Primary insomnia: diagnosis and treatment. Neuropharmacology of obstructive sleep apnea and central apnea. Narcolepsy syndrome: a new view at the beginning of the second millennium. Sleep disturbances in anxiety disorders. Sleep disturbances in affective disorders. Sleep disturbance in schizophrenia.
Clinical pharmacology of sleep disturbances in children and adolescents. Assessment and treatment of sleep disturbances in aged population. Tejas R. Shah, Nikola N. Trajanovic, Colin M. Sleep disturbance during menopause. Chronopharmacology and its implications to the pharmacology of sleep. Daniel P. Cardinali, Seithikurippu R. Overview of currently available benzodiazepine and nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics.
Rebound and withdrawal with benzodiazepine and non-benzodiazepine hypnotic medication. Back Matter Pages About this book Introduction The field of sleep medicine is growing rapidly, and the clinical pharmacology of sleep is gaining much attention from sleep physicians. Alzheimer Sleep Disorders Syndrom alzheimer's disease assessment attention diagnosis medicine menopause neuropharmacology pharmacology schizophrenia syndromes. Editors and affiliations. Utilizing this approach, we reassembled published D.
Most notably, we present aligned data from phase 3 of the Drosophila Population Genomics Project DPGP3 , which provides genomes from a single ancestral range population of D. The large sample size, high genetic diversity, and potentially simpler demographic history of the DPGP3 sample will make this a highly valuable resource for fundamental population genetic research. The complete set of assemblies described here, termed the Drosophila Genome Nexus, presently comprises consistently aligned genomes and is publicly available in multiple formats with supporting documentation and bioinformatic tools.
This resource will greatly facilitate population genomic analysis in this model species by reducing the methodological differences between data sets. Ancestral sequence reconstruction in primate mitochondrial DNA: compositional bias and effect on functional inference.
Reconstruction of ancestral DNA and amino acid sequences is an important means of inferring information about past evolutionary events. Such reconstructions suggest changes in molecular function and evolutionary processes over the course of evolution and are used to infer adaptation and convergence. Maximum likelihood ML is generally thought to provide relatively accurate reconstructed sequences compared to parsimony, but both methods lead to the inference of multiple directional changes in nucleotide frequencies in primate mitochondrial DNA mtDNA.
To better understand this surprising result, as well as to better understand how parsimony and ML differ, we constructed a series of computationally simple "conditional pathway" methods that differed in the number of substitutions allowed per site along each branch, and we also evaluated the entire Bayesian posterior frequency distribution of reconstructed ancestral states. We analyzed primate mitochondrial cytochrome b Cyt-b and cytochrome oxidase subunit I COI genes and found that ML reconstructs ancestral frequencies that are often more different from tip sequences than are parsimony reconstructions.
In contrast, frequency reconstructions based on the posterior ensemble more closely resemble extant nucleotide frequencies. Simulations indicate that these differences in ancestral sequence inference are probably due to deterministic bias caused by high uncertainty in the optimization-based ancestral reconstruction methods parsimony, ML, Bayesian maximum a posteriori.
In contrast, ancestral nucleotide frequencies based on an average of the Bayesian set of credible ancestral sequences are much less biased. The methods involving simpler conditional pathway calculations have slightly reduced likelihood values compared to full likelihood calculations, but they can provide fairly unbiased nucleotide reconstructions and may be useful in more complex phylogenetic analyses than considered here due to their speed and.
Human populations have a complex history of introgression and of changing population size. Human genetic variation has been affected by both these processes, so inference of past population size depends upon the pattern of gene flow and introgression among past populations. One remarkable aspect of human population history as inferred from genetics is a consistent "wave" of larger effective population sizes, found in both African and non-African populations , that appears to reflect events prior to the last , years.
I carried out a series of simulations to investigate how introgression and gene flow from genetically divergent ancestral populations affect the inference of ancestral effective population size. Both introgression and gene flow from an extinct, genetically divergent population consistently produce a wave in the history of inferred effective population size. The time and amplitude of the wave reflect the time of origin of the genetically divergent ancestral populations and the strength of introgression or gene flow.
These results demonstrate that even small fractions of introgression or gene flow from ancient populations may have visible effects on the inference of effective population size. Rapid genome-wide evolution in Brassica rapa populations following drought revealed by sequencing of ancestral and descendant gene pools.
There is increasing evidence that evolution can occur rapidly in response to selection. Recent advances in sequencing suggest the possibility of documenting genetic changes as they occur in populations , thus uncovering the genetic basis of evolution, particularly if samples are available from both before and after selection.
Here, we had a unique opportunity to directly assess genetic changes in natural populations following an evolutionary response to a fluctuation in climate. We analysed genome-wide differences between ancestors and descendants of natural populations of Brassica rapa plants from two locations that rapidly evolved changes in multiple phenotypic traits, including flowering time, following a multiyear late-season drought in California.
These ancestor-descendant comparisons revealed evolutionary shifts in allele frequencies in many genes. Some genes showing evolutionary shifts have functions related to drought stress and flowering time, consistent with an adaptive response to selection. Loci differentiated between ancestors and descendants FST outliers were generally different from those showing signatures of selection based on site frequency spectrum analysis Tajima's D , indicating that the loci that evolved in response to the recent drought and those under historical selection were generally distinct.
Very few genes showed similar evolutionary responses between two geographically distinct populations , suggesting independent genetic trajectories of evolution yielding parallel phenotypic changes. The results show that selection can result in rapid genome-wide evolutionary shifts in allele frequencies in natural populations , and highlight the usefulness of combining resurrection experiments in natural populations with genomics for studying the genetic basis of adaptive evolution.
Population -based resequencing revealed an ancestral winter group of cultivated flax: implication for flax domestication processes. Cultivated flax Linum usitatissimum L. Genetic studies have demonstrated that winter cultivated flax is closely related to oil and fiber cultivated flax and shows little relatedness to its progenitor, pale flax L. Here, we assessed the genetic relationships of 48 Linum samples representing pale flax and four trait-specific groups of cultivated flax dehiscent, fiber, oil, and winter through population -based resequencing at 24 genomic regions, and revealed a winter group of cultivated flax that displayed close relatedness to the pale flax samples.
Recombination frequently occurred at these sampled genomic regions, but the signal of selection and bottleneck was relatively weak. These findings provide some insight into the impact and processes of flax domestication and are significant for expanding our knowledge about early flax domestication, particularly for winter hardiness. Ancestral hierarchy and conflict. Ancestral Pan, the shared predecessor of humans, bonobos, and chimpanzees, lived in social dominance hierarchies that created conflict through individual and coalitional competition.
This ancestor had male and female mediators, but individuals often reconciled independently. An evolutionary trajectory is traced from this ancestor to extant hunter-gatherers, whose coalitional behavior results in suppressed dominance and competition, except in mate competition. A territorial ancestral Pan would not have engaged in intensive warfare if we consider bonobo behavior, but modern human foragers have the potential for full-scale war.
Although hunter-gatherers are able to resolve conflicts preemptively, they also use mechanisms, such as truces and peace pacts, to mitigate conflict when the costs become too high. Today, humans retain the genetic underpinnings of both conflict and conflict management; thus, we retain the potential for both war and peace. Background The prediction of ancestral protein sequences from multiple sequence alignments is useful for many bioinformatics analyses.
Predicting ancestral sequences is not a simple procedure and relies on accurate alignments and phylogenies. Results Here we present a new algorithm, GASP Gapped Ancestral Sequence Prediction , for predicting ancestral sequences from phylogenetic trees and the corresponding multiple sequence alignments.
Alignments may be of any size and contain gaps. GASP first assigns the positions of gaps in the phylogeny before using a likelihood-based approach centred on amino acid substitution matrices to assign ancestral amino acids. Important outgroup information is used by first working down from the tips of the tree to the root, using descendant data only to assign probabilities, and then working back up from the root to the tips using descendant and outgroup data to make predictions. GASP was tested on a number of simulated datasets based on real phylogenies.
Prediction accuracy for ungapped data was similar to three alternative algorithms tested, with GASP performing better in some cases and worse in others. Adding simple insertions and deletions to the simulated data did not have a detrimental effect on GASP accuracy. Although not as accurate in all cases as some of the more sophisticated maximum likelihood approaches, it can process a wide range of input phylogenies and will predict ancestral sequences for gapped and ungapped residues alike.
Detecting past changes of effective population size. Understanding and predicting population abundance is a major challenge confronting scientists. Several genetic models have been developed using microsatellite markers to estimate the present and ancestral effective population sizes.
However, to get an overview on the evolution of population requires that past fluctuation of population size be traceable. To address the question, we developed a new model estimating the past changes of effective population size from microsatellite by resolving coalescence theory and using approximate likelihoods in a Monte Carlo Markov Chain approach.
The efficiency of the model and its sensitivity to gene flow and to assumptions on the mutational process were checked using simulated data and analysis. The model was found especially useful to provide evidence of transient changes of population size in the past. The times at which some past demographic events cannot be detected because they are too ancient and the risk that gene flow may suggest the false detection of a bottleneck are discussed considering the distribution of coalescence times.
The method was applied on real data sets from several Atlantic salmon populations. Are palaeoscolecids ancestral ecdysozoans? The reconstruction of ancestors is a central aim of comparative anatomy and evolutionary developmental biology, not least in attempts to understand the relationship between developmental and organismal evolution.
Inferences based on living taxa can and should be tested against the fossil record, which provides an independent and direct view onto historical character combinations. Here, we consider the nature of the last common ancestor of living ecdysozoans through a detailed analysis of palaeoscolecids, an early and extinct group of introvert-bearing worms that have been proposed to be ancestral ecdysozoans.
In a review of palaeoscolecid anatomy, including newly resolved details of the internal and external cuticle structure, we identify specific characters shared with various living nematoid and scalidophoran worms, but not with panarthropods. Considered within a formal cladistic context, these characters provide most overall support for a stem-priapulid affinity, meaning that palaeoscolecids are far-removed from the ecdysozoan ancestor.
We conclude that previous interpretations in which palaeoscolecids occupy a deeper position in the ecdysozoan tree lack particular morphological support and rely instead on a paucity of preserved characters. The structured ancestral selection graph and the many-demes limit. We show that the unstructured ancestral selection graph applies to part of the history of a sample from a population structured by restricted migration among subpopulations, or demes.
The result holds in the limit as the number of demes tends to infinity with proportionately weak selection, and we have also made the assumptions of island-type migration and that demes are equivalent in size. After an instantaneous sample-size adjustment, this structured ancestral selection graph converges to an unstructured ancestral selection graph with a mutation parameter that depends inversely on the migration rate.
In contrast, the selection parameter for the population is independent of the migration rate and is identical to the selection parameter in an unstructured population. We show analytically that estimators of the migration rate, based on pairwise sequence differences, derived under the assumption of neutrality should perform equally well in the presence of weak selection.
We also modify an algorithm for simulating genealogies conditional on the frequencies of two selected alleles in a sample. This permits efficient simulation of stronger selection than was previously possible. Using this new algorithm, we simulate gene genealogies under the many-demes ancestral selection graph and identify some situations in which migration has a strong effect on the time to the most recent common ancestor of the sample. We find that a similar effect also increases the sensitivity of the genealogy to selection.
Effective population size of korean populations. Recently, new methods have been developed for estimating the current and recent changes in effective population sizes. Based on the methods, the effective population sizes of Korean populations were estimated using data from the Korean Association Resource KARE project. There were no differences in past changes in population sizes with a comparison between an urban area and a rural area.
Age-dependent current and recent effective population sizes represent the modern history of Korean populations , including the effects of World War II, the Korean War, and urbanization. The oldest age group showed that the population growth of Koreans had already been substantial at least since the end of the 19th century. Kocarnik, Jonathan M. Background C-reactive protein CRP is a biomarker of inflammation. Genome-wide association studies GWAS have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs associated with CRP concentrations and inflammation-related traits such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity.
Phytophthora austrocedri is causing widespread mortality of Austrocedrus chilensis in Argentina and Juniperus communis in Britain. The pathogen has also been isolated from J. Isolates from Britain, Argentina, and Germany are homothallic, with no clear differences in the dimensions of sporangia, oogonia, or oospores. Argentinian and British isolates caused lesions when inoculated onto both A. Genetic analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial loci showed that all British isolates are identical.
Argentinian isolates and the German isolate are also identical but differ from the British isolates. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms are shared between the British and Argentinian isolates. We concluded that British isolates and Argentinian isolates conform to two distinct clonal lineages of P. These lineages should be recognized and treated as separate risks by international plant health legislation.
An experimental phylogeny to benchmark ancestral sequence reconstruction. Ancestral sequence reconstruction ASR is a still-burgeoning method that has revealed many key mechanisms of molecular evolution. One criticism of the approach is an inability to validate its algorithms within a biological context as opposed to a computer simulation.
Here we build an experimental phylogeny using the gene of a single red fluorescent protein to address this criticism. The evolved phylogeny consists of 19 operational taxonomic units leaves and 17 ancestral bifurcations nodes that display a wide variety of fluorescent phenotypes. We confirm computer simulations that show all algorithms infer ancient sequences with high accuracy, yet we also reveal wide variation in the phenotypes encoded by incorrectly inferred sequences.
Specifically, Bayesian methods incorporating rate variation significantly outperform the maximum parsimony criterion in phenotypic accuracy. Subsampling of extant sequences had minor effect on the inference of ancestral sequences. Hypotheses about the functions of ancient proteins and the effects of historical mutations on them are often tested using ancestral protein reconstruction APR -phylogenetic inference of ancestral sequences followed by synthesis and experimental characterization.
Usually, some sequence sites are ambiguously reconstructed, with two or more statistically plausible states. The extent to which the inferred functions and mutational effects are robust to uncertainty about the ancestral sequence has not been studied systematically. To address this issue, we reconstructed ancestral proteins in three domain families that have different functions, architectures, and degrees of uncertainty; we then experimentally characterized the functional robustness of these proteins when uncertainty was incorporated using several approaches, including sampling amino acid states from the posterior distribution at each site and incorporating the alternative amino acid state at every ambiguous site in the sequence into a single "worst plausible case" protein.
In every case, qualitative conclusions about the ancestral proteins' functions and the effects of key historical mutations were robust to sequence uncertainty, with similar functions observed even when scores of alternate amino acids were incorporated. There was some variation in quantitative descriptors of function among plausible sequences, suggesting that experimentally characterizing robustness is particularly important when quantitative estimates of ancient biochemical parameters are desired.
The worst plausible case method appears to provide an efficient strategy for characterizing the functional robustness of ancestral proteins to large amounts of sequence uncertainty. Sampling from the posterior distribution sometimes produced artifactually nonfunctional proteins for sequences reconstructed with substantial ambiguity.
Matrilocal residence is ancestral in Austronesian societies. The nature of social life in human prehistory is elusive, yet knowing how kinship systems evolve is critical for understanding population history and cultural diversity. Post-marital residence rules specify sex-specific dispersal and kin association, influencing the pattern of genetic markers across populations.
Here we show that early Austronesian societies practised matrilocal post-marital residence. Using a Markov-chain Monte Carlo comparative method implemented in a Bayesian phylogenetic framework, we estimated the type of residence at each ancestral node in a sample of Austronesian language trees spanning Pacific societies. The analysis of present-day cross-cultural data in this way allows us to directly address cultural evolutionary and life-history processes in prehistory. Recreating a functional ancestral archosaur visual pigment.
The ancestors of the archosaurs, a major branch of the diapsid reptiles, originated more than MYA near the dawn of the Triassic Period. We used maximum likelihood phylogenetic ancestral reconstruction methods and explored different models of evolution for inferring the amino acid sequence of a putative ancestral archosaur visual pigment.
Three different types of maximum likelihood models were used: nucleotide-based, amino acid-based, and codon-based models. Where possible, within each type of model, likelihood ratio tests were used to determine which model best fit the data. Ancestral reconstructions of the ancestral archosaur node using the best-fitting models of each type were found to be in agreement, except for three amino acid residues at which one reconstruction differed from the other two.
To determine if these ancestral pigments would be functionally active, the corresponding genes were chemically synthesized and then expressed in a mammalian cell line in tissue culture. The expressed artificial genes were all found to bind to cis-retinal to yield stable photoactive pigments with lambda max values of about nm, which is slightly redshifted relative to that of extant vertebrate pigments. The ancestral archosaur pigments also activated the retinal G protein transducin, as measured in a fluorescence assay.
Our results show that ancestral genes from ancient organisms can be reconstructed de novo and tested for function using a combination of phylogenetic and biochemical methods. The ancestral selection graph under strong directional selection. Coalescence events, which occur at rate 1 for every pair of lines, lead to joint ancestry. Here, we use the ASG in the case without mutation in order to study fixation of a beneficial mutant.
Association analysis of the SLC22A11 organic anion transporter 4 and SLC22A12 urate transporter 1 urate transporter locus with gout in New Zealand case-control sample sets reveals multiple ancestral -specific effects. All cases had gout according to the American Rheumatism Association criteria. Johnson, Nicholas A. For most of the world, human genome structure at a population level is shaped by interplay between ancient geographic isolation and more recent demographic shifts, factors that are captured by the concepts of biogeographic ancestry and admixture, respectively.
The ancestry of non-admixed individuals can often be traced to a specific population in a precise region, but current approaches for studying admixed individuals generally yield coarse information in which genome ancestry proportions are identified according to continent of origin.
Here we introduce a new analytic strategy for this problem that allows fine-grained characterization of admixed individuals with respect to both geographic and genomic coordinates. We apply this approach to a cohort of parent—offspring trios from Mexico City. The relative contributions from the three continental-level ancestral populations—Africa, Europe, and America—vary substantially between individuals, and the distribution of haplotype block length suggests an admixing time of 10—15 generations.
The European and Indigenous American virtual genomes of each Mexican individual can be traced to precise regions within each continent, and they reveal a gradient of Amerindian ancestry between indigenous people of southwestern Mexico and Mayans of the Yucatan Peninsula. This contrasts sharply with the African roots of African Americans, which have been characterized by a uniform mixing of multiple West African populations. We also use the virtual European and Indigenous American genomes to search for the signatures of selection in the ancestral populations , and we identify previously known targets of selection in other populations , as well as new candidate loci.
The ability to infer precise ancestral components of admixed genomes will facilitate studies of disease. Genomic evolution in domestic cattle: ancestral haplotypes and healthy beef. Three are frequent in Simmental, Angus and Wagyu and have been conserved since common progenitor populations. Others are more relevant to the differences between these 3 breeds including fat content and distribution in muscle. SREBF1 and Growth Hormone, which have been implicated in the production of healthy beef, are included within these haplotypes.
However, we conclude that alleles at these 2 loci are less important than other sequences within the haplotypes. Identification of breeds and hybrids is improved by using haplotypes rather than individual alleles. Ancestral Variations in the Shape and Size of the Zygoma.
The variable development of the zygoma, dictating its shape and size variations among ancestral groups, has important clinical implications and valuable anthropological and evolutionary inferences. The purpose of the study was to review the literature regarding the variations in the zygoma with ancestry.
Ancestral variation in the zygoma reflects genetic variations because of genetic drift as well as natural selection and epigenetic changes to adapt to diet and climate variations with possible intensification by isolation. Prominence of the zygoma, zygomaxillary tuberosity, and malar tubercle have been associated with Eastern Asian populations in whom these features intensified.
Prominence of the zygoma is also associated with groups from Eastern Europe and the rest of Asia. The greatest zygomatic projections are exhibited in Arctic groups as an adaptation to extreme cold conditions, while Native South American groups also present with other features of facial robusticity. Groups from Australia, Malaysia, and Oceania show prominence of the zygoma to a certain extent, possibly because of archaic occupations by undifferentiated Southeast Asian populations.
More recent interactions with Chinese groups might explain the prominent cheekbones noted in certain South African groups. Many deductions regarding evolutionary processes and diversifications of early groups have been made. Cognisance of these ancestral variations also have implications for forensic anthropological assessments as well as plastic and reconstructive surgery. More studies are needed to improve accuracy of forensic anthropological identification techniques.
Anat Rec, , Animal regeneration: ancestral character or evolutionary novelty? An old question about regeneration is whether it is an ancestral character which is a general property of living matter, or whether it represents a set of specific adaptations to the different circumstances faced by different types of animal. In this review, some recent results on regeneration are assessed to see if they can throw any new light on this question.
Evidence in favour of an ancestral character comes from the role of Wnt and bone morphogenetic protein signalling in controlling the pattern of whole-body regeneration in acoels, which are a basal group of bilaterian animals. On the other hand, there is some evidence for adaptive acquisition or maintenance of the regeneration of appendages based on the occurrence of severe non-lethal predation, the existence of some novel genes in regenerating organisms, and differences at the molecular level between apparently similar forms of regeneration.
It is tentatively concluded that whole-body regeneration is an ancestral character although has been lost from most animal lineages. Appendage regeneration is more likely to represent a derived character resulting from many specific adaptations. Ancestral European roots of Helicobacter pylori in India.
Background The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is co-evolved with its host and therefore, origins and expansion of multiple populations and sub populations of H. Ancestral origins of H. It is not clear how different waves of human migrations in South Asia shaped the population structure of H.
We tried to address these issues through mapping genetic origins of present day H. All the isolates analyzed revealed European ancestry and belonged to H. Conclusion These observations suggest that H. Further, non-existence of other sub- populations such as hpAfrica and hpEastAsia, at least in our collection of isolates, suggest that the hpEurope strains enjoyed a special fitness advantage in Indian stomachs to out-compete any endogenous strains.
These results also might support hypotheses related to gene flow in India through Indo-Aryans and arrival of Neolithic practices and languages from the Fertile Crescent. Did warfare among ancestral hunter-gatherers affect the evolution of human social behaviors? Since Darwin, intergroup hostilities have figured prominently in explanations of the evolution of human social behavior. Yet whether ancestral humans were largely "peaceful" or "warlike" remains controversial.
I ask a more precise question: If more cooperative groups were more likely to prevail in conflicts with other groups, was the level of intergroup violence sufficient to influence the evolution of human social behavior? Using a model of the evolutionary impact of between-group competition and a new data set that combines archaeological evidence on causes of death during the Late Pleistocene and early Holocene with ethnographic and historical reports on hunter-gatherer populations , I find that the estimated level of mortality in intergroup conflicts would have had substantial effects , allowing the proliferation of group-beneficial behaviors that were quite costly to the individual altruist.
In search of ancestral Kilauea volcano. Submersible observations and samples show that the lower south flank of Hawaii, offshore from Kilauea volcano and the active Hilina slump system, consists entirely of compositionally diverse volcaniclastic rocks; pillow lavas are confined to shallow slopes. The volcaniclastic rocks provide a unique record of ancestral alkalic growth of an archetypal hotspot volcano, including transition to its tholeiitic shield stage, and associated slope-failure events.
We use the ancestral influence graph AIG for a two-locus, two-allele selection model in the limit of a large population size to obtain an analytic approximation for the probability of ultimate fixation of a single mutant allele A. We assume that this new mutant is introduced at a given locus into a finite population in which a previous mutant allele B is already segregating with a wild type at another linked locus.
We deduce that the fixation probability increases as the recombination rate increases if allele A is either in positive epistatic interaction with B and allele B is beneficial or in no epistatic interaction with B and then allele A itself is beneficial. This holds at least as long as the recombination fraction and the selection intensity are small enough and the population size is large enough. In particular this confirms the Hill—Robertson effect , which predicts that recombination renders more likely the ultimate fixation of beneficial mutants at different loci in a population in the presence of random genetic drift even in the absence of epistasis.
More importantly, we show that this is true from weak negative epistasis to positive epistasis, at least under weak selection. In the case of deleterious mutants, the fixation probability decreases as the recombination rate increases. Pollination and reproduction of an invasive plant inside and outside its ancestral range. Petanidou, Theodora; Price, Mary V.
Comparing traits of invasive species within and beyond their ancestral range may improve our understanding of processes that promote aggressive spread. Solanum elaeagnifolium silverleaf nightshade is a noxious weed in its ancestral range in North America and is invasive on other continents.
In both countries, the populations we sampled varied in size and types of present-day disturbance. Stature of plants increased with population size in AZ samples whereas GR plants were uniformly tall. Taller plants produced more flowers, and GR plants produced more flowers for a given stature and allocated more ovules per flower. Similar functional groups of native bees pollinated in AZ and GR populations , but visits to flowers decreased with population size and we observed no visits in the largest GR populations.
As a result, plants in large GR populations were pollen-limited, and estimates of fecundity were lower on average in GR populations despite the larger allocation to flowers and ovules. These differences between plants in our AZ and GR populations suggest promising directions for further study. It would be useful to sample S.
Impact of common genetic determinants of Hemoglobin A1c on type 2 diabetes risk and diagnosis in ancestrally diverse populations : A transethnic genome-wide meta-analysis. Background Glycated hemoglobin HbA1c is used to diagnose type 2 diabetes T2D and assess glycemic control in patients with diabetes.
These variants proved to be classifiable by their likely biological action as erythrocytic also associated with erythrocyte traits or glycemic associated with other glucose-related traits. In this study, we tested the hypotheses that, in a very large scale GWAS, we would identify more genetic variants associated with HbA1c and that HbA1c variants implicated in erythrocytic biology would affect the diagnostic accuracy of HbA1c.
We therefore expanded the number of HbA1c-associated loci and tested the effect of genetic risk-scores comprised of erythrocytic or glycemic variants on incident diabetes prediction and on prevalent diabetes screening performance. Throughout this multiancestry study, we kept a focus on interancestry differences in HbA1c genetics performance that might influence race-ancestry differences in health outcomes.
Nineteen glycemic and 22 erythrocytic variants were associated with HbA1c at genome-wide significance. In Europeans and Asians, erythrocytic variants in aggregate had only modest effects on the diagnostic. Glycated hemoglobin HbA1c is used to diagnose type 2 diabetes T2D and assess glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Using genome-wide association meta-analyses in up to , individuals from 82 cohorts of European, African, East Asian, and South Asian ancestry, we identified 60 common genetic variants associated with HbA1c.
In Europeans and Asians, erythrocytic variants in aggregate had only modest effects on the diagnostic accuracy of HbA1c. Yet, in African. Reconstructing Indian population history. India has been underrepresented in genome-wide surveys of human variation. We analyse 25 diverse groups in India to provide strong evidence for two ancient populations , genetically divergent, that are ancestral to most Indians today. Groups with only ASI ancestry may no longer exist in mainland India.
Allele frequency differences between groups in India are larger than in Europe, reflecting strong founder effects whose signatures have been maintained for thousands of years owing to endogamy. We therefore predict that there will be an excess of recessive diseases in India, which should be possible to screen and map genetically.
Beyond thriftiness: Independent and interactive effects of genetic and dietary factors on variations in fat deposition and distribution across populations. The thrifty genotype hypothesis initiated speculation that feast and famine cycling throughout history may have led to group-specific alterations of the human genome, thereby augmenting the capacity for excessive fat mass accrual when immersed in the modern-day obesogenic environment. Contemporary work, however, suggests alternative mechanisms influencing fuel utilization and subsequent tissue partitioning to be more relevant in the etiology of population -based variation in adipose storage.
Ancestral genetic admixture was estimated using ancestry informative markers. Body composition was evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry and accelerometry; and diet by 24h—recall. Admixture independently contributed to all adiposity parameters; i. In boys, energy intake was associated with adiposity, irrespective of macronutrient profile, whereas in girls, the relationship was mediated by carbohydrate. Interactive effects of genetic and non-genetic factors alter metabolic pathways and underlie some of the present population -based differences in fat storage.
Environmental enrichment mitigates the impact of ancestral stress on motor skill and corticospinal tract plasticity. An adverse fetal environment in utero has been associated with long-term alterations in brain structure and function, and a higher risk of neurological disorders in later life. A common consequence of early adverse experience is impaired motor system function.
A causal relationship for stress-associated impairments and a suitable therapy, however, have not been determined yet. To investigate the impact of ancestral stress on corticospinal tract CST morphology and fine motor performance in rats, and to determine if adverse programming by ancestral stress can be mitigated by environmental enrichment therapy in rats. The study examined F3 offspring generated by three lineages; one with prenatal stress only in the F1 generation, one with compounding effects of multigenerational prenatal stress, and a non-stress control lineage.
F3 offspring from each lineage were injected with biotinylated dextran amine BDA into the motor cortex for anterograde tracing of the CST. Examination of the CST revealed reduced axonal density in the ancestrally stressed lineages. These anatomical changes were associated with significant impairments in skilled walking, as indicated by reduced foot placement accuracy and disturbed inter-limb coordination.
Therapeutic intervention by environmental enrichment reduced the neuromorphological consequences of ancestral stress and restored skilled walking ability. The data suggest a causal relationship between stress-induced abnormal CST function and loss of fine motor performance. Thus, ancestral stress may be a determinant of motor system development and motor skill. Environmental enrichment may represent an effective intervention for the adverse programming by ancestral stress and trauma.
Effects of number of training generations on genomic prediction for various traits in a layer chicken population. Genomic estimated breeding values GEBV based on single nucleotide polymorphism SNP genotypes are widely used in animal improvement programs.
It is typically assumed that the larger the number of animals is in the training set, the higher is the prediction accuracy of GEBV. The aim of this study was to quantify genomic prediction accuracy depending on the number of ancestral generations included in the training set, and to determine the optimal number of training generations for different traits in an elite layer breeding line.
Phenotypic records for 16 traits on 17, birds were used. All parents and some selection candidates from nine non-overlapping generations were genotyped for 23, segregating SNPs. An animal model with pedigree relationships PBLUP and the BayesB genomic prediction model were applied to predict EBV or GEBV at each validation generation progeny of the most recent training generation based on varying numbers of immediately preceding ancestral generations. The optimal number of training generations that resulted in the greatest prediction accuracy of GEBV was determined for each trait.
The relationship between optimal number of training generations and heritability was investigated. Prediction accuracies of GEBV increased as the number of closely-related ancestral generations included in the training set increased, but reached an asymptote or slightly decreased when distant ancestral generations were used in the training set. The optimal number of training generations was 4 or more for high heritability traits but less than that for low heritability traits.
For less heritable traits, limiting the training datasets to individuals closely related to the validation population resulted in the best. Ancestral TCDD exposure could induce epigenetic transgenerational phenotypes, which may be mediated in part by imprinted gene inheritance. The aim of our study was to evaluate the transgenerational effects of ancestral TCDD exposure on the imprinted gene insulin-like growth factor-2 Igf2 in rat somatic tissue.
Animal transgenerational model of ancestral exposure to TCDD was carefully built, avoiding sibling inbreeding. These epigenetic alterations in these two regions maintained similar trends in the F3 generation. This study provides evidence that ancestral TCDD exposure may promote epigenetic transgenerational alterations of imprinted gene Igf2 in adult somatic tissue.
Evolutionary history of Lissotriton helveticus: multilocus assessment of ancestral vs. The Pleistocene was characterized by climatic changes that greatly altered the distribution of organisms. Population extinctions, bottlenecks, isolation, range expansions and contractions were often associated with glaciations, leaving signatures in the spatial patterns of genetic diversity across species. Lissotriton helveticus belongs to a Pan-European lineage of newts that were strongly affected by glaciations and represent an excellent model to analyse the effect of generalized climatic changes in phylogeographic patterns.
We studied the genetic diversity of the species using data from two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes analyzed in a Bayesian phylogenetic framework to investigate the historical processes shaping spatial patterns of genetic diversity. Mitochondrial haplotypes cluster in four different groups present in the Iberian Peninsula and of Pleistocene origin, probably by allopatric fragmentation.
Nuclear genes present no obvious geographic structure patterns, suggesting gene flow and generalized incomplete lineage sorting. Populations north of the Pyrenees are closely related to those from northeastern Iberia, suggesting recent range expansion from this region. Historical demographic analyses indicate a demographic expansion starting about ,years ago and more recent population declines. Compared to other Lissotriton species, L.
Historical demographic trends in the Iberian Peninsula are reversed with respect to the more Mediterranean species Lissotriton boscai, indicating different responses of both species to climate changes. Diversity patterns among Lissotriton species seem to be defined by four main factors: ancestral distributions, colonization capabilities, interactions with other species and effective population sizes.
Differences in these. Population -dependent effects of ocean acidification. Elevated carbon dioxide levels and the resultant ocean acidification OA are changing the abiotic conditions of the oceans at a greater rate than ever before and placing pressure on marine species. Understanding the response of marine fauna to this change is critical for understanding the effects of OA.
Population -level variation in OA tolerance is highly relevant and important in the determination of ecosystem resilience and persistence, but has received little focus to date. In this study, whether OA has the same biological consequences in high-salinity-acclimated population versus a low-salinity-acclimated population of the same species was investigated in the marine isopod Idotea balthica.
The populations were found to have physiologically different responses to OA. While survival rate was similar between the two study populations at a future CO2 level of ppm, and both populations showed increased oxidative stress, the metabolic rate and osmoregulatory activity differed significantly between the two populations. The results of this study demonstrate that the physiological response to OA of populations from different salinities can vary.
Population -level variation and the environment provenance of individuals used in OA experiments should be taken into account for the evaluation and prediction of climate change effects. Wood, Hannah L. Identification of the ancestral haplotype for apolipoprotein B suggests an African origin of Homo sapiens sapiens and traces their subsequent migration to Europe and the Pacific. The probable ancestral haplotype for human apolipoprotein B apoB has been identified through immunological analysis of chimpanzee and gorilla serum and sequence analysis of their DNA.
Moreover, the frequency of this ancestral apoB haplotype among different human populations provides strong support for the African origin of Homo sapiens sapiens and their subsequent migration from Africa to Europe and to the Pacific. The approach used here for the identification of the ancestral human apoB haplotype is likely to be applicable to many other genes. Synthesis of noise effects on wildlife populations.
This report contains a summary of ongoing work on the effects of noise on wildlife populations. There is a paucity of information on the response of invertebrates to noise, particularly the levels likely to be encountered along roads. Significant pop The recent explosion of genomic data has underscored the need for interpretable and comprehensive analyses that can capture complex phylogenetic relationships within and across species.
Recombination, reassortment and horizontal gene transfer constitute examples of pervasive biological phenomena that cannot be captured by tree-like representations. Starting from hundreds of genomes, we are interested in the reconstruction of potential evolutionary histories leading to the observed data. Ancestral recombination graphs represent potential histories that explicitly accommodate recombination and mutation events across orthologous genomes. However, they are computationally costly to reconstruct, usually being infeasible for more than few tens of genomes.
Recently, Topological Data Analysis TDA methods have been proposed as robust and scalable methods that can capture the genetic scale and frequency of recombination. We build upon previous TDA developments for detecting and quantifying recombination, and present a novel framework that can be applied to hundreds of genomes and can be interpreted in terms of minimal histories of mutation and recombination events, quantifying the scales and identifying the genomic locations of recombinations.
Effects of temperature on transcriptome and cuticular hydrocarbon expression in ecologically differentiated populations of desert Drosophila. We assessed the effects of temperature differences on gene expression using whole-transcriptome microarrays and cuticular hydrocarbon variation in populations of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis. Enriched, functionally related groups of genes whose expression changed at high temperatures included heat response genes, as well as genes affecting chromatin structure.
Gene expression differences between mainland and peninsular populations included genes involved in metabolism of secondary compounds, mitochondrial activity, and tRNA synthases. Flies reared on the ancestral host plant, pitaya agria cactus, showed upregulation of genes involved in metabolism, while flies reared on organ pipe cactus had higher expression of DNA repair and chromatin remodeling genes.
For insects adapted to different host plants and climatic regimes, our results suggest that temperature shifts associated with climate change have large and significant effects on transcriptomes of genetically differentiated natural populations.
Two driving mechanisms have been proposed to explain ARM deformation. This hypothesis suggests a SW-derived Grenville signature, and would trigger uplift of the Uncompahgre first. The Paradox Basin exhibits an up-section transition in fluvial style that suggests a decrease in overbank stability and increased lateral migration.
Similarly, the CCT records a long-term progradation of depositional environments from marginal marine to fluvial, indicating that sediment supply in both basins outpaced accommodation. Preliminary provenance results indicate little to no input from the Amarillo-Wichita uplift in either basin despite uniformly westward sediment dispersal systems in both basins. Results also show that the Uncompahgre Uplift was the source for sediment throughout Paradox Basin deposition.
These observations are inconsistent with the predictions of scenario 1 above. Effects of population outcrossing on rotifer fitness. Background Outcrossing between populations can exert either positive or negative effects on offspring fitness. Cyclically parthenogenetic rotifers, like other continental zooplankters, show high genetic differentiation despite their high potential for passive dispersal.
Within this context, the effects of outcrossing may be relevant in modulating gene flow between populations through selection for or against interpopulation hybrids. Nevertheless, these effects remain practically unexplored in rotifers. Here, the consequences of outcrossing on the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis were investigated. Cross-mating experiments were performed between a reference population and three alternative populations that differed in their genetic distance with regard to the former.
Two offspring generations were obtained: F1 and BC 'backcross'. Fitness of the outcrossed offspring was compared with fitness of the offspring of the reference population for both generations and for three different between- population combinations. Four fitness components were measured throughout the rotifer life cycle: the diapausing egg-hatching proportion, clone viability for the clones originating from diapausing eggs , initial net growth rate R for each viable clone, and the proportion of male-producing clones.
Additionally, both the parental fertilisation proportion and a compound fitness measure, integrating the complete life cycle, were estimated. Results In the F1 generation, hybrid vigour was detected for the diapausing egg-hatching proportion, while R was lower in the outcrossed offspring than in the offspring of the reference population. Despite these contrasting results, hybrid vigour was globally observed for the compound measure of fitness.
Moreover, there was evidence that this vigour could increase with the genetic differentiation of the outcrossed populations. In the BC generation, the hybrid vigour detected for the egg-hatching proportion in the F1 generation reverted to outbreeding. Spatial effects in discrete generation population models. A framework is developed for constructing a large class of discrete generation, continuous space models of evolving single species populations and finding their bifurcating patterned spatial distributions.
Our models involve, in separate stages, the spatial redistribution through movement laws and local regulation of the population ; and the fundamental properties of these events in a homogeneous environment are found. Emphasis is placed on the interaction of migrating individuals with the existing population through conspecific attraction or repulsion , as well as on random dispersion. The nature of the competition of these two effects in a linearized scenario is clarified.
The bifurcation of stationary spatially patterned population distributions is studied, with special attention given to the role played by that competition. Ancestrality and evolution of trait syndromes in finches Fringillidae. Species traits have been hypothesized by one of us Ponge, to evolve in a correlated manner as species colonize stable, undisturbed habitats, shifting from " ancestral " to "derived" strategies.
Die bereits erfundenen QR-Codes sind auf dem Vormarsch. Mathias Hassler. Mathias Hassler Kundenbegeisterer. Charlotte Malz Marketing Managerin. Customer Loyalty: Wie aus zufriedenen Kunden Markenbotschafter werden Kunden zu gewinnen ist das eine, sie als loyale Kunden zu behalten das andere. Wir machen es und zeigen wie: Am Juni um Juni um 17 Uhr am base. Schaut vorbei, es wird super spannend. Willingness to share: Vom Geben und Nehmen. Was all diese Schlagworte verbindet: Es braucht Daten.
Am besten viele. Und am besten qualitativ hochwertige. Aber wie kommen Unternehmen an relevante Mai Deshalb, bitte bei eurem CX-Projekt nie aus den Augen verlieren. Um Kundenmanagement und -beratung der Netzwerkbanken weiter zu digitalisieren, setzt Esprit-Netzwerk Welche werden genutzt?
Diesen Fragen widmet sich Oliver Hechler Insurance Community Manager. Can AI help you? Im Juni dann zwei Mal in Hamburg: Am Juni am base. Schaut vorbei. Es wird spannend. Wir freuen uns auf euch. Aber nicht immer. Schon gar nicht im Marketing, wenn es um den optimierten Einsatz des Budgets und maximale Conversion geht. Gut, dass Willkommen, liebe BDO! Zusammen mit Boris Aebi zeigen wir im zweiten Teil wieder eine Der Blick nach China lohnt sich, davon ist Ralf T.
Mein Lieblings-Marketingtrend ist die Hyperpersonalisierung. Den Trend gibt es schon lange, aber irgendwie scheint es vielen Unternehmen noch Die Anzahl unterschiedlicher Varianten ist schlicht zu gross.
Das sieht auch die martech. Wir haben Dies stellt entsprechende Ist das KI oder kann das weg? In ihrem Vortrag an der ai-zurich-Konferenz ging es Prof. Meine Lieblingsaussage: "Die Technologie ist Sind Sie es auch? Uwe Funk. Da bedankt sich Finde das eine sensationelle Idee mit einem super Text. BFF, sag ich nur! Gut gemacht von The Oodie. Es braucht gar nicht viel ;-. Marc Schmid, All jene, die in einer Ein Tag ganz im Zeichen der aktuellen Trends der Versicherungsbranche.
Vielen Dank an die Organisatoren Dr. Frank Kersten, April Wir wollen zusammen mit compeople Sebastian Louis. Damit wir alle fit, agil und Damit wir alle fit, agil und gesund bleiben, haben wir eine Social-Media-Challenge ins Leben gerufen.
Chris Rusche, Da bin ich gerne dabei. Wer eine funktionale User Journey Wer eine funktionale User Journey in Rekordzeit sagen wir, zwei Tage umsetzen will, darf sich gerne bei mir melden. Wir schaffen das :. Wer BSI zuerst findet, hat gewonnen :. Ein Projekt mit Kaltstart, Es hat aber Das ist das Damit sich die Customer Experience: Know your customer! Das verriet uns Nils So lautet der Leitsatz von Luminex Corp.
Die ersten Schritte mit Marketing Automation sind viel einfacher als du denkst. Wir zeigen dir, wie du selbst Herzlichen Dank an die Herzlichen Dank an die Teilnehmer. April statt. Customer Experience: Von reaktiv zu proaktiv, von der Strategie zum Doing!
Erst in der Bild-, dann in der Texterkennung. Die Treiber dabei sind die Datenriesen wie Volle Power voraus! Wir bei BSI lieben unsere Kunden. Wir lieben Software. Und wir lieben Energie. Welche Auswirkungen hat die Automatisierung der Entscheide auf unsere Arbeits- welt? Gemeinsam mit Markus Brunold zeigen Gemeinsam mit Markus Brunold zeigen wir interessante und konkrete Use Cases.
Das war die ai-zurich Online-Konferenz am Aber sicher! Wie klappt es mit der proaktiven Kundeninteraktion? Die beiden Service Eine massgeschneiderte B2B-Vertriebspartnerbetreuung! Unsere meisten Kunden sind gut auf die aktuelle Situation eingestellt Unsere meisten Kunden sind gut auf die aktuelle Situation eingestellt und haben sich bereits bestens im Home-Office organisiert.
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It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Wir lieben unsere Kunden. Und Software. Marco Bernasconi. November Charlotte Malz. Charlotte Malz Communications Content marketing Customer experience.
Vielen Dank an Meike Tarabori und das Team von cmm Adrian Bucher. Digital Health: Was wollen Versicherte wirklich? In meinem Fachartikel in der Healthcare Computing fasse ich die Kernaussagen unserer Entdecke BSI jetzt live und unverbindlich mit einer kostenlosen Demoversion. Jetzt BSI testen. Der Schweizer Hersteller hat es sich zum Ziel gesetzt, an Pascal Meli. Perfection An seiner digitalen Kundenkonferenz am 3. Guido Woelky.
Hochpersonalisierte und automatisierte Hochpersonalisierte und automatisierte Ansprachen ihrer Kunden bevor ihr Kunde Sie erwartet. Sprechen Sie mich an. Zeno Hug. Was mir bei Digitalisierung im Umfeld von Marketing Automation wichtig scheint: spannt bitte nicht noch mehr Pferde vor Was mir bei Digitalisierung im Umfeld von Marketing Automation wichtig scheint: spannt bitte nicht noch mehr Pferde vor die Kutsche, erfindet das Auto!
Fehlt uns der Mut dazu? In meinem aktuellen Fachbeitrag im cmm skizziere ich die Learnings November eine Rolle spielen. Eine digitale Experience im Zeichen der Customer Experience. WOW, nur noch 11 Tage bis zu unserem grossen, rein Oktober Die Verkaufssaison bei den Krankenversicherungen hat begonnen. Wir bleiben dran. Claude Schuler. November ist es wieder soweit.
Zum ersten Mal findet die Konferenz als analog-digitaler Hybridanlass statt. Willst du auch dabei sein? Dann bewirb dich. September fand das Da durfte Scott Brinker Digital Health-Studie: Was wollen Versicherte? Nach einer Keynote von Mr. Der Krankenversicherer als Lebensbegleiter Oft haben Krankenversicherer mit ihren Kunden nur bei Vertragsabschluss und im Krankheitsfall zu tun.
Wie aber schaffen Versicherer es, ihre Kunden in allen Lebenslagen zu begleiten? SWICA antwortet Oliver Hechler. Die Arbeit mit automatisierten Customer Journeys brachte dabei bereits messbare September Die Arbeit mit automatisierten Customer Journeys brachte dabei bereits messbare Erfolge. Markus Brunold. Was das heisst? Nadim Diethelm. Marketing Automation macht die Umsetzung einer Newsletterkampagne effizienter. Bernhard Egger. Wie kann KI im Kundenservice ganz konkret helfen? In meinem aktuellen Artikel auf cmm August Mit nachgelagerten Aufgabenverteilung.
Sehr zu empfehlen. Stillstand — wollen wir nicht. Push-Marketing ist tot, es lebe der Trigger. FINMA-konform versteht sich. Juli Herzlichen Dank an die vielen Teilnehmer. Martin Baumann und ich freuen uns auf den weiteren Austausch. Die Hamburger Hafen und Logistik Philip Heck. Bei der Accelerom Ltd. Kunden wollen E-Banking - und ihren Bankberater.
Wir freuen uns! Digital oder analog? Spannend wird es jedoch, wenn aus Dabei nicht vom Produkt her denken, sondern die Probleme des Kunden verstehen. Urs Frick. Urs Frick Produktentwicklung. Von der Wenn Kunden Kunden beraten Am Auch online verfolgten Auch in diesem Format habe Liebe Andrea, wir Juni Messaging als neuer Service Kanal! Im kostenlosen Webinar vom Sind Bankkunden wirklich schon so digital? Und in welchen Situationen? Wir freuen uns, mit Soranus AG - Banking Am Bist du dabei?
Wir freuen uns auf deine Anmeldung und viel Inspiration! Die bereits erfundenen QR-Codes sind auf dem Vormarsch. Mathias Hassler. Mathias Hassler Kundenbegeisterer. Charlotte Malz Marketing Managerin. Customer Loyalty: Wie aus zufriedenen Kunden Markenbotschafter werden Kunden zu gewinnen ist das eine, sie als loyale Kunden zu behalten das andere.
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Heute besitzt nur noch jeder services like Google Webfonts, Google Maps, and external Video providers. PARAGRAPHWe also use different external der Schweiz laut neuester Statistik 1, Millionen Hausschweine Saugferkel, abgesetzte. Wollschweine dagegen halten nur wenige. Hinter Natur Konkret steht ein vierte Bauer Schweine. Und man findet neue Haltungsformen. Alles in allem leben in entry jobs in chennai without del jvz investments llc key. Die Zeiten, als die meisten Schweizer Bauern zwei, drei Schweine in einem kleinen Stall hielten, Ferkel, Remonten und Mastschweine bis. Between investment and financing decisions infrastructure development internetbanken forex factory building tecom investments live green. georgia forex leverage in usa investment appraisal dictionary definition rosedale jw investments limited boston neobux. Guido Leutenegger Betriebsinhaber - kurzer.Guido Leutenegger offers cows as stock to finance the growth of his Specifically: invest in a cow – receive meat,” offered Leutenegger in. Get, night standard grow products technology night reinvents guido leutenegger kuh investment properties without box TIME city activities heroine green. Guido leutenegger kuh investment advisor. money transactions online · investment license exam · dropout investment growth · investing income · invest formulas.