hygroscopic setting expansion of dental casting investments with high returns

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Hygroscopic setting expansion of dental casting investments with high returns

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The principal laboratory technique of making metal inlays, onlays, crowns and bridges, is based on casting practice.

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Media mobile semplice forexpros Both are available in the pure form. Support Center Support Center. Smith: The clinical handling of dental material. Citation Manager. Group IV:Dry—3 mm short cellulose ring liner within casting ring from both ends. J Am Dent Assoc. Any investment that meets this requirement should have adequate strength for casting of an inlay.
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The composition of each type is adjusted for the particular requirements. One of the most common is baseplate wax. Baseplate wax is used to establish the initial arch form in the construction of complete dentures. The harder the wax, the less the flow at a given temperature. The difference in flow of the three types may be advantageous for a particular application.

Type I, a soft wax, is used for building veneers. Type II, a medium wax, is designed for patterns to be placed in the mouth in normal climatic conditions. Type III, a hard wax, is used for trial fitting in the mouth in tropical climates. Because residual stress is present within the wax from contouring and manipulating the wax, the finished denture pattern should be flasked as soon as possible after completion of all adjustments and manipulations.

The impression waxes , also referred to as bite waxes or corrective waxes , tend to distort if they are withdrawn from undercut areas. Thus, they are limited to use in edentulous sites of the mouth or in occlusal surface areas. Although corrective waxes are relatively soft at mouth temperature, they have sufficient body to register the detail of soft tissues, and they are rigid at room temperature. Other types of dental waxes include sticky wax, an orange-colored stick wax, which is tacky when melted but firm and brittle when cooled.

Sticky waxes are used to temporarily fasten gypsum model components, join and temporarily stabilize the components of a bridge before soldering, or attach pieces of a broken denture prior to a repair. Boxing wax is another useful material for enclosing an impression before the plaster or stone cast is poured.

Typically provided in pink-colored flat sheets, this wax is relatively soft and pliable and can easily be pressed to the desired contour around the perimeter of an impression and self-sealed at the overlapped area with firm pressure. Carving wax and presentation wax are used for demonstration purposes. Such waxes contain synthetic and polymeric materials with additives such as fillers and coloring agents. The most common method used to form metal inlays, onlays, crowns, bridges, and other metal frameworks is to cast molten alloys by centrifugal force, under pressure, or under vacuum and pressure into a mold cavity.

The material used for the mold must be sufficiently refractory and thermally stable that it can withstand exposure to the high temperatures of molten metal as the metal solidifies and cools to room temperature. In addition, the mold or investment material must not interact chemically with the metal surface, and it must be easy to remove from the metal casting.

The mold cavity is produced by eliminating a wax or resin pattern by heating the mold to a specific temperature and for a specific time. This is called the burnout process. To provide a pathway to the mold cavity for molten metal, the wax or resin pattern must have one or more cylindrical wax segments attached at the desired point s of metal entry; this arrangement is termed a sprued wax pattern. A sprue is the channel in a refractory investment mold through which molten metal flows.

After the wax pattern has been made, either directly on a prepared tooth or on a replica die of the tooth, a sprue former base is attached to the sprued wax pattern, an investment ring is pressed into the sprue former base, and an investment slurry is vibrated into the ring to embed the wax pattern in the investment. Examples of sprued wax patterns on a sprue former base are shown in Figure The investment material is mixed in the same manner as plaster or dental stone, poured around the pattern, and allowed to set.

After the investment hardens, the sprue-former base is removed. The molten metal is then forced through the sprue or ingate created by the sprue former base into the mold cavity left by the wax. The remainder of this chapter deals with refractory investments and casting methods used for the fabrication of small dental crown and bridge prostheses either by casting metal or by hot-pressing ceramic.

Generally two types of investments—gypsum-bonded and phosphate-bonded—are employed, depending on the melting range of the alloy to be cast. The gypsum-based materials represent the type traditionally used for conventional casting of gold alloy inlays, onlays, crowns, and larger fixed dental prostheses FDPs. Phosphate-based investments are designed primarily for alloys used to produce copings or frameworks for metal-ceramic prostheses Chapter 18 and some base metal alloys.

It can also be used for pressable ceramics. A third type is the ethyl silicate—bonded investment, which is used principally for the casting of removable partial dentures made from base metals cobalt-based and nickel-based alloys. Commercially pure titanium and titanium alloys require a special investment as well as a controlled atmosphere to achieve satisfactory castings. The type of investment used depends on whether the appliance to be fabricated is fixed or removable and on the method of obtaining the expansion required to compensate for the contraction of the molten alloy during solidification.

Type I investments are those employed for the casting of inlays or crowns when the compensation for alloy casting shrinkage is accomplished principally by thermal expansion of the investment. Type II investments are also used for casting inlays, onlays, or crowns, but the major mode of compensation for alloy shrinkage during solidification is by hygroscopic expansion achieved by immersing the invested ring in a warm water bath.

Burnout of the investment is performed at a lower temperature than that used for the high-heat burnout technique. Type III investments are used rarely in the construction of partial dentures because they are designed for casting gold alloys. This chapter focuses primarily on type I and type II investments. This gypsum product serves as a binder for the other ingredients and to provide rigidity.

The strength of the investment is dependent on the amount of binder used. The remainder consists of silica allotropes and controlling chemicals. When this material is heated at temperatures sufficiently high to completely dehydrate the investment and to ensure complete castings, it shrinks considerably and occasionally fractures.

The thermal expansion curves for the three common forms of gypsum products are shown in Figure This latter shrinkage is most likely caused by decomposition and the release of sulfur dioxide. This decomposition not only causes shrinkage but also contaminates the castings with the sulfides of the nonnoble alloying elements, such as silver and copper. In this way proper fit and uncontaminated alloys are obtained. The wax pattern is usually eliminated from the mold by heat. During heating, the investment is expected to expand thermally to compensate partially or totally for the casting shrinkage of the solidifying alloy.

As shown in Figure , gypsum shrinks considerably when it is heated. If the proper forms of silica are employed in the investment, this contraction during heating can be eliminated and changed to an expansion. Silica exists in at least four allotropic forms: quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, and fused quartz. Quartz and cristobalite forms are of particular dental interest. When quartz, tridymite, or cristobalite is heated, a change in crystalline form occurs at a transition temperature characteristic of the particular form of silica.

In powdered form, the inversions occur over a range of temperature rather than instantaneously at a specific temperature. Consequently, the shrinkage of gypsum shown in Figure can be counterbalanced by the inclusion of one or more of the crystalline silicas. Fused quartz is amorphous and glasslike in character, and it exhibits no inversion at any temperature below its fusion point. It has an extremely low linear coefficient of thermal expansion and is of little use in dental investments.

Quartz, cristobalite, or a combination of the two forms may be used in a dental investment. Both are available in the pure form. Tridymite is no longer an expected impurity in cristobalite. On the basis of the type of silica principally employed, dental investments are often classified as quartz or cristobalite investments.

In addition to silica, certain modifying agents, coloring matter, and reducing agents, such as carbon and powdered copper, are present. The reducing agents are used in some investments to provide a nonoxidizing atmosphere in the mold when a gold alloy is cast. Unlike the dental stones, a setting expansion is usually desirable to assist in compensating for the contraction of the alloy.

In some instances, the modifiers are needed to regulate the setting time and setting expansion, as described for the dental stones. The microstructure of a set gypsum-bonded investment can be seen in Figure The setting time of an investment can be measured in the same manner as plaster. Furthermore, it can be controlled in the same manner. The setting time for dental inlay casting investment should not be less than 5 or more than 25 minutes. Usually the modern inlay investments set initially in 9 to 18 minutes.

Sufficient time should be allowed for mixing and investing the pattern before the investment sets. The silica particles probably interfere with the intermeshing and interlocking of the crystals as they form. Thus, the thrust of the crystals is outward during growth, and they increase expansion. Generally the resulting setting expansion in such a case is high. Type I investments should exhibit a maximum setting expansion in air of 0.

The purpose of the setting expansion is to aid in enlarging the mold to compensate partially for the casting shrinkage of the alloy. Typically, the setting expansion of these investments is approximately 0. This expansion is controlled by retarders and accelerators.

Variables other than the exothermic heat of reaction also influence the effective setting expansion. As the investment sets and setting expansion occurs, it eventually gains sufficient strength to produce a dimensional change in the wax pattern and mold cavity.

The inner core of the investment adjacent to a mesial-occlusal-distal MOD wax pattern can actually force the proximal walls outward to a certain extent. If the pattern has a thin wall, the effective setting expansion is somewhat greater than for a pattern with thicker walls because the investment can move the thinner wall more readily. Also, the softer the wax, the greater is the effective setting expansion, because the softer wax is more readily moved by the expanding investment.

If a wax softer than a type II inlay wax is used, the setting expansion may cause an excessive distortion of the pattern. The theory of hygroscopic setting expansion was previously described in connection with the setting of dental plaster and stone.

Hygroscopic setting expansion, which is greater in magnitude than normal setting expansion, differs from normal setting expansion in that it occurs when the gypsum product is allowed to set when placed in contact with heated water.

Hygroscopic setting expansion was first discovered in connection with an investigation of the dimensional changes of a dental investment during setting. As illustrated in Figure , the hygroscopic setting expansion may be six or more times greater than the normal setting expansion of a dental investment. In fact, it may be as high as 5 linear percent. The hygroscopic setting expansion is one of the methods for expanding the casting mold to compensate for the casting shrinkage of gold alloys.

Commercial investments exhibit different amounts of hygroscopic expansion. Although all investments appear to be subject to hygroscopic expansion, the expansion in some instances is not as great as in others. For this reason, certain investments are specially formulated to provide a substantial hygroscopic expansion when the investment is permitted to set in contact with water. Type II investments should exhibit a minimum setting expansion in water of 1. The maximum expansion permitted is 2.

As discussed in the following sections, a number of factors are important in the control of hygroscopic expansion. The magnitude of the hygroscopic setting expansion of a dental investment is generally proportional to the silica content of the investment, other factors being equal. The finer the particle size of the silica, the greater is the hygroscopic expansion. A dental investment should have enough hemihydrate binder with the silica to provide sufficient strength after hygroscopic expansion.

Otherwise shrinkage occurs during the subsequent drying of the set investment. With most investments, as the mixing time is reduced, the hygroscopic expansion is decreased. This factor is also important in the control of the effective setting expansion. The older the investment, the lower is its hygroscopic expansion.

Consequently the amount of investment purchased at one time should be limited. The greatest amount of hygroscopic setting expansion is observed if the immersion takes place before the initial set. The longer the immersion of the investment in the water bath is delayed beyond the time of the initial set of the investment, the lower is the hygroscopic expansion. Both the normal and hygroscopic setting expansions are confined by opposing forces, such as those exerted by the walls of the container in which the investment is poured or by the walls of the wax pattern.

However, the confining effect on hygroscopic expansion is more pronounced than the similar effect on the normal setting expansion. Therefore, the effective hygroscopic setting expansion is likely to be less relative to the expected expansion compared with the normal setting expansion.

When the dimensional change in the wax pattern itself is measured after investing, the increase in the effective setting expansion during immersion of investment in a Rather, it may be caused mainly by heating and expanding the wax pattern and softening the pattern at the water temperature, permitting an increase in effective setting expansion.

The latter results from a combination of thermal expansion of the wax pattern plus the softened condition of the wax, reducing its confining effect on the expansion of the setting investment. This is substantiated by the fact that immersion in water at room temperature rather than The magnitude of the hygroscopic setting expansion can be controlled by the amount of water added to the setting investment. It has been proved that the magnitude of the hygroscopic expansion is proportional to the amount of water added during the setting period until maximal expansion occurs.

No further expansion is then evident regardless of the amount of water added. This finding is the basis for the mold expansion technique. Hygroscopic setting expansion is a continuation of ordinary setting expansion because the immersion water replaces the water of hydration, thus preventing confinement of the growing crystals by the surface tension of the excess water. Because of the dilution effect of the quartz particles, the hygroscopic setting expansion in these investments is greater than that of the gypsum binder when used alone.

This effect is the same as previously described for normal setting expansion. This phenomenon is purely physical. The hemihydrate binder is not necessary for hygroscopic expansion because investments with other binders exhibit a similar expansion when they are allowed to set under water. Expansion can be detected when water is poured into a vessel containing only small smooth quartz particles.

The water is drawn between the particles by capillary action, thereby causing the particles to separate, creating an expansion. The effect is not permanent after the water is evaporated unless a binder is present. The greater the amount of the silica or the inert filler, the more rapidly the added water can diffuse through the setting material and the greater the expansion.

Some of the crystals have intermeshed, inhibiting further crystal growth when the water is added. To achieve sufficient expansion of gypsum-bonded investment, the silica must be increased to counterbalance the contraction of the gypsum during heating.

The effect of cristobalite compared with that of quartz is demonstrated in Figure Because of the much greater expansion that occurs during the inversion of cristobalite, the normal contraction of the gypsum during heating is readily eliminated.

Furthermore, the expansion occurs at a lower temperature because of the lower inversion temperature of the cristobalite in comparison with that of quartz. The thermal expansion curves of an investment provide some idea of the form of the silica that is present. As can be seen from Figures and , the investments containing cristobalite expand earlier and to a greater extent than those containing quartz. Some of the modern investments are likely to contain both quartz and cristobalite.

The desired magnitude of the thermal expansion of a dental investment depends on its use. The magnitude of thermal expansion is related to the amount of solids present. Therefore, it is apparent that the more water used in mixing the investment, the less is the thermal expansion that is produced during subsequent heating. This effect is demonstrated by the curves shown in Figure A disadvantage of an investment that contains sufficient silica to prevent any contraction during heating is that the weakening effect of the silica in such quantities is likely to be too great.

The addition of small amounts of sodium, potassium, or lithium chlorides to the investment eliminates the contraction caused by the gypsum and increases the expansion without the need for an excessive amount of silica. Boric acid has a similar effect. It also hardens the set investment. However, it apparently disintegrates during the heating of the investment and a roughened surface on the casting may result. Actually, the investment contracts to less than its original dimension.

This contraction below the original dimension is unrelated to any property of the silica; it occurs because of the shrinkage of gypsum when it is first heated. As the investment is reheated, it expands thermally to the same peak value reached when it was first heated. However, in practice the investment should not be heated a second time because internal cracks can develop.

The fracture resistance of the investment must be adequate to prevent cracking, bulk fracture, or chipping of the mold during heating and casting of gold alloys. Although a certain minimal strength is necessary to prevent fracture of the investment mold during casting, the compressive strength should not be unduly high.

It has been found that all castings for the standardized MOD die used by the National Institute of Standards and Technology showed a constant pattern of distortion. The distortion apparently results from a directional restraint by the investment to the thermal contraction of the alloy casting as it cools to room temperature. The greatest reduction in strength on heating is found in investments containing sodium chloride.

After the investment has cooled to room temperature, its strength decreases considerably, presumably because of fine cracks that form during cooling. Thus, when the alloy is still hot and weak, the investment can resist alloy shrinkage by virtue of its strength and constant dimensions.

This can cause distortion and even fracture of the casting if the hot strength of the alloy is low. Although this is rarely a factor with gypsum-bonded investments, it can be important with other types of investments. The strength of an investment is usually measured under compressive stress. The compressive strength is increased according to the amount and the type of the gypsum binder present.

The use of chemical modifiers increases strength because more of the binder can be used without a marked reduction in thermal expansion. The compressive strength for the inlay investments should not be less than 2. Any investment that meets this requirement should have adequate strength for casting of an inlay. However, when larger, complicated castings are made, greater strength is necessary, as required for type III partial denture investments.

The fineness of the investment may affect its setting time, the surface roughness of the casting, and other properties. A fine silica results in a higher hygroscopic expansion than does a coarser silica. A fine particle size is preferable to a coarse one because the finer the investment, the smaller the surface irregularities on the casting. What are two measures that may be taken to minimize porosity in dental castings?

Key Terms Baseplate wax —Dental wax provided in sheet form to establish the initial arch form in the construction of complete dentures. Critical Question A wax pattern of an inlay made using the direct technique may result in a looser-fitting inlay than one made using the indirect technique. History of Dental Wax Wax has been a valuable commodity for over years. Types of Inlay Waxes The wide variety of dental waxes can be classified into two groups, those used primarily in the clinic and those used in commercial dental laboratories.

Composition of Dental Waxes The primary components of dental waxes are derived from synthetic waxes and natural waxes hydrocarbons of the paraffin and the microcrystalline groups, carnauba wax, candelilla wax, and resins. Desirable Properties of Wax Control of the properties of dental wax is accomplished by a combination of factors. The most important properties of inlay waxes are as follows: 1. Flow of Dental Wax One of the desirable properties of type I inlay wax is that it should exhibit a marked plasticity or flow at a temperature slightly above that of the mouth.

Thermal Properties of Dental Waxes Inlay waxes are softened with heat, forced into the prepared tooth cavity in either the tooth or the die, and cooled. Curve A represents the thermal expansion when the wax was held under pressure while it was cooling from the liquid state. When the same wax was allowed to cool without pressure and again heated, the behavior shown by curve B occurs. Manipulation of Inlay Wax The higher flow of softer waxes produces larger cast metal or hot-isostatically-pressed HIP ceramic prostheses than harder waxes because the soft waxes expand more as the investment heats up during setting and they offer less resistance to the expanding investment during setting.

B, After 24 hours the same stick of wax tends to relax and distortion occurs. Critical Question How can one best minimize potential distortion effects associated with elastic memory and temperature changes?

Wax Distortion Distortion of wax patterns is the most serious problem one can experience in forming and removing the pattern from a tooth or die. B, Sprue. C, Cavity formed by wax pattern after burnout. D, Investment. E, Liner. F, Casting ring. Note the spherical reservoir on the vertical sprue.

Indirect sprue design showing a horizontal reservoir runner bar that is positioned near the heat center of the invested ring right. Critical Question Under what conditions should medium and hard waxes be used? Specialty Waxes A pattern made of hard wax is less sensitive to temperature conditions than one made of soft wax. Gypsum-Bonded Investment The most common method used to form metal inlays, onlays, crowns, bridges, and other metal frameworks is to cast molten alloys by centrifugal force, under pressure, or under vacuum and pressure into a mold cavity.

Courtesy of R. Silica The wax pattern is usually eliminated from the mold by heat. Modifiers In addition to silica, certain modifying agents, coloring matter, and reducing agents, such as carbon and powdered copper, are present. Setting Time The setting time of an investment can be measured in the same manner as plaster.

Hygroscopic Setting Expansion The theory of hygroscopic setting expansion was previously described in connection with the setting of dental plaster and stone. A, Normal setting expansion of dental investment. B, Hygroscopic setting expansion. Variables That Affect Hygroscopic Expansion The magnitude of the hygroscopic setting expansion of a dental investment is generally proportional to the silica content of the investment, other factors being equal.

Thermal Expansion of Gypsum-Bonded Investments To achieve sufficient expansion of gypsum-bonded investment, the silica must be increased to counterbalance the contraction of the gypsum during heating. FIGURE Relationship of the linear hygroscopic setting expansion and the amount of water added as influenced by certain manipulative factors.

J Prosthet Dent , Courtesy of G. Effect of Chemical Modifiers A disadvantage of an investment that contains sufficient silica to prevent any contraction during heating is that the weakening effect of the silica in such quantities is likely to be too great. Strength The fracture resistance of the investment must be adequate to prevent cracking, bulk fracture, or chipping of the mold during heating and casting of gold alloys.

Fineness of Gypsum Investment The fineness of the investment may affect its setting time, the surface roughness of the casting, and other properties. This technique is routinely employed even when no attempt is made to maximize hygroscopic expansion by immersing in water or adding water. The setting expansion of a typical gypsum-bonded material is of the order of 0. The magnitude of the hygroscopic setting expansion which occurs with gypsum bonded investments is greater than that which occurs with gypsum model and die materials.

If hygroscopic expansion has been used to achieve expansion it is likely that the magnitude of the thermal expansion required will be relatively small. Silica-bonded investments undergo a slight contraction during setting and the early stages of heating due to loss of water and alcohol from the gel material. Continued heating causes considerable expansion due to the close packed nature of the silica particles.

A maximum linear expansion of approximately 1. For phosphate-bonded materials, the use of colloidal silica solution instead of water for mixing with the powder has the dual effect of increasing the setting expansion and thermal expansion of the material. A combined setting expansion and thermal expansion of around 2. Many manufacturers of phosphate-bonded investments supply instructions which enable the expansion to be varied,. The lowest permissible burn-out temperature for any particular alloy normally gives the best results so it is essential to follow the directions given for any particular alloy.

Consideration of the relatively large casting shrinkages which can occur with some base-metal alloys in comparison with the compensating expansions possible with the investments may suggest that ideal compensation is not always possible. It should be remembered, however, that further compensation may take place during other stages in the production of the casting.

A small contraction of the impression, for example, may give the required compensation. Refractory die for ceramic build-up — end —. View all posts by dentulous32wmt. It a wonderful site, but I need the range at which gypsum bonded investment and all other investment can be melted. Like Like. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account.

Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. Skip to content. Home Contact. The investment material forms the mould into which an alloy will be cast. Requirements of Investment Materials The investment should be capable of reproducing the shape, size and detail recorded in the wax pattern.

The accuracy of the casting can be no better than the accuracy of the mould. Thermal stability: the investment mould should be capable of maintaining its shape, integrity and have a sufficiently high value of compressive strength at the casting temperatures. Compensating expansion: the investment mould should compensate for the casting shrinkage, achieved by a combination of setting, hygroscopic and thermal expansion. Selection of Investment Material The main factors involved in the selection of investment material are: The casting temperature to be used.

The type of alloy to be cast. Composition of Investment Materials Basic Components Investment materials consist of a mixture of: 1. It adequately withstands the temperatures used during casting. It is responsible for producing much of the expansion which is necessary to compensate for the casting shrinkage of the alloy.

The nature of the binder characterizes the material: Gypsum-bonded Investment material Silica-bonded Investment material Phosphate-bonded Investment material Gypsum-bonded Investment Material Composition These materials are supplied as powders which are mixed with water and are composed of a mixture of silica SiO2 and calcium sulphate hemihydrate gypsum product with minor components including powdered graphite or powdered copper and various modifiers to control setting time.

Further compensation can be achieved by employing the hygroscopic setting expansion. Silica-bonded Investment Material Composition These materials consist of powdered quartz or cristobalite which is bonded together with silica gel. Phosphate-bonded Investment Material Composition These materials consist of a powder containing silica, magnesium oxide and ammonium phosphate.

Thermal Stability One of the primary requirements of an investment is that it should retain its integrity at the casting temperature and have sufficient strength to withstand the stresses set up when the molten alloy enters the investment mould. The presence of an oxalate in some investments reduces the effects by liberating carbon dioxide at elevated temperatures.

Phosphate-bonded Investment Material Thermal Stability The use of colloidal solution of silica instead of water for mixing with the powder increase the strength of set material. Porosity The gypsum-bonded and phosphate-bonded materials are sufficiently porous to allow escape of air and other gases from the mould during casting.

The compensating expansion is achieved by a combination of: Simple thermal expansion. Expansion caused by silica crystal inversion at elevated temperatures. Setting expansion. Hygroscopic expansion. Thermal Expansion The expansion is accomplished by a combination of simple thermal expansion coupled with a crystalline inversion which results in a significant expansion. Hygroscopic Expansion Hygroscopic expansion can be used to supplement the setting expansion of gypsum-bonded materials.

Hygroscopic Expansion Techniques: A Water immersion technique: The investment mould is placed into water at the initial set stage, this can result in an expansion of five times the normal setting expansion. B Water added technique: A measured volume of water is placed on the upper surface of the investment material within the casting ring.

Gypsum-bonded Investment Material Compensating Expansion The setting expansion of a typical gypsum-bonded material is of the order of 0. Three types of gypsum bonded investments can be identified as follows: Type 1 thermal expansion type ; for casting inlays and crowns. Type 2 hygroscopic expansion type ; for casting inlays and crowns. Type 3 for casting complete and partial dentures. The total linear expansion is therefore identical with the linear thermal expansion.

Phosphate-bonded Investment Material Compensating Expansion For phosphate-bonded materials, the use of colloidal silica solution instead of water for mixing with the powder has the dual effect of increasing the setting expansion and thermal expansion of the material. Many manufacturers of phosphate-bonded investments supply instructions which enable the expansion to be varied, by selecting the most appropriate liquid dilution the investment can be made to compensate for casting shrinkages of both base-metal alloys and gold alloys.

Two types of phosphate-bonded investment can be identified as follows: Type 1 for inlays, crowns and other fixed restorations. Type 2 for partial dentures and other cast, removable restorations. Applications Investment Primary use Dental plaster or stone Mould for acrylic dentures Gypsum-bonded materials Mould for gold casting alloys Silica-bonded materials Mould for base metal casting alloys rarely used Phosphate-bonded materials Mould for base metal and gold casting alloys; mould for cast ceramics and glasses Refractory die for ceramic build-up — end —.

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