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Box A. As discussed above, PL marked the first explicit congressional step toward greater attention to information infrastructure; the Blue Books track concurrent thinking of HPCCI agency officials. In many and government documents and administration speeches, the first "C" of HPCCI effectively disappeared, notwithstanding the fact that achieving many of the goals for improving the information infrastructure would depend on rapid continuation of progress in high-performance computing.
It perhaps inadvertently underscored the. Cast in more populist terms, the NII initiative included a variety of efforts to explore broadening access to increasingly sophisticated computing and communications services and attention to associated practical concerns. But as demonstrated in Chapter 1, the rapid pace of technical development quickly brings these technologies into the mainstream, and they become accessible to a broad populace.
Attention to performance is justified by the expectation for rapid transitions from leading-edge technologies to cost- effective, ubiquitous technologies-as well as the kinds of applications expected to grow. For example, multimedia communications will require high-bandwidth, low-delay delivery based on high peak network capacity and on protocol support for negotiating and enforcing service guarantees.
The Internet and efforts associated with the development of digital libraries already illustrate the importance of high-performance computing and communications to a broad set of information infrastructure capabilities. Greater attention to information infrastructure does not imply that performance should be abandoned. But rather than drive toward a narrow goal, such as a teraflop machine or gigabit network, per se, the goal should be systems that scale over several orders of magnitude.
This goal should include not only processing rates and communication rates, but also storage capacity, data transfer rates, and retrieval times, as well as the problems inherent in serving millions of users. Both speed and scale are important research issues. We can move toward an enhanced national information infrastructure by adding more cloth to the tent so as to further emphasize scale without deemphasizing speed, or by shifting the focus somewhat from height to breadth, from the research issues of speed to those of scale.
Both changes are appropriate; both dimensions are important for the tent to work. Additional opportunities and needs are also suggested by the tent metaphor, recognizing that there is more to advancing information technology and the information infrastructure than speed and scale. High-performance computing and communications will help provide the technologies needed to provide flexible, high-rate, affordable data communications. Evolving Research Directions and Relevance for the Information Infrastructure The public debate over information infrastructure is at heart a debate over how to make computing and communications systems easier to use, more effective, and more productive.
The challenge for research policy is to translate usability needs into research topics and programs. The HPCCI itself was built on the recognition that the fundamental challenge to greater acceptance and use of high-performance technologies is to make them more usable.
Since the s it has been recognized that more usable parallel processing machines imply the development of algorithms, programming support software, and native parallel applications, but the problem persists despite considerable progress. See Appendix A. The acceptance and popularity of Mosaic demonstrate the importance of user models, human factors, and other areas where research is critically needed.
More generally, intelligent information retrieval systems, systems for understanding speech and pictures, and systems for enabling intelligent dialogues between people and computer systems are capabilities that will build on HPCCI research and enhance the usefulness and level of use of information infrastructure.
In addition, research and development of core software technologies are needed to achieve progress in security, privacy, network measurement and management, transaction processing, application integration, and other capabilities that may be less directly visible to individuals but that make computing and communications facilities more usable.
For example, HPCCI and other computing and communications research can enhance capabilities for distributed, remote measurements of quantities that relate to the environment, traffic flows and management, or health conditions. Yet other research should build on the movement to digital transmission of more and more information.
As this list of possibilities suggests, information infrastructure is bigger than an initiative, although one or more initiatives, including the HPCCI, can help to organize and accelerate progress in developing and using it. Complicating decision making regarding information infrastructure research is the recognition that an advanced information infrastructure is not something that will spring full-grown from any one development.
Rather, it is something that will grow from new capabilities in many different sectors of the economy and society. Having to provide for migration, evolution, integration, and interoperability compounds the technical challenges. Generically, this provision of services is often referred to as tele- expertise and can be thought of as the live, interactive provision of services and education between individuals who are geographically separated but electronically connected.
Tele-expertise holds the promise of reducing costs and lessening geographical disparity in the availability of services. In particular, telemedicine will be an important part of the National Challenge in health care as evidenced by funding from the National Institutes of Health and other organizations for several projects, including a 3-year contract to use advanced network technologies to deliver health services in West Virginia.
Functionally, telemedicine supplies an audio, visual, and data link designed to maximize understanding between provider and patient. In telemedicine, visual contact and scrutiny are particularly important to accurate communication: studies have suggested that body language and facial expression can convey up to 80 percent of meaning. Clinically, although touch is currently denied, video zoom capability often augments visual examinations beyond what is the norm in face-to-face services.
In addition, various endoscopes and physiometers may be utilized across a network to further enhance a health care worker's observations. Limited telemedicine field trials began in and expanded with federally funded research demonstrations between and Considerable research was done on reliability, diagnostic replicability, user satisfaction, and multiple- specialty services.
Currently, a few projects address tele-expertise more broadly by combining telemedicine and distance learning, and trials are being conducted in Montana and Texas that encourage the integrated use of remote services in medicine, industry, law, and education, the "MILES" concept. Nonetheless because of health care cost issues and large disparities in the medical services available in different geographical areas, telemedicine has great potential impact as a National Challenge application for HPCCI technologies.
Telemedicine urgently needs several HPCCI-related technologies that can be deployed rapidly and inexpensively and that scale well. The telephone became increasingly useful as improved switching and networks enabled rapid expansion across the nation. So it is with interactive video-improved switching and networks will activate the distance-spanning benefits of the interactive video market. New technologies are being developed and deployed so rapidly and in so many different places on the globe that it may be more feasible to develop facile, high-performance translators than to struggle for standards.
Transparent technologies must be developed to enable a physician to efficiently store and easily retrieve salient clinical moments without distracting from the clinical challenge at hand. Learning how to build large-scale systems, like learning how to build high- performance ones, requires research; it is not simply a matter of deploying lots of boxes and wires.
Envisioned for an advanced national information infrastructure is the interconnection of a much larger number and variety of networks than are interconnected today, with more nodes and switches per network and new mixes of wireline and wireless transmission.
The end systems of such networks will run a much wider set of applications and call for a broader set of software-based support capabilities often referred to as "middleware. The evolutionary nature of information infrastructure also underscores the importance of engaging industry in the planning, support, and conduct of research. Advisory committees and collaborative projects are but two examples of how this engagement can be achieved. See Appendix B, Box B.
There have been many government, academic, and industry efforts, some still under way, to identify and clarify research issues associated with improving information infrastructure. The recent CSTB report Realizing the Information Future d provides a unifying conceptual framework from which it derives strategic emphases for research; a multiparty effort generated several lists of research ideas Vernon et al.
In addition, it is important to advance true communications research, including such fundamental areas as transmission, switching, coding and channel access protocols realized in electronic, optical, and wireless technologies, as well as basic computer networking research in such areas as internetworking protocols, transport protocols, flow and congestion control, and so on.
These complement and enable efforts relating to distributed computing, which tends to be concerned with the upper or applications level of a total system. See Box 2. Now is the time to explore a wide variety of technical problems, enlisting as many approaches and perspectives as possible. The broadest coordination of computing and communications research and development activities across federal agencies is the responsibility of the Committee on Information and Communications CIC under the National Science and Technology Council.
The CIC was formed in and is led by. In late, the CIC launched a strategic planning activity to provide input into the FY budget-setting process, expected to conclude in early , and inform efforts for the next 5 years. Indications from briefings based on preliminary versions of that strategic plan show a broader and richer set of concerns than previously evident. Strategic focus areas identified in preliminary materials include global-scale information infrastructure technologies, scalable systems technologies, high-confidence systems, virtual environments, user-centered interfaces and tools, and human resources and education.
The HPCCI relates at least somewhat to all of these topics, and the planning process is examining where other, mission-related agency activities can build on HPCCI as well as other activities. Key research activities are classified as components, communications, computing systems, software toolkits, intelligent systems, information management, and applications. Toward a Better Balance There is a natural evolution of the HPCCI, many aspects of which are associated with improvement of the information infrastructure.
ARPA, for example, is devoting attention to software and tools to support design and simulation for development of defense systems; its emphases on security and scalable systems both involve substantial effort relating to software. Practical experience with the HPCCI and the volatile policy context both suggest that the ideal research agenda for high-performance computing and communications should be driven by strategic priorities, but focused more broadly than on just those priorities.
A stable yet flexible approach would combine substantial focus on goals of current national importance, including directly targeted research, with a flexible program that sustains a healthy base of computing, computation, and communications science and technology. Also, the commendable inclusion of a technology "maturity model" in CIC's preliminary strategic planning material illustrates recognition of the technology "trickle-down" phenomenon.
They seem to assume possible a larger program of basic research from industry than is. Leading-edge high-performance computing and communications technology is aimed at the most demanding customers, a niche or subset on the order of 10 percent of the larger computing and communications market.
Truly high-end systems tend to be nonstandard and to require considerable customer support, for example, which limits their market potential. It may be more appropriate, therefore, to assume that truly high-end systems are aimed at particular classes of problem for which the systems and associated software have particular value, rather than to assume that these systems will become universal. For example, better weather prediction would save an enormous amount of money and should be carried out on high-performance computers even if millions of people do not have them.
The lower end of the market will grow as parallel processing vendors reposition their products, addressing broader industrial and commercial needs for information storage and analysis, multimedia servers, data mining, and intelligent transactions systems. Changes in the organization of these industries, plus the inherent difficulties incumbent companies face in using research results, prevent companies from undertaking the kind of large-scale, long-range research needed to tackle the challenges inherent in advancing the HPCCI objectives or the broader objectives associated with information infrastructure.
This concern is almost impossible to substantiate, because it is inherently intuitive, albeit shaped by expert judgment and the experience of committee members working in or with a variety of computing and communications companies, and because the results of current trends will not be evident for several years. Network connections, research tools, and delivery of educational products appear to motivate the broadest interagency activity within the HPCCI context, helping to extend collaborations beyond the conduct of research per se and into a wider circle of agencies.
Through its accomplishments and esprit de corps, the HPCCI has become a model for multiagency collaboration. These conditions have enabled the initiative to grow and adapt relatively quickly to changing national needs, technology prospects, and the fit between the two. These intangible qualities are widely recognized within the computing and communications research community.
The level of interagency coordination observed today took time to grow. As one might expect when organizations with different missions, budgets, and cultures are faced with a joint task, the HPCCI agencies have disagreed on issues of emphasis and approach over the years. What is important for the future of the HPCCI, however, is not that differences have arisen but rather that legitimate differences owing to varying missions have been respected, and cooperation and coordination have improved over time.
BOX 2. Research is concentrated mainly in four areas see Appendix B for more details and context : 1. Optical networks the longest-term research , 2. Gigabit networking medium-term research , 3. Multimedia communications fairly near-term research , and 4. Internetwork scaling near- and medium-term applied research. NSF and ARPA have jointly funded the gigabit testbed research program, which involves demonstration of cross-country gigabit networking technologies.
This broader participation better positions the HPCCI to support development and application of computing and communications technologies essential to improving the nation's information infrastructure. However, as reflected in both executive and congressional efforts to promote such. The diversity of the HPCCI approach allows many views to compete, first for funding, later in the evolution of thinking among researchers, and finally in the marketplace.
The diversity in approach and tactics makes it less likely that the nation will miss some important approach. It also facilitates participation by a variety of agencies, which tend to have different styles as well as emphases for supporting research or procuring technology, consistent with their different missions, histories, and cultures.
More specifically, NASA's FY HPCCI effort includes integrated multidisciplinary computational aerospace vehicle design and multidisciplinary modeling and analysis of earth and space science phenomena Holcomb, Coordinating Structure The coordinating structure of the HPCCI has evolved steadily, largely in response to external pressures for improved visibility of decision making, requirements for accountability for expenditures, and the flow of information into and out of the initiative.
Some HPCCI observers have continued to argue for a more uniform approach to related activities with thorough planning, precise milestones, and presumably no wasted effort, in a more centralized program. This is the essence of early criticism lodged by the Computer Systems Policy Project and Drawbacks of Centralization The central question about coordination is whether the special vitality of HPCCI would survive and whether centralized control would convey sufficient benefits, or merely disrupt current arrangements.
A more centralized approach would have several drawbacks that could vitiate the. Moreover, because much of the existing effort involves previously existing programs, there is a risk that agencies would not participate in a program that involved a loss of their control to a more centralized authority.
This concern, probably paramount to the agencies, arises from the recognition that much of the funding associated with the HPCCI is not new, just classified as relevant to the initiative. A virtue of the current arrangement is that the central coordination is provided by a relatively small entity that lacks the resources for micromanagement. That approach maximizes the benefits provided by a diverse group of agencies. Congress, and numerous representatives from the private sector.
Actual appropriations for the initiative are made in the regular appropriation bills for each participating agency. Under the umbrella of the HPCCIT, several working groups have been formed to help guide and coordinate activities within the five components of the initiative.
For example, the Information Infrastructure Technology and Applications Task Group, established in , has encouraged and coordinated participating agencies' plans for research and development aimed at providing needed technologies and capabilities for an enhanced nationwide information infrastructure and the National Challenge applications.
The Science and Engineering Computing Working Group coordinates activities and software development relating to Grand Challenge applications. The direct operating expenses of the NCO are jointly borne by the participating agencies in proportion to their HPCCI budgets, and further support is provided by the interagency detailing of staff to the NCO for varying periods of time.
In addition to providing general administrative functions such as payroll and personnel administration, the National Library of Medicine also contributes specialized assistance such as public information functions, budget preparation, legislative analysis and tracking, graphic arts services, procurement, and computing and communications support.
The NCO was established to aid interagency cooperation and to serve as liaison for the initiative to the Congress, other levels of government, universities, industry, and the public. It assists the mission agencies in coordinating their separate programs, offering a forum through which the separate agencies can learn of each other's needs, plans, and actions. As part of its coordinating function, the NCO gathers information about the HPCCI activities of different agencies and helps to make this information available to Congress, industry, and the public.
Strengthening the NCO. The public debate over the HPCCI attests to the need for improved communication regarding the initiative's purpose and accomplishments. As authorized in the High-Performance Computing Act, the NCO was to have been assisted by an advisory committee that could provide regular infusions of ideas from industry and academia.
To date, the HPCCI has been led mostly by computing visionaries and by people active in science and science applications. That is the right kind of leadership to drive the creation of enabling technology and to create computer architectures that are appropriate for the pursuit of science objectives. But the initiative now also needs the perspective on applications and on making computing and communications technologies more usable that would be provided by an advisory committee of recognized experts with membership balanced between academia and industry, and balanced with respect to application areas and the core technologies underlying the HPCCI.
Industry input into such issues as standards, security, reliability, and accounting, for example, becomes more important as advancing the information infrastructure and "high-confidence systems" come to drive more of the research agenda. In lieu of having an advisory committee, the NCO has taken the initiative to convene some industry and other groups to obtain focused input on HPCCI-related issues and directions.
In conjunction with its regular meetings with federal HPCCI agency representatives, the NCO has engaged in dialogues with representatives of the computer systems, software, and telecommunications industries; managers of academic computing centers; and others; and it has held a similar discussion with representatives of the mass information storage industry.
However, NCO leadership notes that given the restrictions on external interactions imposed by the Federal Advisory Committee Act, the absence of an official advisory committee prevents it from obtaining needed input on an ongoing basis, limiting it instead to one-time interactions and thus foregoing the insights that can arise where parties benefit from repeated interactions. The committee echoed the NCO's concern by recommending in its interim report that the long-awaited HPCCI advisory committee be established immediately.
This National Research Council committee thinks that solution might work, but it urges some action now. Understanding the Changing Management Context. Actions taken to reinforce the NCO must account for the larger, evolving administrative and management context in which the NCO fits.
A key component of that context is the CIC. It receives limited staff support from OSTP and, presumably, from agency-based staff members. Its members include directors of computer- and communications-related research units from across the federal government. Their participation in the CIC provides information exchange and coordination, but the CIC is not an implementation entity.
Planning, coordination, and management for the HPCCI have been further confounded by the rise of additional bodies to address technology policy and other policy relating to the NII initiative. Its focus is supposed to. This proliferation of cross-agency entities itself presents many possibilities for confusion. Moreover, by all accounts-from virtually every HPCCI official the committee has heard from and from several private-sector parties-the processes of communication and decision making have been slowed by a calendar-filling profusion of meetings.
This situation raises basic practical questions of what work can get done, when, how, and by whom, when committee meetings appear to be the order of the day. The overall level has been subject to misunderstanding. When the HPCCI was proposed in the executive budget for FY , the agencies involved identified from their existing FY activities a base that contributed to the goals of the program.
The HPCCI's multiagency budget is more complex than it would be had the program been started "from scratch" within a single agency. Although complexity is inherent in multiagency programs and budgets, it has added to the confusion about spending priorities and accomplishments for the initiative. In each subsequent year, agencies have added to this base in two ways: 1 by identifying additional existing programs that contribute to HPCCI goals and 2 by reprogramming and relabeling agency funds to support relevant aspects of the HPCCI.
To this base of "identified" activities, Congress has added some funding each year for new activities or the expansion of existing efforts. It is difficult to determine exactly how large each element is and to make interagency comparisons, because each agency has used slightly different approaches for identifying existing efforts and somewhat different formats for supporting program and budgetary detail.
Also, this situation has allowed some agencies e. See Flamm ; this book discusses the major computer development projects of the s, s, and s and their dependence on government stimulus and combined government, university, and industry development of technology. In turn, the use of multiple microprocessors in large-scale parallel machines also exposed problems that would have to be resolved for microprocessors as the dominant computing element.
See Zatner , pp. KSR suffered from an accounting scandal, then had to contend with 12 class-action shareholder lawsuits Snell, The impact of the lack of software has also been implicated as an indicator of management ineffectiveness in the fates of TMC and KSR Lewis, Indeed, talk of the next hurdle, the petaflop system, has already begun. The report is said to argue that that goal can be met at reasonable cost in 20 years using today's paradigms. See Anthes , p. Such a capability would provide a significant stimulus to commercial development of a prototype high-end commercial HPC system of the future.
The fundamental computer unit is the microprocessor, which today has a peak speed of around megaflops. It seems premature to build a 3, processor teraflop machine in , but as the microprocessors increase in speed to I to 2 gigaflops by the late s, it seems reasonable that to processor teraflop machines may be built if the economics of users and their applications require it.
For example, Kenneth Kliewer, director of the Center for Computational Sciences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, was quoted in December as saying: "The scale here is clearly a function of time, but we could have nearly a teraflop computer today by coupling the Oak Ridge and Los Alamos computers with the ones from Cornell and Maui" Rowell, In November , a new product announcement by Japan's NEC indicated that the maximum configuration, with a total of processors, could be rated at a theoretical peak of 1 teraflop Parker-Smith, b.
The committee notes that if trends at the NSF supercomputer centers continue, the MetaCenter which pools some of the centers' resources could achieve an aggregate teraflop in mid-FY and each center would reach a peak teraflop machine by the end of FY By contrast, even the aggregate performance would not reach a teraflop until after the year if acquisition of higher- performance architectures were to revert to pre-HPCCI levels.
The HPCCI also triggered considerable debate about what broad availability means-what capabilities, in what locations, accessible by whom and at what cost-anticipating the more recent debates about how universal service in telecommunications should evolve.
The telephone achievement was to multiplex about 25, Kbps voice conversations onto a transmission line operating at 1. The gigabit testbeds have demonstrated end-to-end speeds between two computers of about Mbps, limited by the internal bus speeds of the computers, not the network.
He noted an increase from 3, numerical observations per day for Kansas in to 86, daily observations, many from automated instruments. He observed that teraflop computing helped reduce processing times to 90 seconds per modeled month, yielding 1, modeled months in 30 hours of processing time. Briefings to the committee. For example, in addressing networking, PL also anticipated many of the practical concerns associated with enhancements and expansion of the nation's information infrastructure, such as user charging and protection of intellectual property rights.
See CSTB for a discussion of national challenges within computing. See also CSTB for a discussion of methods of combining intrinsic problems with problems inspired by needs in other areas. The lengthy time scales associated with developing complex computer-based systems are outlined in CSTB a. The format of the project and program records in that volume provides a basis for subsequent efforts to assess progress. The NCO management has expressed some interest in tracking progress relative to plan elements.
The NSF infrastructure program was motivated by the recognition in the late s of major deficiencies in the academic environment for experimental computer science and engineering. The initial stimulus was the report by Feldman and Sutherland When that report was written, the discipline of computer science and engineering was perceived to be in crisis: faculty members were underpaid relative to research positions in industry and were leaving universities at an increasing rate; the number of new Ph.
There have been very substantial increases in the number of departments producing strong experimental research, the number of departments producing strong students in experimental areas, the number of departments conducting leading-edge research in a significant number of areas, the overall rate of Ph. It also analyzes reviews to verify trustworthiness. No customer reviews. There are 0 customer reviews and 1 customer rating. There's a problem loading this menu right now.
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