary system. The females release eggs, which are able to pass epithel of the blood vessels and reach the intestinal lumen, the bladder or urethra lumen in order to be expelled by faeces or urine.
Some of these eggs also remain in these tissues and the damage of blood vessels, together with immune reactions against the retained eggs are responsible for the clinical forms of schistosomiasis Ndjonka et al. According to WHO a , intestinal schistosomiasis can result in abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and blood in the stool. Liver enlargement is common in advanced cases, and is frequently associated with an accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity and hypertension of the abdominal blood vessels.
The classic sign of urogenital schistosomiasis is haematuria blood in urine , fibrosis of the bladder and ureter, and kidney damage are sometimes diagnosed in advanced cases of urogenital schistosomiasis WHO a. Bladder cancer is another possible complication in the later stages of urogenital schistosomiasis. In women, urogenital schistosomiasis may present with genital lesions, vaginal bleeding, pain during sexual intercourse and nodules in the vulva.
In men, urogenital schistosomiasis can induce pathology of the seminal vesicles, prostate and other organs. This disease may also have other long-term irreversible consequences such as infertility in both men and women WHO a.
The economic and health effects of schistosomiasis are considerable and the disease disables more than it kills. Schistosomiasis in Zimbabwe Before the advent of human immunodeficiency virus HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS , schistosomiasis was ranked second after malaria in terms of public health importance in Zimbabwe Chimbari Schistosomiasis has for several years been among the top 10 causes of hospital admissions in Zimbabwe, an indication of its public health importance Chimbari Both urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis are endemic in Zimbabwe, caused by Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni respectively.
The disease is widespread throughout the country in both rural and urban areas with Schistosoma haematobium more widespread than Schistosoma mansoni at prevalences of In Zimbabwe, Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni are transmitted by the intermediate snail hosts Bulinus globosus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi respectively Pedersen et al.
Schistosomiasis control in Zimbabwe included control of intermediate host snails Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Bulinus globosus and treatment based approach Chimbari , see Table 2. The potency of water extracts of Jatropha curcas is much lower 75 ppm compared to that of Phytolacca dodecandra 10 ppm implying that larger quantities of the former would be required to sustain snail control activities.
This control model has been characterized by low level community participation, poor leadership, low economic value of the plant, inaccessible fields, and lack of tangible benefits Chimbari Other plant species that have been used for schistosomiasis control in Zimbabwe with known molluscicidal properties include Combretum imberbe Wawra, Ricinus communis L.
Ducks were introduced as a strategy to control intermediate host snails for schistosomiasis According to Chimbari ducks made significant impact in reducing snail numbers in ponds but the costs associated with transportation of the ducks and looking after them to avoid poaching were high.
Furthermore, the breeding and maintenance costs of the ducks were high as they were exotic species Chimbari Fish Sargochromis codringtonii was introduced as a strategy to control intermediate host snails for schistosomiasis Comprehensive studies showed that pulmonates and not necessarily intermediate host snails were preferred by the fish Sargochromis codringronii and that vegetation provided refugia for snails against the predator fish Chimbari Sargochromis codringronii was often attacked by a fish herbivore Tilapia rendalli , and Sargochromis codringronii could only acclimatize to small ponds m X m X 1—1.
Competitor snail Bulinus tropicus was introduced as a strategy to control intermediate host snails for schistosomiasis Laboratory studies showed significant reduction in reproductivity of Bulinus globosus in the presence of the competitor snail Bulinus tropicus and evidence of Bulinus tropicus preying on Bulinus globosus eggs, but further enclosure studies did not show any significant effect of Bulinus tropicus on Bulinus globosus population density suggesting the competition between the two snail species was not an important control strategy of schistosomiasis in Zimbabwe Chimbari Use of praziquantel Praziquantel PZQ is the drug of choice for the treatment of schistosomiasis in Zimbabwe.
Research done by Doenhoff et al. Until recently, children aged five years and below were excluded from schistosome treatment using PZQ, creating a health inequity in affected populations Mutapi et al. Research by Mutapi et al. In affected populations, children carry the heaviest burden of schistosome infection Gryseels and de Vlas , Midzi et al.
Research by Magaisa et al. In , the WHO updated their recommendations for the treatment of schistosomiasis in children aged five years and below, allowing regular pre-school based deworming using PZQ, aimed at reducing morbidity and promoting child health Mutapi According to Ross et al. Adverse effects associated with PZQ usage including fatigue, urticaria, gastrointestinal and abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, headache and dizziness Mutapi Researchers such as Neves et al.
Praziquantel is now facing the threat of drug resistance as revealed by both laboratory and field trials Fallon and Doenhoff , Ismail et al. These reports of PZQ resistance indicates the need for new effective compounds to treat and manage schistosome infections, and globally, there is renewed interest in natural products as a starting point for drug discovery and development for schistosome infections Ndjonka et al.
Potential of herbal medicines in treating and managing schistosomiasis in Zimbabwe The only control method of schistosomiasis in Zimbabwe that has been successful is the use of PZQ. Other strategies meant to reduce schistosome infection include educating the public about sanitation, use of clean water and avoiding infected water bodies. The interest in medicinal plants used as herbal medicines for shistosomiasis or bilharzia Gelfand et al.
In this study, 35 plant species belonging to 16 families and 32 genera are known to be widely used in the treatment and management of schistosomiasis in Zimbabwe Table 2. Plant species recorded in Table 2. The majority of these plant species The rest of the plant families are represented by a single species each, and the most common genera are Lannea, Terminalia and Vernonia with two species each Table 2.
Shrubs The roots are the most frequently used plant parts All plant remedies are usually utilized in the form of extracts and taken orally Table 2. Monotherapy preparations made from a single plant species are the most dominant Apart from roots of Elephantorrhiza goetzei Harms Harms which are mixed with those of Piliostigma thonningii Schumach. Gelfand et al. Table 2.
Research conducted by Gelfand et al. More than three quarters Research conducted by Molgaard et al. Cissampelos mucronata A. Euclea divinorum Hiern Flacourtia indica Burm. Gymnosporia senegalensis Lam. Lannea discolor Sond. Lannea edulis Sond. Lecaniodiscus fraxinifolius Baker Mondia whitei Hook.
Roots taken orally mixed with Vigna unguiculata L. Kokwaro , Gelfand et al. Sclerocarya birrea A. Terminalia sericea Burch. Drake Vigna unguiculata L. Ximenia caffra Sond. Ziziphus mucronata Willd. Pterocarpus angolensis DC. Habit Family Plant species Molgaard et al. A Growth form habit represented in pie diagram and B plant parts used represented in bar chart.
According to Molgaard et al. Similarly, Ndamba et al. Based on this survey, the seven most commonly used plant species Abrus precatorius, Ozoroa insignis, Dicoma anomala, Ximenia caffra, Lannea edulis, Elephantorrhiza goetzei and Pterocarpus angolensis were collected, prepared as described by the traditional healers, their efficacy was evaluated using laboratory animals previously exposed to Schistosoma haematobium cercariae. The anthelmintic activity from the extract of the bark of Pterocarpus angolensis was found to be comparable to that of PZQ, the root bark of Ozoroa insignis and the root of Abrus precatorius were also lethal to adult schistosomes Ndamba et al.
Future research and conclusion From a research and development point of view, many herbal medicines used against schistosome infections have not received any major emphasis from government departments, non-governmental organisations in Zimbabwe, and as such, plant species used against schistosomiasis have remained underutilized. Nevertheless, the majority of the medicinal plants documented in this study achieve their efficacies by reducing Schistosoma species egg-hatching and larval motility or metabolism Ndamba et al.
Unfortunately, the modes of action of these medicinal plants have not been fully explored. Therefore, contemporary research involving herbal medicines used against schistosomiasis is promising, the results obtained so far are too preliminary and sometimes too general to be used to explain and support usage of such species against schistosome infections. In addition to this, most of the anthelmintic evaluations done so far, are routine screenings using standard procedures lacking molecular mechanisms of the pharmacological effects of the herbal medicines.
There is not yet enough systematic data regarding the pharmacokinetics and clinical research on medicinal species used against schistosome infections. There are also very few experimental animal studies, randomized clinical trials and target-organ toxicity studies involving some of these herbal medicines and their derivatives that have been carried out so far. Acknowledgement The author would like to express his gratitude to the National Research Foundation and Govan Mbeki Research and Development Centre, University of Fort Hare for financial support to conduct this research.
Impact of human schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. Adedapo, A. Safety evaluations of the aqueous extract of Acacia karroo stem bark in rats and mice. Agunu, A. Toxicity of stem-bark extract of Steganotaenia araliacea in rats. Amole, O. Toxicity studies of the aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina. Aragon, A. Towards an understanding of the mechanism of action of praziquantel. Aremu, A.
Potential of South African medicinal plants used as anthelmintics: their efficacy, safety concerns and reappraisal of current screening methods. Bizimenyera, E. The potential role of antibacterial, antioxidant and antiparasitic activity of Peltophorum africanum Sond.
Fabaceae extracts in ethnoveterinary. In vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of the leaf, bark and root extracts of Peltophorum africanum Sond. Fabaceae on Haemonchus contortus. Burkill, H. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London. Chauke, M. Medicinal plant use of villagers in the Mopani district, Limpopo province, South Africa.
Chimbari, M. Enhancing schistosomiasis control strategy for Zimbabwe: Building on past experiences. Volume , Article ID Chigora, P. The role of indigenous medicinal knowledge IMK in the treatment of ailments in rural Zimbabwe: the case of Mutirikwi communal lands. Chipiti, T. In vitro antioxidant activities of leaf and root extracts of Albizia antunesiana Harms.
Acta Pol. Clark, T. Schistosomiasis and the use of indigenous plant molluscicides: a rural South African perspective. Acta Trop. Cock, I. South African food and medicinal plant extracts as potential antimicrobial food agents. Food Sci. Couto, F. Schistosoma mansoni: a method for inducing resistance to praziquantel using infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Oswaldo Cruz — Doenhoff, M. Praziquantel: mechanisms of action, resistance and new derivatives for schistosomiasis. Current Opinion Infectious Diseases — Elgorashi, E.
Screening of medicinal plants used in South African traditional medicine for genotoxic effects. Fallon, P. Short report: diminished susceptibility to praziquantel in a Senegal isolate of Schistosoma mansoni. Drug-resistant schistosomiasis: resistance to praziquantel and oxamniquine induced in Schistosoma mansoni in mice is drug specific.
Gelfand, M. The traditional medical practitioner in Zimbabwe: his principles of practice and pharmacopoeia. Mambo Press, Gweru. Gryseels, B. Worm burdens in schistosome infections. Today — Haule, E. A study of antimicrobial activity, acute toxicity and cytoprotective effect of a polyherbal extract in a rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer model. BMC Res. Notes 5: Hedberg, I. Traditional medicinal plants: traditional medicine in Botswana. Ipeleng Publishers, Gaborone. Hutchings, A. Zulu medicinal plants.
University of Natal Press, Natal. Inobaya, M. Prevention and control of schistosomiasis: a current perspective. Ior, L. In vivo assessment of the antimalarial activity of Cassia singueana and Cymbopogon citrutus. Der Pharma Chemica 7: — Ismail, M. Characterization of isolates of Schistosoma mansoni from Egyptian villagers that tolerate high doses of praziquantel. Laboratory induced resistance to praziquantel in experimental schistosomiasis.
Joseph, O. Toxicity of four herbs used in erectile dysfunction, Mondia whiteii, Cola acuminata, Urtica massaica and Tarenna graveolens in male rats. Kabongo-Kayoka, P. Antimycobacterial activity and low cytotoxicity of leaf extracts of some African Anacardiaceae tree species. Cytotoxicity of some medicinal plant extracts used in Tanzanian traditional medicine. King, C. Long-term outcomes of school-based treatment for control of urinary schistosomiasis: a review of experience in Coast province, Kenya.
Oswaldo Cruz Suppl : — Charlie Gard and the weight of parental rights to seek experimental treatment. The case of Charlie Gard , an infant with a genetic illness whose parents sought experimental treatment in the USA, brought important debates about the moral status of parents and children to the public eye.
After setting out the facts of the case, this article considers some of these debates through the lens of parental rights. Parental rights are most commonly based on the promotion of a child's welfare; however, in Charlie's case, promotion of Charlie's welfare cannot explain every fact of the case. Indeed, some seem most logically to extend from intrinsic parental rights, that is, parental rights that exist independent of welfare promotion.
I observe that a strong claim for intrinsic parental rights can be built on arguments for genetic propriety and children's limited personhood. Critique of these arguments suggests the scope of parental rights remains limited: property rights entail proper use; non-personhood includes only a small cohort of very young or seriously intellectually disabled children and the uniqueness of parental genetic connection is limited.
Moreover, there are cogent arguments about parents' competence to make judgements, and public interest arguments against allowing access to experimental treatment. Nevertheless, while arguments based on propriety may raise concerns about the attitude involved in envisioning children as property, I conclude that these arguments do appear to offer a prima facie case for a parental right to seek experimental treatment in certain limited circumstances.
Global disease. The involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor BDNF in different central nervous system CNS diseases suggests that this neurotrophin may represent an interesting and reliable therapeutic target. Accordingly, the search for new compounds, also from natural sources, able to modulate BDNF has been increasingly explored. The present review considers the literature on the effects of botanicals on BDNF. Botanicals considered were Bacopa monnieri L. Pennell, Coffea arabica L.
Kuntze green tea , Ginkgo biloba L. Meyer, Rhodiola rosea L. Dunal, and Perilla frutescens L. The effect of the active principles responsible for the efficacy of the extracts is reviewed and discussed as well. The high number of articles published more than one hundred manuscripts for 14 botanicals supports the growing interest in the use of natural products as BDNF modulators. The studies reported strengthen the hypothesis that botanicals may be considered useful modulators of BDNF in CNS diseases, without high side effects.
Further clinical studies are mandatory to confirm botanicals as preventive agents or as useful adjuvant to the pharmacological treatment. Many hundreds of botanicals are used in complementary and alternative medicine for therapeutic use as antimicrobials and immune stimulators. While there exists many centuries of anecdotal evidence and few clinical studies on the activity and efficacy of these botanicals , limited scientific evidence exists on the ability of these botanicals to modulate the immune and inflammatory responses.
Using botanogenomics or herbogenomics , this study provides novel insight into inflammatory genes which are induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells following treatment with immunomodulatory botanical extracts. These results may suggest putative genes involved in the physiological responses thought to occur following administration of these botanical extracts. Using extracts from immunostimulatory herbs Astragalus membranaceus, Sambucus cerulea, Andrographis paniculata and an immunosuppressive herb Urtica dioica , the data presented supports previous cytokine studies on these herbs as well as identifying additional genes which may be involved in immune cell activation and migration and various inflammatory responses, including wound healing, angiogenesis, and blood pressure modulation.
Additionally, we report the presence of lipopolysaccharide in medicinally prepared extracts of these herbs which is theorized to be a natural and active component of the immunostimulatory herbal extracts. The data presented provides a more extensive picture on how these herbs may be mediating their biological effects on the immune and inflammatory responses.
Conservation of indigenous medicinal botanicals in Ekiti State, Nigeria. The rapid appraisal method was used to identify the botanicals used ethnomedicinally from a total of randomly selected respondents drawn from the existing three geo-political zones of Ekiti State, Nigeria. Most of the presently abundant botanicals are species primarily cultivated for other purpose other than medicine. Most of the identified species are valued for their curative effects on malaria and fever, the predominant diseases in the study area.
The need for the conservation of the rare species cannot be over emphasised as most rural dwellers in the study area depend mostly on herbs from these species. Strategies towards the attainment of this goal are proposed. Umami, N. The research was aimed to observe the development of botanical composition in Maribaya pastures.
The sampling method was cluster random sampling. The observed variables were the type of forages and the botanical composition in the pasture. Botanical composition was measured by using Line Intercept method and the production was measured by the estimation of botany production for each square meter using its dry matter measurement.
The observation was performed before the pasture made at and after the pasture made at Based on the research result, it was found that there was significant difference between the forage type in the pasture at and at It happens due to the adjustment for the Jabres cattle feed. Plants are attacked by various phytopathogenic fungi. For many years, synthetic fungicides have been used to control plant diseases.
Although synthetic fungicides are highly effective, their repeated use has led to problems such as environmental pollution, development of resistance, and residual toxicity. This has prompted intensive research on the development of biopesticides, including botanical fungicides.
To date, relatively few botanical fungicides have been registered and commercialized. However, many scientists have reported isolation and characterization of a variety of antifungal plant derivatives. Here, we present a survey of a wide range of reported plant-derived antifungal metabolites.
Collecting standards: teaching botanical skills in Sweden, Standards of botanical practice in Sweden between and were set, not only in schools and universities, but also in naturalist societies and botanical exchange clubs, and were articulated in handbooks and manuals produced for schoolboys. These standards were maintained among volunteer naturalists in the environmental movement in the s, long after the decline and disappearance of collecting from the curriculum.
School science provides a link between the laboratory, the classroom, and the norms and practices of everyday life: between the various insides" and "outsides" of educational and research settings. Nutraceuticals and botanicals : overview and perspectives. The discovery, development and marketing of food supplements, nutraceuticals and related products are currently the fastest growing segments of the food industry.
Functional foods can be considered part or borderline to these products and may be defined as foods or food ingredients that have additional health or physiological benefits over and above the normal nutritional value they provide. This trend is driven by several factors, mainly due to the current consumer perceptions: the first and dominant being 'Natural is good', and other secondary, such as the increasing cost of many pharmaceuticals and their negative secondary effects, the insistent marketing campaign, the increasing perception of the need of a healthy diet and its importance in the health and homeostasis organism conditions.
However, the central point is that nutraceuticals, botanicals and other herbal remedies, including the entry of new functional foods, are important because of their acceptance as the novel and modern forms to benefit of natural substances. Due to the rapid expansion in this area, the development of several aspects is considered as it could influence the future of the market of these products negatively: an imbalance existing between the increasing number of claims and products on the one hand, the development of policies to regulate their application and safety on the other, rapid and valuable controls to check the composition, including the plant extracts or adulteration to improve efficacy, like the presence of synthetic drugs.
It is interesting to see that, from the negative factors reported by the market analysts, a change in consumers preferences is absent. The functional properties of many plant extracts, in particular, are being investigated for potential use as novel nutraceuticals and functional foods. Although the availability of scientific data is rapidly improving, the central aspect concerns the validation of these products.
The first step of this crucial aspect is. A few years later, the Havana Garden was a reality. The use of botanical dietary supplements is increasingly popular, due to their natural origin and the perceived assumption that they are safer than prescription drugs.
While most botanical dietary supplements can be considered safe, a few contain compounds, which can be converted to reactive biological reactive intermediates BRIs causing toxicity. For example, sassafras oil contains safrole, which can be converted to a reactive carbocation forming genotoxic DNA adducts. Alternatively, some botanical dietary supplements contain stable BRIs such as simple Michael acceptors that react with chemosensor proteins such as Keap1 resulting in induction of protective detoxification enzymes.
Examples include curcumin from turmeric, xanthohumol from hops, and Z-ligustilide from dang gui. Screening native botanicals for bioactivity: an interdisciplinary approach. Boudreau, Anik; Cheng, Diana M. Ray; Turnipseed, D. Phil; Cefalu, William T.
Conclusion: An interdisciplinary approach to screening botanical sources of therapeutic agents can be successfully applied to identify native plants used in folk medicine as potential sources of therapeutic agents in treating insulin resistance in skeletal muscle or inflammatory processes associated with obesity-related insulin resistance. In spite of the large number of botanicals demonstrating promise as potential cancer chemopreventive agents, most have failed to prove effectiveness in clinical trials.
Critical requirements for moving botanical agents to recommendation for clinical use include adopting a systematic, molecular-target based approach and utilizing the same ethical and rigorous methods that are used to evaluate other pharmacological agents. Preliminary data on a mechanistic rationale for chemoprevention activity as observed from epidemiological, in vitro and preclinical studies, phase I data of safety in suitable cohorts, duration of intervention based on time to progression of pre-neoplastic disease to cancer and using a valid panel of biomarkers representing the hypothesized carcinogenesis pathway for measuring efficacy must inform the design of clinical trials.
Botanicals have been shown to influence multiple biochemical and molecular cascades that inhibit mutagenesis, proliferation, induce apoptosis, suppress the formation and growth of human cancers, thus modulating several hallmarks of carcinogenesis. These agents appear promising in their potential to make a dramatic impact in cancer prevention and treatment, with a significantly superior safety profile than most agents evaluated to date. The goal of this paper is to provide models of translational research based on the current evidence of promising botanicals with a specific focus on targeted therapies for PCa chemoprevention.
A flora of vascular plants for 78 species representing 35 families was recorded. None of the species are protected under the "Endangered Species Act" and only one species is listed by the State of New Hampshire as having Propagating native plants at the National Tropical Botanical Garden. Hawaii has the dubious distinction of being the extinction capital of the United States with close to 30 percent of native plant species listed as endangered. The National Tropical Botanical Garden has been a leader in efforts to propagate and conserve native Hawaiian plants with close to species collected for ex situ conservation since Botanic gardens have been evolving, responding to the changing needs of society, from their outset as medicinal gardens of monasteries and university gardens to more recently as organizations that contribute to the conservation of plant genetic resources.
Considering that social and environmental issues are deeply intertwined and cannot be tackled…. Botanical supplements: detecting the transition from ingredients to supplements. Methods were developed using flow injection mass spectrometry FIMS and chemometrics for the comparison of spectral similarities and differences of 3 botanical ingredients and their supplements: Echinacea purpurea aerial samples and solid and liquid supplements, E.
Healing and Empowering Veterans in a Botanic Garden. Research supports the common understanding that spending enjoyable time in nature is one of the most reliable ways of reducing stress indicators such as heart rate and blood pressure. This article describes a pilot program in which the Chicago Botanic Garden leveraged nature's stress-reducing qualities to complement a program for veterans in…. Botanical seed technology at the US Potato Genebank.
Studies on botanical seed technology have potential payoffs for genebank in-house operations as well as promoting efficient use of the germplasm by cooperators. When we tested the effects of soil fertilization, mother plants with extra fertilizer produced more fruit and seeds, but those extra seeds Writing can be a powerful tool for learning biology.
Writing assignments in biology could help students personalize and understand the biology knowledge they are studying. In this article, the authors present the " Botanical Sense of Place" BSP , a convenient and easy-to-use writing template that they developed to elicit and probe students' prior….
From ancient to avant- garde : a review of traditional and modern multimodal approaches to surgical anatomy education. The landscape of surgical anatomy education is progressively changing. Traditional methods, such as cadaveric dissection and didacticism are being increasingly phased out in undergraduate courses for multimodal approaches incorporating problem-based learning, radiology and computer-based simulations.
Although effective at clinically contextualizing and integrating anatomical information, these approaches may be a poor substitute for fostering a grasp of foundational 'pure' anatomy. Dissection is ideal for this purpose and hence remains the cornerstone of anatomical education. However, novel methods and technological advancements continually give way to adjuncts such as cadaveric surgery, three-dimensional printing, virtual simulation and live surgical streaming, which have demonstrated significant efficacy alone or alongside dissection.
Therefore, although divergent paradigms of 'new versus old' approaches have engulfed and divided the community, educators should seek to integrate the ancient and avant- garde to comprehensively satisfy all of the modern anatomy learner's educational needs.
Objective In developed countries with westernized diets, the excessive consumption of added sugar in beverages and highly refined and processed foods is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. As a major constituent of added sugars, fructose has been shown to cause a variety of adverse metabolic effects, such as impaired insulin sensitivity, hypertriglyceridemia, and oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to identify botanical ingredients with potential for inhibitory activity against ketohexokinase-C and fructose-induced metabolic effects by using a series of in vitro model systems.
Two different extract lots of the top botanical candidates were further evaluated in lysates of HepG2 cells overexpressing ketohexokinase-C for inhibition of fructose-induced ATP depletion. In addition, extracts were evaluated in intact Hep G2 cells for inhibition of fructose-induced elevation of triglyceride and uric acid production.
Results Among the botanical extracts, phloretin Malus domestica extracts were the most potent IC 8. In developed countries with westernized diets, the excessive consumption of added sugar in beverages and highly refined and processed foods is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies have shown that ketohexokinase isoform C is the key enzyme responsible in fructose metabolism that drive's fructose's adverse effects.
Among the botanical extracts, phloretin Malus domestica extracts were the most potent IC 8. A novel botanical formula prevents diabetes by improving insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and the prevalence has increased significantly in recent decades to epidemic proportions in China.
Individually, fenugreek Trigonella foenum graecum seed, mulberry Morus alba L. The aim of this study was to design an optimized botanical formula containing these herbal extracts as a nutritional strategy for the prevention of insulin resistance and T2DM. Glucose uptake was examined in differentiated human adipocytes using radiolabeled 2-deoxyglucose.
Insulin resistance and T2DM was induced by feeding animals a high fat diet and with an alloxan injection. Glucose tolerance was examined by measuring serum glucose levels following an oral glucose load. All three botanical extracts improved insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in human adipocytes, which lead to the design of an optimized botanical test formula. In a rat model of insulin resistance and T2DM, the optimized botanical test formula improved fasting serum glucose levels, fasting insulin resistance and the development of impaired glucose tolerance.
The reduction in epididymal adipose tissue GLUT4 and PDK1 expression induced by high fat diet and alloxan was blunted by the botanical test formula. A novel botanical formula containing standardized. Background Repeated exposure to certain low molecular weight LMW chemical compounds may result in development of allergic reactions in the skin or in the respiratory tract. In most cases, a certain LMW compound selectively sensitize the skin, giving rise to allergic contact dermatitis ACD , or the respiratory tract, giving rise to occupational asthma OA.
To limit occurrence of allergic diseases, efforts are currently being made to develop predictive assays that accurately identify chemicals capable of inducing such reactions. However, while a few promising methods for prediction of skin sensitization have been described, to date no validated method, in vitro or in vivo, exists that is able to accurately classify chemicals as respiratory sensitizers.
Results Recently, we presented the in vitro based Genomic Allergen Rapid Detection GARD assay as a novel testing strategy for classification of skin sensitizing chemicals based on measurement of a genomic biomarker signature. We have expanded the applicability domain of the GARD assay to classify also respiratory sensitizers by identifying a separate biomarker signature containing differentially regulated genes for respiratory sensitizers in comparison to non-respiratory sensitizers.
By using an independent data set in combination with supervised machine learning, we validated the assay, showing that the identified genomic biomarker is able to accurately classify respiratory sensitizers. Conclusions We have identified a genomic biomarker signature for classification of respiratory sensitizers. Combining this newly identified biomarker signature with our previously identified biomarker signature for classification of skin sensitizers, we have developed a novel in vitro testing strategy with a potent ability to predict both skin and respiratory sensitization in the same sample.
Review of the use of botanicals for epilepsy in complementary medical systems--Traditional Chinese Medicine. In traditional Chinese medicine, botanical remedies have been used for centuries to treat seizures. This review aimed to summarize the botanicals that have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat epilepsy.
We searched Chinese online databases to determine the botanicals used for epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine and identified articles using a preset search syntax and inclusion criteria of each botanical in the PubMed database to explore their potential mechanisms. Twenty-three botanicals were identified to treat epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine. The pharmacological mechanisms of each botanical related to antiepileptic activity, which were mainly examined in animal models, were reviewed.
We discuss the use and current trends of botanical treatments in China and highlight the limitations of botanical epilepsy treatments. A substantial number of these types of botanicals would be good candidates for the development of novel AEDs.
More rigorous clinical trials of botanicals in traditional Chinese medicine for epilepsy treatment are encouraged in the future. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled " Botanicals for Epilepsy". Botanic gardens and the conservation of tree species. The general role of botanic gardens in plant conservation has been widely accepted since the s and many threatened plant species are now in well-documented living collections and seed banks. Conserving tree species in ex situ collections still presents particular challenges.
Many trees have so-called 'recalcitrant' seeds that cannot be stored in conventional seed banks and the sheer size of living trees restricts the number of individuals of a particular species that can be grown in a botanic garden. Even if space is available, is ex situ conservation a desirable option and how does this compare with conserving tree species in their natural habitats?
In reality, conservation action for globally threatened tree species, by either in situ or ex situ means, remains inadequate and steps should be taken to combine approaches to prevent the urgent loss of tree species worldwide. The botanical activities of George Edward Post His other botanical activities are less familiar. In addition to the flora, this paper discusses his teaching, fieldwork, contribution to Bible dictionaries, relations with the Boissier Herbarium in Geneva, establishment of the herbarium, and letters.
Those letters are used here for the first time. His long-term relationship with the herbarium at Geneva is highlighted. In addition, some of the lesser understood aspects of his life including chaplaincy during the American Civil War, and missionary to Syria are discussed. This program has shown that when students are given an opportunity to participate in real scientific research under the mentorship of a caring professional over multiple years, they are more likely to go to college and pursue STEM careers than their peers.
Botanical drugs in Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine. China and India have a long history in the therapeutic application of botanical drugs in traditional medicine. Traditional Chinese Medicine TCM and Ayurveda are considered as two of the most ancient systems of medicine, with history of more than two millennia. Medicinal plants are the principal medicinal materials used in both these systems.
This review discusses about the histories of Ayurveda and TCM, the common medicinal plants species, the drug processing strategies used, and the current statuses of these traditional systems of medicine TSM. Through the views presented in this article, we aim to provide a new perspective to herbal drug researchers for expanding and improving the utilization of botanical drugs and their therapeutic applications.
A bibliographic investigation of Chinese and Indian pharmacopoeias, monographs and official websites was performed. Furthermore, information was obtained from scientific databases on ethnobotany and ethno medicines. The review of Ayurveda and TCM ethno medicine indicates that both these systems have many medicinal materials in common.
The studies carried out by the authors for comparison of plants from same genus from both these TSM's have been discussed to further bring focus to the utilization of "qualitatively" similar species which can be utilized and substituted for endangered or economically valued species. The overview of ancient literature and scientific findings for drugs in both these systems suggests that, the botanical drugs used in common and their processing methods can be explored further for extensive utilization in traditional medicine.
This review describes the histories, common medicinal plant species, their processing methods and therapeutic applications in Ayurveda and TCM. The insights provided through this article may be used by herbal drug researchers and pharmacologists for further exploration of botanical drugs from these two traditional systems of medicine.
Published by. Botanicals for mood disorders with a focus on epilepsy. Mood disorders are among the major health problems that exist worldwide. They are highly prevalent in the general population and cause significant disturbance of life quality and social functioning of the affected persons. The two major classes of mood disorders are bipolar disorders and depression.
The latter is assumed to be the most frequent psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy. Studies published during the second half of the 20th century recognized that certain patients with epilepsy present a depressed mood. Synthesized pharmaceuticals have been in use for decades to treat both mood disorders and epilepsy, but despite their efficiency, their use is limited by numerous side effects.
On the other hand, animal models have been developed to deeply study potential botanicals which have an effect on mood disorders. Studies to investigate the potential effects of medicinal plants acting on the nervous system and used to treat seizures and anxiety are increasingly growing.
However, these studies discuss the two conditions separately without association. In this review, we present animal models of depression and investigative models methods of assessing depression of depression and anxiety in animals.
Other classical test models for prediction of clinical antidepressant activity are presented. Finally, this review also highlights antidepressant activities of herbals focusing specially on depression-like behaviors associated with epilepsy. The pharmacological properties and active principles of cited medicinal plants are emphasized. This review, therefore, provides an overview of the work done on botanicals for mood disorders, potential mechanisms of action of botanicals , and the major compounds.
Top 10 botanical ingredients in anti-aging creams. New developments in the realm of skin rejuvenation such as phytotherapy are at an astounding increasing pace in the cosmeceutical market. Yet, many of these products that are classified as cosmeceuticals are tested less vigorously and do not have to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration to establish efficacy and safety. Thus, as clinicians, we must ask the question, "Is there science-based evidence to validate the mechanism of these new treatments?
Some of the most common botanicals that are hot off the market are: Rosmarinus officinalis, Vitis vinifera grape seed extract , Citronellol, Limonene, Oenothera biennis evening primrose , Glycyrrhiza glabra licorice extract , Aframomum angustifolium seed extract, Diosgenin wild yam , N6 furfuryladenine kinetin , and Ergothioneine.
Through researching each of these botanical ingredients, we have concluded that randomized controlled trials are still needed in this area, but there is promise in some of these ingredients and science to validate them. Simmler, Charlotte; Anderson, Jeffrey R. Raw licorice roots represent heterogeneous materials obtained from mainly three Glycyrrhiza species.
The principal objective of this work was to develop complementary chemometric models for the metabolite profiling, classification, and quality control of authenticated licorice. A total of 51 commercial and macroscopically verified samples were DNA authenticated. The developed chemometric models enable the identification and classification of Glycyrrhiza species according to their composition in major Fs, Cs, and species specific phenolic compounds. Further key outcomes demonstrated that DNA authentication combined with chemometric analyses enabled the characterization of mixtures, hybrids, and species outliers.
This study provides a new foundation for the botanical and chemical authentication, classification, and metabolomic characterization of crude licorice botanicals and derived materials. Collectively, the proposed methods offer a comprehensive approach for the quality control of licorice as one of the most widely used botanical dietary supplements.
Botanical modulation of menopausal symptoms: Mechanisms of action? Menopausal women suffer from a variety of symptoms, including hot flashes and night sweats which can affect quality of life. Although hormone therapy HT has been the treatment of choice for relieving these symptoms, HT has been associated with increased breast cancer risk leading many women to search for natural, efficacious, and safe alternatives such as botanical supplements.
Data from clinical trials suggesting that botanicals have efficacy for menopausal symptom relief, have been controversial and several mechanisms of action have been proposed including estrogenic, progestogenic, and serotonergic pathways. Plant extracts with potential estrogenic activities include soy, red clover, kudzu, hops, licorice, rhubarb, yam, and chasteberry.
Botanicals with reported progestogenic activities are red clover, hops, yam, and chasteberry. Serotonergic mechanisms have also been proposed since women taking antidepressants often report reduction in hot flashes and night sweats. Black cohosh, kudzu, kava, licorice, and dong quai all either have reported 5-HT7 ligands or inhibit serotonin re-uptake, therefore have potential serotonergic activities.
Dermocosmetics for dry skin: a new role for botanical extracts. Dry skin is associated with a disturbed skin barrier and reduced formation of epidermal proteins and lipids. During recent years, skin-barrier-reinforcing properties of some botanical compounds have been described. The topical application of Aloe vera leaf gel , Betula alba birch bark extract , Helianthus annuus sunflower oleodistillate , Hypericum perforatum St. John's wort extract , Lithospermum erythrorhizon root extract , Piptadenia colubrina angico-branco extract and Simarouba amara bitter wood extract increased skin hydration, reduced the transepidermal water loss, or promoted keratinocyte differentiation in humans in vivo.
The topical application of Rubia cordifolia root extract and rose oil obtained from Rosa spp. The underlying mechanisms of these effects are discussed. It is concluded that some botanical compounds display skin-barrier-reinforcing properties that may be used in dermocosmetics for dry skin.
However, more investigations on the mode of action and more vehicle-controlled studies are required. Karger AG, Basel. Fungal profiles in various milk thistle botanicals from US retail. Milk thistle MT dietary supplements are widely consumed due to their possible beneficial effect on liver health.
As botanicals , they can be contaminated with a variety of fungi and their secondary metabolites, mycotoxins. This study was conducted in an effort to determine the mycological quality of various MT botanical supplements from the US market. Conventional plating methods were used for the isolation and enumeration of fungi, while conventional microscopy as well as molecular methods were employed for the speciation of the isolated strains.
Results showed that a high percentage of the MT samples tested were contaminated with fungi. Total counts ranged between botanicals. Published by Elsevier B. Human Factors Assessment of the U. This issue was overcome by equipment familiarization and practice OF NO. Role of reactive oxygen species in the anticancer activity of botanicals : Comparing sensitivity profiles. Numerous botanicals have been shown to exhibit in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity, some of which is the result of the induction of reactive oxygen species ROS in cancer cells with a high ROS content.
The present study compared sensitivities to a series of botanicals among cancer cell lines, using an XTT viability test, in order to create a specific cancer-herb profile. Of the 27 botanicals screened, 10 exhibited a cytotoxic effect, 7 of which were ROS-mediated. The sensitivity profiles of the ROS-inducing botanicals in 10 cancer cell lines were similar, unlike 3 cytotoxic ROS-independent botanicals that displayed divergent botanical -specific profiles.
The correlation between sensitivity profiles of ROS-inducing botanicals suggests a common mechanism of action, in contrast to the varied mechanism of ROS-independent botanicals. This implies that the investigation of the anticancer activity of botanicals should start with the examination of ROS-mediated activity. Further investigation of ROS sensitivity among various tumor types is required in order to guide research into developing evidence-based guidelines in the use of botanicals for cancer treatment.
World War I erupted at a time when artistic avant- gardes were particularly thriving across Europe. Young poets, writers, painters and sculptors were called to arms or voluntary enrolled to fight, and several of them died during the conflict. Among others, it dramatically changed their creative output, either through specific wounds or through personal encounters and experiences.
These individual events then significantly modified the course of the literary and artistic avant- garde movements. Guillaume Apollinaire's right temporal subdural hematoma strongly modified his emotional state and subsequent artistic activities. Alternatively, after losing his right, writing hand, Blaise Cendrars not only substituted it with a phantom but also rapidly switched from poetry to novels after he learnt to write with his left hand.
The fleas deposited weekly on each dog were not removed until Day 35, allowing enough time for their ingestion. The arithmetic mean flea count recorded was Based on the daily collection of expelled D. No treatment-related adverse events were observed in dogs during this study. Beugnet et al. Background Many widely used botanical medicines are claimed to be immune enhancers.
Clear evidence of augmentation of immune responses in vivo is lacking in most cases. To select botanicals for further study based on immune enhancing activity, we study them here mixed with antigen and injected subcutaneously s. Globo H and GD3 are cell surface carbohydrates expressed on glycolipids or glycoproteins on the cell surface of many cancers. When conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin KLH , mixed with an immunological adjuvant and administered s.
We describe here the results obtained using this s. Antibody responses were measured 1 and 2 weeks after the 3rd immunization. Results Consistent significant adjuvant activity was observed after s. Ex situ conservation of plant diversity in the world's botanic gardens. Botanic gardens conserve plant diversity ex situ and can prevent extinction through integrated conservation action. Here we quantify how that diversity is conserved in ex situ collections across the world's botanic gardens.
We conclude that botanic gardens play a fundamental role in plant conservation, but identify actions to enhance future conservation of biodiversity. The role of botanic gardens in the science and practice of ecological restoration. Many of the skills and resources associated with botanic gardens and arboreta, including plant taxonomy, horticulture, and seed bank management, are fundamental to ecological restoration efforts, yet few of the world's botanic gardens are involved in the science or practice of restoration.
Thus, we examined the potential role of botanic gardens in these emerging fields. We believe a reorientation of certain existing institutional strengths, such as plant-based research and knowledge transfer, would enable many more botanic gardens worldwide to provide effective science-based support to restoration efforts.
We recommend botanic gardens widen research to include ecosystems as well as species, increase involvement in practical restoration projects and training practitioners, and serve as information hubs for data archiving and exchange.
Traditional botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers in southern Brazil. Methods This region, which contains a mosaic of urban and rural areas, hosts the Lami Biological Reserve LBR and a community of 13 artisanal fisher families. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 fishers, complemented by participatory observation techniques and free-lists; in these interviews, the species of plants used by the community and their indicated uses were identified.
Results A total of species belonging to 50 families were identified. No significant differences between the diversities of native and exotic species were found. The medicinal species with the highest level of agreement regarding their main uses AMUs were Aloe arborescens Mill. For illness and diseases, most plants were used for problems with the digestive system 20 species , followed by the respiratory system 16 species.
This community possesses a wide botanical knowledge, especially of medicinal plants, comparable to observations made in other studies with fishing communities in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Conclusions Ethnobotanical studies in rural-urban areas contribute to preserving local knowledge and provide information that aids in conserving the remaining ecosystems in the region. The worldwide trend of using botanical drugs and strategies for developing global drugs.
Natural product drugs, or botanical drugs, are drugs composed of natural substances which have constituents with healthenhancing or medicinal activities. In Korea, government-led projects brought attention to botanical drugs invigorating domestic botanical drug industry.
Foreign markets, as well, are growing bigger as the significance of botanical drugs stood out. To follow along with the tendency, Korea puts a lot of effort on developing botanical drugs suitable for global market. However, standards for approving drug sales vary by countries. And also, thorough standardization, certification, clinical studies and data of these will be required as well as data confirming safety and effectiveness.
Meanwhile, as an international exchange in botanical drug market continues, the importance of plant resources was emphasized. Thus countries' ownership of domestic natural resources became vital. Not only establishing a systematic method to secure domestic plant resources, but also cooperation with other countries on sharing natural resources is essential to procure natural resources effectively.
Sufficient investment and government's active support for basic infrastructure for global botanical drugs will bring Korea to much higher level of botanical drug development. S is a more suited compendium for consultation, and the recent joint statement on integrated COPD management of the three major Italian scientific Associations in the respiratory area together with the contribution of a Society of General Medicine deals prevalently with some critical issues appropriateness of diagnosis, pharmacological treatment, rehabilitation, continuing care ; also the document "Care Continuity: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD " of the Global Alliance against chronic Respiratory Diseases GARD -Italy does not treat in depth the issue of early diagnosis.
In particular: a it formally indicates on the basis of the available evidence the modalities and the instruments necessary for carrying out secondary prevention at the primary care level a pro-active,'case-finding'approach; assessment of the individual's level of risk of COPD; use of short questionnaires for an initial screening based on symptoms; use of simple spirometry for the second level of screening ; b it identifies possible ways of including these activities within primary care practice; c it places early diagnosis within the "systemic", consequential management of chronic respiratory diseases, which will be briefly described with the aid of schemes taken from the Italian and international reference documents.
Although chronic respiratory disorders are important causes of morbidity and mortality, health care workers, patients and caretakers are not well informed about these disorders. Therefore these problems are underdiagnosed and undertreated; also preventive measures are not widely taken.
Our aim was to evaluate the knowledge of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD in Turkey. People greater than 15 years of age who lived in cities with a population of or greater were eligible for the study. A questionnaire including demographic data and questions regarding asthma and COPD was used for the evalution of the participants.
There were Every other person had baseline knowledge on COPD. However only Since these disorders are important causes of morbidity and mortality and have high impact on work and economic loss, it is important to increase knowledge among public. Botanical features for identification of Gymnosporia arenicola dried leaf. Gymnosporia arenicola Jordaan Celastraceae is a shrub or small tree, which naturally occurs in coastal sand dunes of Southern Mozambique and South Africa.
Its dried leaf is often used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Hereby, we present results of studies carried out according to the pharmacopoeia standards for the identification of herbal drugs, in the whole, fragmented, and powdered plant material. These results were complemented with scanning electron microscopy and histochemical techniques. The leaf microscopic analysis revealed a typical dorsiventral mesophyll with a corresponding spongy parenchyma-palisade parenchyma ratio of 0.
The present findings demonstrate that the G. Buxifoliae Jordaan. The establishment of these new botanical markers for the identification of G. Neural networks applied to discriminate botanical origin of honeys. The aim of this work is develop a tool based on neural networks to predict the botanical origin of honeys using physical and chemical parameters.
The managed database consists of 49 honey samples of 2 different classes: monofloral almond, holm oak, sweet chestnut, eucalyptus, orange, rosemary, lavender, strawberry trees, thyme, heather, sunflower and multifloral.
Those properties were considered as input variables of the predictive model. The neural network is optimised through several tests with different numbers of neurons in the hidden layer and also with different input variables.
Probability of identification POI : a statistical model for the validation of qualitative botanical identification methods. A BIM may be used by a buyer, manufacturer, or regulator to determine whether a botanical material being tested is the same as the target desired mate Patients with psoriasis often enquire about the use of numerous botanical therapeutics.
It is important for dermatologists to be aware of the current evidence regarding these agents. The search included the following keywords: 'psoriasis' and 'plant' or 'herbal' or ' botanical '. We also reviewed citations within articles to identify additional relevant sources. We then further refined the results by route of administration and the topical botanical agents are reviewed herein. A total of 27 controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials addressing the use of topical botanical agents for psoriasis were assessed in this review.
We found that the most highly studied and most efficacious topical botanical therapeutics were Mahonia aquifolium, indigo naturalis, aloe vera, and, to a lesser degree, capsaicin. The most commonly reported adverse effects were local skin irritation, erythema, pruritus, burning, and pain. However, the overall evidence for these therapeutics remains limited in quantity and quality.
The literature addresses a large number of studies in regard to botanicals for the treatment of psoriasis. While most agents appear to be safe, further research is necessary before topical botanical agents can be consistently recommended to patients. Expanding the role of botanical gardens in the future of food. Further, each year botan Although informal learning environments have been studied extensively, ours is one of the first studies to quantitatively assess the impact of learning in botanical gardens on students' cognitive achievement.
We observed a group of 10th graders participating in a one-day educational intervention on climate change implemented in a botanical garden. Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China and they are becoming increasingly popular in the United States. However, little data is available regarding environmental contaminants in botanical dietary supplements and the risk posed to those ingest Leadership's Use of Educational Technologies in U.
Botanic Gardens. Botanic gardens are rich informational environments that exhibit ideas in limited increments due to constraints of time and physical layout. This study addressed a gap in research about experiences and issues of botanic gardens leaders related to implementing educational technologies. Educational theorists Dewey, Kolb, and Bandura provided the…. Characterisation of false-positive observations in botanical surveys.
Errors in botanical surveying are a common problem. The presence of a species is easily overlooked, leading to false-absences; while misidentifications and other mistakes lead to false-positive observations. While it is common knowledge that these errors occur, there are few data that can be used to quantify and describe these errors.
Here we characterise false-positive errors for a controlled set of surveys conducted as part of a field identification test of botanical skill. Surveys were conducted at sites with a verified list of vascular plant species. The candidates were asked to list all the species they could identify in a defined botanically rich area.
They were told beforehand that their final score would be the sum of the correct species they listed, but false-positive errors counted against their overall grade. The number of errors varied considerably between people, some people create a high proportion of false-positive errors, but these are scattered across all skill levels.
There was no phylogenetic pattern to falsely observed species; however, rare species are more likely to be false-positive as are species from species rich genera. Raising the threshold for the acceptance of an observation reduced false-positive observations dramatically, but at the expense of more false negative errors. False-positive errors are higher in field surveying of plants than many people may appreciate.
Greater stringency is required before accepting species as present at a site, particularly for rare species. Combining multiple surveys resolves the problem, but requires a considerable increase in effort to achieve the same sensitivity as a single survey.
Therefore, other methods should be used to raise the threshold for the acceptance of a species. For example, digital data input systems that can verify, feedback and inform the. Photocopy of photograph entitled " Botanical Gardens and officers quarters, Fitzsimons Photocopy of photograph entitled " Botanical Gardens and officers quarters, Fitzsimons General Hospital".
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Views Read Edit View history. We can provide assessments regarding gymnosporia gentryinvestments Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms Taxonomy articles created by. Lawson Gymnosporia pubescens N. Thwaites Gymnosporia engleriana Loes. Lawson Gymnosporia royleana Wall. Lawson Gymnosporia integrifolia L. Gymnosporia sikkimensis Prain Gymnosporia somalensis. Help Learn to edit Community. We have the capability to analyze such situations and provide insight on the level of risk and processes to mitigate your exposure. Being able to access timely and relevant data in order to properly evaluate conditions regarding any situation is a highly-valued process.Whether your needs are buying, selling, flipping, renting or investing, we do it all. Gentry is one of the fastest growing real estate companies in Arizona. We focus. Located in Highland Park, California, we strive to provide our clients and customers the highest level of professional service in the property management industry. Get directions, reviews and information for Gentry Investments & Property in Los Angeles, CA.