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Both municipalities and grid companies expected the customers to have some preparedness. The household meant that they lacked any responsibility to be prepared for an outage even if they need to be prepared to survive during the power loss. When it comes to economical compensation the grid companies meant that the compensation should cover the extra costs that the households had during an outage.
The household thought that the compensation paid should cover the suffering that the households experienced due to not having electricity. On top of that the households felt they should have compensation for their expenses. World 3 consist of regulation and social networks.
The networks between municipalities and grid companies differ. Some municipalities totally lacked cooperation and coordination with the grid companies, while others had established personal contacts and deep relations. Through the networks the municipalities could influence how the companies prioritize when they repaired the grid.
The municipalities with well developed networks also had more knowledge and were better informed than municipalities lacking contacts. The households where not represented in any networks. The municipalities and companies instead developed different tools to inform the households such as Internet. The household used their networks consisting of neighbours and friends to be informed during black-outs.
Neighbours' knowledge of each other is an important aspect of the emergency management in the rural areas. Municipalities' involvement in networks also influence if the municipality had priority lists or not. Municipalities engaged in networks with the energy companies had made priority lists.
Municipalities without such involvement lacked priority lists and thought that it was not possible to make prioritizations between users. Carbon and nitrogen pools in soil and vegetation at afforestation of a cutover peatland; Kol- och kvaevefoerraad i mark och vegetation vid beskogning av en avslutad torvtaekt.
There are a number of land-use alternatives for cutover peat areas after finished peat cutting. One land-use alternative is afforestation. In this investigation it was studied how drainage, soil treatments including fertilization, and plantation affected the carbon storage 20 years later. Peat was harvested on 34 hectare of this mire up to The major part of the cutover area was abandoned until when after-use activities started.
The depth of the remaining peat varied between a few decimeters up to about two meters. Prior to any soil measures, determination of peatland conditions was carried out. Important to this investigation was, a priori, the carbon store, i. Therefore, peat depth was thoroughly investigated on 14 hectares of the cutover area in summer The remaining peat was also sampled at different depths within 18 plots of the whole cutover peat area.
These samples were analyzed on i. As bulk density also was determined, the amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the remaining peat could be estimated. A very good correlation was found between peat depth and the carbon pool in the peat.
After-use activities included two afforestation projects that in the beginning of the 's were set up on the abandoned peat cutover area. One project was a conventional pine plantation on 19 hectares, where the effects of different drain spacings and PK-fertilizer doses were studied.
The other project was an intensively managed forest experiment carried out on 14 hectares. This area was first drained and then fertilized with on average 23 tonnes of wood fly ash, 0. The applied fertilizers and the uppermost cm of the peat were then mixed by a tractor-drawn rotovator in one meter wide strips. In these strips, on the 97 established plots, six different tree species were planted.
In autumn , twenty years after the establishment of the intensively managed forest experiment, peat depth was measured in totally 49 plots on the two afforestation experimental areas. Peat was sampled from up to 6 depths on 30 plots and analyzed on bulk density, and concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. On 48 plots the tree biomass were estimated by measurement of breast height diameter on trees within ca m2 sample plots.
At the intense cultivation area, the peat depth was on average 8 cm smaller in autumn compared to the depth in summer If the humus layer with an accumulation of on average 4. The carbon pool in the peat had decreased by on average 2.
With the humus layer included the decrease was only 0. The total tree biomass above and under ground contained on average 5. However, the variation was large between the plots within this area. Some plots showed a negative carbon balance, but most plots showed a net accumulation of carbon during these 20 years.
This investigation shows that already 20 years after drainage and an extensive soil treatment including fertilization and rotovation, and planting on an abandoned peat cutover area, the carbon balance can be positive, i. Thus, afforestation of abandoned peat harvested areas can be one after-use activity to increase the carbon pool in these ecosystems in a long term perspective. Financial Control and Safety. An investigation on how financial and safety aspects are integrated in the decision making at the Swedish nuclear power plants; Ekonomistyrning och saekerhet.
En utredning om hur ekonomi- och saekerhetsaspekter integreras vid beslutsfattandet vid kaernkraftverken. The alleged inter-relationship between economy and nuclear safety has been investigated. Through interviews and review of instructions and other documents, information on how management at Swedish nuclear power plants integrates financial control and safety management has been compiled.
Owners of nuclear power plants have well founded expectations on that the plants are profitable and that the operations are rationalized in order to reduce costs. This could allegedly threaten the nuclear safety.
However, it is not to be expected that there are any obvious relationships between expenditures and safety. The quality of the safety management has to be judged in terms of how well safety requirements are met irrespective of the associated costs. The owners have imposed clear financial objectives on the nuclear power plants.
At the same time they have also established policies for nuclear safety. The nuclear power plants have systems for operations management, which basically comprise separate parts for operations planning and quality management. Financial control and safety management are included in the operations planning and quality management respectively. The quality management impose restrictions to be adhered to in the operations planning.
This means that from a formal point of view, the safety management is superior to the operations planning. There are examples of simple as well as advanced approaches to financial management at the nuclear power plants. In all cases the methods used are reasonably well adapted to the needs. Typical for all plants is the focus on long-term aspects. Investments are for example analysed in a plant life-time perspective.
With regard to safety, profitability calculations are not required to the same extent for safety related investments as for other investments. A number of factors, which tend to warrant that safety aspects are given the appropriate attention in the decision making, have been identified. Examples of such factors are the involvement of cross functional teams and external parties in the decision process, detailed and unambiguous instructions in the quality system and follow-up by organizational entities, which are independent of the line organization.
In concerns related to the prioritization of financial control at the expense of safety were expressed at one nuclear power plant and management took action on this. There now appears to be a unanimous opinion at all Swedish nuclear power plants that safety really has a higher priority than financial control and that this is well reflected in company policies and in the systems for operations management.
Above reference has only been made to the formal operations management. A common remark has been that the adherence to the quality system depends on the safety culture. In order to safeguard that the safety culture remains unaffected by any changes related the norms and values concerning economy, the safety culture should to a large extent be based on safety related institutional activities.
Authority review of the financial control at the nuclear power plants should focus on that the quality system really is superior to the operations management. In addition, when reviewing the safety culture, the existence of stabilizing institutional safety related activities should be checked.
Attitudes and participation at establishment of wind power offshore; Attityder och delaktighet vid etablering av vindkraft till havs. Waldo, Aasa Inst. Waldo soc. Wind power has previously been regarded as small-scale in character, as it has often been built as small groups of windmills. In recent years, wind power projects on a larger scale have been developed and established, making wind power more significant for the local community and its inhabitants.
The present report is based on a study of views expressed by locals as regards offshore wind power. The report aims at examining the coordination between different stakeholders; decision-makers, communities and entrepreneurs concerning two wind power projects: Lillgrund in The Sound Oeresund , and Utgrunden II in the Kalmar Strait Kalmarsund.
The report is intended to provide an understanding of attitudes and perceptions of risks and possibilities of various local stakeholders in these two cases. Conceptual tools are borrowed from our own studies as well as other researchers' previous studies of attitudes, values, and forms of public participation. Since the study objective has been to seek the stakeholders' own formulations of problems and opportunities concerning the projects, we have used a qualitative research design.
Three types of techniques have been used to gather information: document analysis, field observations and in-depth interviews. Positive as well as negative attitudes towards the two wind power projects have been analyzed in both regions. The positive attitude is mainly based on ethical values, and for some also on material values projects can create jobs and economic growth in the local community. The negative attitude is partly based on aesthetic values and a combination of substantive and ethical values wind power is seen as unprofitable and inefficient.
The analysis shows that there is need for increased knowledge, both through the provision of facts about economic and technical conditions of wind power and, by better understanding of local stakeholders' conceptions of wind power projects. Criticism of wind power is largely based on a view that it could not be an effective way to produce energy, and that it could not possibly bear its own costs.
Thus, wind power entrepreneurs should clearly show environmental benefits, profitability and efficiency in a specific project draft. Moreover, negative emotions towards wind power projects are closely associated with aesthetic values. How people perceive the relative weight between opportunities and risks of the wind power establishment should be taken as a central part of the dialogue related to wind energy projects.
It is crucial that the risks experienced by various stakeholders are identified and get substantial room in the planning and decision-making process, even if the entrepreneurs or authorities do not share these risk perceptions. In the local context, views of opportunities may function as a counter-weight to the negative effects that may be associated with the wind power project.
It is highly preferable that these opportunities be identified in dialogue with the local community, and elucidated by the entrepreneurs and authorities. In this study, as well as in previous studies, it has been evident that limited potential for the local society to participate in the planning and decision process often overshadows the final result, in this case the physical wind power plant.
The two projects studied were based on central political decisions. Given the increased role that wind power is supposed to play in Swedish energy supply, it is perhaps inevitable that some decisions are taken centrally. Yet, this entails limitations concerning the possibilities of participating and influencing the planning and decision-making process. Moreover, the high, political level of certain decisions is a challenge for entrepreneurs in creating public participation in such parts of the issue that people find meaningful to engage in.
However, the possibility of using municipal veto against wind power projects is one main principle where influence can be exercised on a local level. This principle creates pressure on central authorities to secure support for the national objectives of wind power expansion, and on the entrepreneurs to get support for specific projects in the local community.
Our analysis shows the importance of people knowing about a plant early in the process - and indeed to be part of some decision making - to create legitimacy for the process, and ultimately legitimacy for the specific wind farm. In order to create participation it is important to have a dialogue where all participants take part in the discussion with an open mind to new facts and perspectives, and that all experiences and concerns are treated with respect.
In this report we have stressed the economic part as being a potential for active, local involvement in wind energy issues. From this study however, we want to emphasize the importance of distinguishing between different forms of economic participation. Evaluation of biomass fuel sampling in heat and power plants; Utvaerdering av mekanisk och manuell provtagning av biobraensle vid energiverk.
This report describes bias-test of manual and mechanical sampling systems of bio-fuels at 6 Swedish plants. Two parallel series of 30 samples each were taken at each plant. One series of samples was taken by the normal procedure. The samples of the other series were taken by a reference method.
Either by stopped belt and taking a full cut using a sampling frame or by manual increment division of a whole truck-load was used with the assistance of a pay-loader. The rectangular pile formed was divided in squares. Some of the sampling systems gave biased samples. This was due to drawing too small increments, having too small openings of the sampling tools and making errors in sample preparation.
Determination of moisture was more accurate than determination of ash content. Ash is more heterogeneously distributed in biofuels than moisture. Ash bearing components as clay or stone segregate easily. Although the project has not been able to show that mechanical sampling gives a more representative moisture sampling than manual sampling, it is recommended to invest in mechanical sampling if possible.
The reason for this is to reduce the risk of human error and for safety reasons. Bag filters at biofuelled plants, reliability and economy of operation; Slangfilter vid bioeldade anlaeggningar, tillfoerlitlighet och driftsekonomi. The background to this work is the increased requirements on dust emission control for smaller MW biofuel plants in Sweden, where established technology consisting of multi cyclones cannot meet the emission demands, and where the specific cost of the large scale established technology electrostatic precipitators quickly increases with decreased plant size.
Operational experience of bag filters on Swedish biofuel plants down to a size of 2 MW has been collected. The operational experience is remarkably uniform and positive and availability is high. Bag life, being the most important operational cost factor, is between two and eleven years.
Most frequent material used is aramide, but also PPS is employed and the experience of both materials is good. The cost relation between bag filter including an upstream skimmer and electrostatic precipitator has been studied based on supplier quotations. Bag filter always has the lowest first cost. At one year bag life, the total cost of a bag filter is less than that for an electrostatic precipitator for plants smaller than 15 MW, and at more than one year's bag life, the bag filter has the lowest total cost for plants up to 50 MW.
For plants smaller than MW, the difference in total cost is very high. With some simple means for quality assurance of new bags, premature failure rate can be reduced. Since bag filters are more prone to damage by fire than electrostatic precipitators, the process of damage due to entrained sparks has been analysed based on practical observations and a thermal calculation.
This consideration shows that this damage mode can be eliminated by an upstream skimmer having moderate but reliable performance. The result is well in coherence with the practical operational experience found that with an adequate skimmer upstream, the failure becomes much less probable.
Radioactive discharges and environmental monitoring at the Swedish nuclear facilities ; Utslaepps- och omgivningskontroll vid de kaerntekniska anlaeggningarna This report contains an evaluation of the discharge and environmental programme for the Swedish nuclear facilities. It also contains the work on quality control performed by SSI. This is done as random sampling of discharge water and environmental samples.
Energy and water saving measures at the Arloev sugar mill. Final report; Energi- och vattenbesparande aatgaerder vid Arloevs Sockerbruk. The project comprised several, mutually dependent, sub-projects; mapping, investigation of ways to reduce water consumption, membrane tests aiming to find ways to recover sugar, and pinch analysis to evaluate the possibilities for improved process integration.
This final report deals with the overall project results. Identified savings opportunities and savings potentials are presented. The presented measures represent an overall optimisation based on the results of all the project parts. This saving is in level with the goals for the project. Also in the membrane study the results surpassed the expectations. In total, a savings potential of more than tonnes sugar per year is indicated.
Hence, the results are almost three times the expected. The savings in monetary terms are estimated at just under SEK 5 million per year. The investment is roughly estimated at between SEK 5 and 6 million, of which SEK 4 million for the membrane equipment and SEK 0,5 million for a process water buffer tank. The remaining investment costs cover heat exchangers, control equipment and piping.
This means that the total package will have a payback time of approximately one year. The environmental benefits of this project are mainly a result of the reduced energy consumption. This leads to a 1 tonne reduction of carbon dioxide emissions annually from reduced natural gas firing. Furthermore, the results indicate possibilities for a profitable reduction of oxygen depleting substances by over tonnes sugar annually.
In addition, the reduction of water consumption by cubic meters per year results in reduced electricity and chemicals consumption in both water and sewage treatment plants. Facebook applikationsutveckling : En analys och guide. Arcada har redan en tid haft en Facebook-sida. Detta examensarbete analyserar applikationen jag gjort tillsamma I den empiriska delen ha Detta har lett fram till en rekommendation om vilka aktivi The two-source illusion: How vidding practices changed Jonathan McIntosh's political remix videos [symposium.
Full Text Available In an interview with Henry Jenkins, Jonathan McIntosh named fannish vidding as a key influence on two of his more recent video remixes. I took a more detailed look at precisely how these two videos intertwine vidding practices with those of political remix video PRV, and to what effect. I ungdomstidningar kan man se tecken p Nuclear Energy, Geothermal Energy and the Environment.
Kaernenergi, geotermisk energi och miljoe. Underlagsrapporter till rapport om miljoeeffekter och risker vid utnyttjandet av energi fraan Expertgruppen foer saekerhet och miljoe. This volume contains reports on uranium mining, working conditions in the different stages of the nuclear fuel cycle, risks at storage of spent fuel elements, environmental impact of future reactor technology, effects of waste heat disposal and risks at geothermal energy extraction in Sweden.
These reports have been use by the expert group to produce their final paper. Samtidspoesin och Derrida. I also sketch an historical line between t Small-scale power production for sustainable development. Households', Utilities' and Retailers' experiences from the market for small-scale solar panels and wind turbines; Smaaskalig elproduktion foer en haallbar utveckling. Hushaalls, energibolags och aaterfoersaeljares erfarenheter av marknaden foer smaaskaliga solpaneler och vindturbiner.
In this report, a special form of small scale renewable solutions marketed towards Swedish households is targeted. During the autumn the Swedish companies 'Egen El i Stockholm AB' 'Egen El' and 'Home Energy' launched a concept with small scale wind turbines and solar cells that the households connect to the electricity socket so that the own produced electricity can be used directly.
The purpose with this report is to analyze how users, retailers and grid companies look upon such small scale production of electricity and discuss what institutional effects own produced energy could have on the electricity market.
The main research method used was in-depth interviews. We conducted interviews with representatives of eight retail companies, five grid companies, the industry organization Swedenergy, IKEA Greentech, and 20 households. A main conclusion is that the market concerning households small scale production of electricity is still immature. Though, the media attention that Egen El relieved during spring has made more households aware of the concept and householders increased interest in the concept is also recognized by other retailers and amongst the grid companies.
According to the retailers, it is still hard to make a living from selling these kind of products to household. Nevertheless, they are optimistic and believe that the changes in regulations concerning small scale production of electricity and IKEA's investment in PVs will improve the situation. The grid companies, too, have a positive outlook. Though, they stress a number of problems that could occur with many households producing their own electricity. This is mainly related to security and whether the grid will be able to handle this produced electricity.
As for the households, environmental concerns supply the main motive for adopting PVs or micro wind power generation. In some cases, the adopting households have an extensively ecological lifestyle, so such adoption represents a way to take action in the energy area.
This investment is symbolic for some, displaying environmental consciousness to others - to set an example. For still others, the adoption is a protest against 'the system' with its large dominant actors or is a way to become self-sufficient. Such micro-generation installations are rejected mainly on economic grounds; other motives are respect for neighbours and difficulties finding a place to install a wind turbine. For these solutions to reach a majority of Swedish households, some important measures are needed to be implemented to eliminate the economic hindrances and to simplify the rules and installation process.
Millennials och baby boomers attityder till fake news : Generationernas upplevelser av nyhetsmediers sanningshalt. The thermal decomposition of methyl and ethyl formates has been extensively studied due to their importance in the oxidation of several fuels, pesticidal properties and their presence in interstellar space.
We hitherto present the study of the thermal decomposition of methyl and ethyl fluoroformates, which could help in the elucidation of the reaction mechanisms. The reaction mechanisms were studied using FTIR spectroscopy in the temperature range of K in the presence of different pressures of N2 as bath gas. However for ethyl formate, only direct elimination of CO2, HF and ethylene operates. The difference between the mechanisms of the two fluoroformates relies on the stabilization of a six-centered transition state that only exists for ethyl formate.
First principles calculations for the different channels were carried out to understand the dynamics of the decomposition. Gymnasierektors ledarskapsparadox: att vara verksamhetschef och pedagogisk utvecklare. Practical consequences of the Water Framework Directive implementation for combustion plants. New water cleaning technologies and methods for improvement of effluent discharges; Praktiska konsekvenser foer foerbraenningsanlaeggningar vid infoerandet av Vattendirektivet.
Nya reningstekniker och foerbaettringsaatgaerder vid utslaepp till vatten. As a consequence of the growing impact on water resources the Water Framework Directive was legislated in The directive should ensure that a 'good water status' and entail a coordinated legislation striving for a long-term protection of all water resources.
Stakeholders should be able to participate in the preparations of river basin management plans and programs of measures. District based water authorities will administrate the implementation and are mandated to decide upon regional environmental quality standards and promulgate fees for water use and discharges. The Directive contains a list of 33 prioritized substances that should be reduced or phased out. Discharges from combustion plants contain twelve, polyaromatic hydrocarbons PAH and heavy metals.
PAH and heavy metals impacts growth and vital functions as respiration and photosynthesis of water living organisms and induces cancer in humans. Flue gas condensate contains concentrations of some of the substances which impact exceeds the critical state level. Extended sewage treatment could thus be needed. Sludge, wash and soot water contains elevated levels of heavy metals. This water is normally treated by municipal sewage treatment.
Further treatment at plant site could be relevant. Presence of PAH and heavy metals in leach water depends on the precipitation. Additional flowing-independent water treatment could be relevant. It is very uncertain how plant owners will be affected. Licenses could be reviewed and standards could be raised for sensitive recipients; new limits for prioritized substances and standards for other types of discharges and water fees could be added.
Respites could be given if costs exceed the benefits. Location, ecotoxicological risk assessments and precautionary measures could become more relevant in an EIA. Pricing of water could take place by using a system of emissions trading. Plant owners could make an impact by participating in development of environmental quality standards plans and programs by representation in public consultations and cooperative groups.
Methods for improvement to meet the new standards are presented in the categories fuel, combustion, flue gas- and flue gas condensate treatment. The prioritized substances shouldn't be introduced or generated in the system to avoid costly investments of advanced technologies. Heavy metals are reduced by the choice of fuel and complete combustion generates less PAH. Both of the substances could be reduced by the separation of particles. An example of an appropriateness assessment according to a model considering the overall plant conditions including technological, economic and organizational aspects is demonstrated.
For a 'standard plant' the best choice of fuel would be wood chips combined with stable combustion. Given the prerequisites of the model, the most appropriate flue gas treatment were a bag filter without chemical dosing and the most appropriate flue gas condensate-, slug-, wash-, and soot water treatment would be sand- or lamella filter with pH-adjustment, together with leach water treatment by sedimentation and sand filter.
As an expression of cultural industries digitalization music, video on demand, digital book Arkitekturer i operativsystem : en fallstudie i monolitisk och micro kernel. Den tekniska utvecklingen driver fram allt mer avancerade datorsystem. Micro kern Small micro wind turbines electricity production in Denmark are calculated based on estimates of wind speed, experience from the United Kingdom and power curves Weight reduction, energy loss and gaseous emissions for different collection systems for food waste from households; Viktreducering, energifoerlust och gasemissioner vid olika insamlingssystem av matavfall fraan hushaall.
This project investigates the weight reduction of biodegradable household waste for different types of collections systems. The report is based on empirical experiments simulating the path taken by biodegradable waste through the different systems, from kitchen to final treatment.
Data from the empirical experiments have been coordinated with existing data covering the quantities of bio waste collection received by final treatment facilities. This project has resulted in updated data, which reflects the quantities of the biodegradable waste generated at household level. Through this data, it has been possible to calculate the effectiveness of the different systems for collecting biodegradable waste, including their effectiveness as a source for biogas and soil conditioner.
One-family household containers also show a reduction but for multiple households contains typically used for apartment blocks the reduction was much smaller. The largest share of the reduction consists of water, but some carbon is also emitted. Another conclusion of the report it that a larger share of the biodegradable waste generated by the Swedish households is collected than previously assumed.
The data for generated collected biodegradable waste material shows higher levels and larger differences between the different collection systems than the data for the received weighted material at the treatment facilities. The data shows the effectiveness of each system and is significant for the biogas extraction levels and soil conditioner qualities.
It is desirable that a large share of the biodegradable household waste is collected, both from an environmental perspective as well as in order to meet the Swedish national targets for biodegradable waste collection. Correlating existing data with data from the empirical experiments shows that kg of biodegradable waste is collected from households using a paper bag-based system and kg from household using a plastic bag-based system.
The equivalent amount of bio waste is reduced in the combustible waste. However, there is no significant difference in methane content per collected amount of bio waste between the methods. The data sample for bioplastic bags is too small in order to be included in the comparison.
The carbon dioxide emissions show that a decomposition process of biodegradable waste is occurring in all types of collection systems. The nitrous oxide emissions are most likely negligible from an environmental perspective, although the results are not statistically verified.
No measurable emission levels of methane can be detected, which is very encouraging from an environmental perspective. Calibrations and evaluation of the quality assurance during at the National Laboratory for ionising radiation; Kalibrerings- och normalieverksamheten vid Riksmaetplats 06 under The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute is the National Laboratory for the dosimetric quantities kerma, absorbed dose and dose equivalent.
The activity is based on established calibration procedures and a quality assurance program for the used standards. This report gives a brief summary of the calibrations performed during and a more detailed description and analysis of the quality assurance during this year. The report makes it easier to draw conclusions about the long-term stability and possible malfunctions.
Influence of sulphur addition on emissions of organic substances during combustion; Inverkan av formen av svaveladditiv paa emissionerna av kolmonoxid och organiska aemnen vid foerbraenning. Reduction of emissions of carbon monoxide and organic substances by injecting either ammonium sulphate or elemental sulphur and the importance of the point of injection has been investigated in full scale in a grate-fired bark boiler.
The effect was monitored downstream of the economizer and air preheater, immediately upstream of the electrostatic precipitator. All concentrations of substances of interest here fluctuate in concert and peak simultaneously. The relationship between the concentrations is not straightforward: there appears to be a threshold in carbon monoxide concentration.
Below this threshold, the concentration of organics is low and above it concentrations increase rapidly with increasing carbon monoxide concentration. It has been confirmed that using sulphur additives not only reduces the concentration of carbon monoxide, but also that of organic substances in the flue gases. These additives do not only reduce the mean level of concentrations, but also dampen the fluctuations in these concentrations. Any measure leading to a reduction in carbon monoxide will also decrease the concentration of most organics, under the conditions prevalent in this boiler.
Both additives tested are equally effective per kg of pure sulphur. The point of injection, in the fuel or above the grate, is not important. Here, the effect is masked by the variation of data. The PAH concentration is lowered by an injection of sulphur additives. The variation in data is though rather large, which may be caused by variation in particle content in the gas samples.
According to Swedish regulations the effective dose to an individual in the critical group, from one year of releases of radioactive substances to air and water from all facilities located in the same geographically delimited area, shall not exceed 0. The effective dose, which concerns the dose from external radiation and the committed effective dose from internal radiation, shall be integrated over a period of 50 years. When calculating the dose to individuals in the critical group, both children and adults shall be taken into consideration.
If the calculated dose exceeds 0. SSI has not defined any radionuclide specific discharge limits. Limitation of releases is being implemented through the restriction of dose to the critical group members. For each nuclear facility, e. The factors have been calculated for hypothetical critical groups, and take into consideration local dispersion conditions in air and in the environment, local settlements, local production of food-stuffs as well as moderately conservative assumptions on diet and contribution of locally produced food-stuff to the diet of the group.
Discharges shall be controlled through the measurement of representative samples for each release pathway. The analyses shall include nuclide-specific measurements of gamma and alpha-emitting radioactive substances as well as, where relevant, strontium and tritium. Even so, the concentration of radionuclides in the discharges is relatively high compared to the similar facilities abroad.
The main reasons are that the Swedish NPPs are situated at the seaside of the Baltic and Kattegatt Sea respectively, and that the radionuclides are released into a larger water volume and thus disperse easily. The environmental monitoring programme is issued by the SSI and specify type of sampling, sample treatment, radionuclides considered, reporting, etc.
The site-specific monitoring programmes vary depending on the facility and are divided in a terrestrial and an aquatic part. The selection of environmental samples biota and sediments has been conducted in order to be highly representative of the area around the facility and to, preferably, be similar for all facilities. Also some of the species have been selected because they are part of the human food chain. Every year a basic programme involving spring and autumn sampling is conducted.
Furthermore, certain samples are taken on a monthly and quarterly basis. In addition to the basic programme, extended sampling is also conducted every fourth year at most of the facilities. The extended programme focuses exclusively on samples taken in the marine environment. The environmental samples consist of local flora and fauna e.
The samples are collected from either rope or plexiglass surfaces that are placed in the discharge water stream or outlet from the NPPs. These samples are collected monthly by manually scraping off the diatomic algae from the rope or plexiglass. The algae that are sampled are generally good bio accumulators for radionuclides.
This quality together with the monthly sampling in the near vicinity of the outlet point makes diatomic algae a good bio indicator for the amount og discharges radionuclides and also take into consideration their variation in time. Apart from these tables some more data and graphs are given for Oskarshamn, Studsvik, Forsmark and Ringhals. This is due to the fact that during the time period an extended sampling has taken place.
The data from environment samples shows that the discharges give low but measurable concentrations of radionuclides in samples taken in the marine vicinity of the outlet. The concentrations of radionuclides are very low. Measurements of e.
Co shows varying low concentrations for the time interval and no long-time trend can be discerned. SSI undertakes a number of checks of the measurements performed by the operator, concerning gamma emitters, alpha emitters, tritium and strontium Pooled and stabilised annual samples from each monitored waste water stream shall be sent to the SSI within three months after the end of the discharge year.
In addition a number of randomly chosen monthly samples of waste water are analysed by SSI. The annual samples are measured concerning gamma emitters and tritium by the SSI and the results are compared with the data submitted by the operators.
These measurements are conducted at the SSI laboratories. Control measurements of Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides are performed on a case by case basis at independent external laboratories. Aerosol filters shall be sent to the SSI for control measurements on request. Normally, this exercise is performed once a year, and the filters are subjected to gamma-spectrometric analyses. Environmental measurements are checked by the SSI.
A total number of up to 50 samples, obtained as sub-samples of the material analysed by the operator or the laboratory contracted by the operator, is analysed annually. All tables and all graphs have captions in both Swedish and English. Measurements, characterizing and reduction of dust during combustion of energy grain; Maetning, karaktaerisering och reduktion av stoft vid eldning av spannmaal.
There is a potential for cereal grain for combustion use in Sweden, as well as for other agricultural fuels with similar qualities. Today, grain is combusted mainly in small-scale appliances. As all fast growing crops, the ash content is higher compared to wood fuels, resulting in a higher emission of particles.
There are no limits for particle emission from appliances smaller than kW in Sweden today. Nevertheless, it is important to consider these emissions because dust from small scale combustion of biofuels is one of the larger sources of particles to air in Sweden and in Europe today. Lately, is has been observed that the ultra fine particles Electrical and control equipment in nuclear power plants.
Problems when replacing aging equipment; El och kontrollutrustning i kaernkraftverk - Problematik vid utbyte av aaldrad utrustning. Interoperability between different technical systems is more complicated when old and new technology meet, such as between analog and digital technology.
New electrical and I and C equipment is selected with consideration to simplify and improve the compatibility and interoperability. The original construction of nuclear power plants with electricity and I and C equipment had more natural interfaces. Generally experienced guidance, to the management of interoperability and interfaces, feels insufficient.
Skills transfer programs are identified as a major need, as more and more important personnel are retiring and important information is lost with them. Lack of appropriate skills directly affects the ability to produce accurate and complete requirements specification. Failure modes of newer electrical and I and C equipment are perceived as more complex than the older equipment. When choosing equipment, attempts are made to minimize unnecessary features, to reduce the number of potential failure modes.
There is a lack of consistent understanding of the meaning of robustness in electrical technology and I and C technology, in the nuclear plant engineering departments. The overall picture is that the robustness has worsened since the facilities were built. The Swedish nuclear power plants have an internal organizational structure with separated client and support organization. This splits the nuclear organization into two distinct parts which threaten to separate the two entities focus.
Engineering departments at the Swedish nuclear power plants express a need for increased expertise in the client organization blocks. Competence requested is for example, system knowledge to facilitate and enhance the quality of the initial analysis performed in the blocks. Suppliers receive more recently larger turnkey projects, both to minimize costs but also to minimize the interfaces and co-function problems.
This, however, heightens demands for knowledge transfer between suppliers and the construction, as the facility staff even after the supplier's commitment must be familiar with how the new components and systems operate. Part of this is that higher demands should be made on suppliers, concerning the documentation and to provide knowledge of new failure modes and protection features of the new equipment.
Cooperation between nuclear power plants, where the purchase to a larger degree is coordinated is increasing, and this gives the plants a greater opportunity to make greater demands on suppliers. Sealing layer of fly ashes and sewage sludge and vegetation establishment in treatment of mine tailings impoundments; Flygaska och roetslam som taetskikt vid efterbehandling av sandmagasin med vegetationsetablering.
Each year the Swedish mining industry produces 25 Mtonnes of mine tailings that are disposed of in extensive natural impoundments. As this sand, containing more or less sulphide-rich minerals, is penetrated by oxygen and water, it starts weathering resulting in formation of acidic and metal-rich drainage water.
To prevent oxygen penetration the mine tailings can be covered with a sealing layer covered with a protective cover that facilitates establishment of vegetation. The aim of this study has been to examine the function of fly ash and sewage sludge in sealing layers at impoundments of pyrite rich mine tailings, and the ability of different plant species, which are suitable for establishment in these areas, to penetrate the sealing layer with their roots and what impact they have on the drainage water.
Experiments have been performed in field and greenhouse environment, with sealing layers consisting of fly ash and sewage sludge mixtures, covered with protective covers of sewage sludge or till. Plant establishment has been studied in a survey of naturally established plants at sewage sludge disposal sites close to mining areas, and by sowing and planting of selected plants, for instance fast growing grass species and fibre hemp at the test plots in field and in greenhouse experiments.
Leakage of nutrients and metals from sealing layers has been studied in field and greenhouse tests. This investigation is a cooperation between Stockholm University and Boliden Mineral AB, and the field experiments have been performed at the mine tailings impoundments at Gillervattnet, Boliden. Other collaborating participants are Skellefteaa Kraft and Munksund, who have produced the ashes that have been used, and Stockholm Vatten AB, who has produced the sewage sludge.
The main conclusions from this study are: It is practically possible to construct a sealing layer of fly ash upon mine tailings, and to establish plants by sowing in a protective cover of sewage sludge. Transferral of plantlets into the sludge is, however, problematic. Addition of sewage sludge to ash-containing sealing layers has several drawbacks. When sewage sludge freezes it is not possible to mix with ashes and thereby form a satisfactory sealing layer, with the method used in this study.
Such sealing layer can thus not be constructed winter-time, which is the time when large amounts of ashes are produced and the mine tailings are firm enough to work upon. Furthermore, addition of sewage sludge to sealing layers increases the risk of root penetration and do not seem to have as great impact on the sealing layer permeability as has earlier been considered. Concentrations of many elements are higher in drainage water from mine waste covered with fly ash compared to drainage water from mine waste covered with sludge or mixtures of ash and sludge.
Sewage sludge thus seems to have a preventive effect on metal leakage caused by the ash. Sealing layers made of fly ash have good resistance to root penetration due to high density and high degree of packing. Moreover, many ashes are toxic to plant roots as a result of high pH and alkalinity, and high levels of toxic substances, such as heavy metals. Addition of sewage sludge increases the risk of root penetration, since the sludge contains plant nutrients, for instance nitrogen, as well as it may decrease the density and possible toxicity of the ash sealing layer.
The energy crop Reed Canary-grass generally reduces the leakage of nutrient elements from sewage sludge and fly ash, partly by decreasing the amount of drainage water, but also by changing the conditions in the substrate, for instance by changing the pH and redox potential. If the alkalinity is not too high the plant roots have an ability to decrease the pH in the plant substrate. Different plant species have varying ability to penetrate sealing layers.
Roots of Reed Canary-grass may pulverize a hardened ash layer, probably by decreasing pH and taking up water and thereby desiccating the layer. Colt's-foot and birch are plant species with lower ability to penetrate ash-containing sealing layers. By time as the ashes become aged they seem to become penetrated by roots more easily, possibly due to a decreased pH.
The conclusion from this work so far is that even though sewage sludge should not be mixed with ash in the sealing layer, due to practical difficulties and increased risk of root penetration, the presence of sewage sludge has a decreasing effect on metal levels in the drainage water. Establishment of vegetation should be performed through sowing, and plant species with low ability to penetrate sealing layers of fly ash with their roots should be chosen.
Root penetration is most efficiently prevented by thorough packing of the ash layer, which also results in a low permeability, and by using ashes with high pH and high levels of toxic substances. Exposure conditions, lung function and airway symptoms in industrial production of wood pellets. A pilot project; Exponeringsfoerhaallanden, lungfunktion och luftvaegsbesaer vid industriell produktion av traepellets. Ett pilotprojekt. Hospital Sweden. Yrkes- och miljoemedicinska kliniken; Eriksson, Kaare [Umeaa Univ.
The production of wood pellets is a relatively new branch of the Swedish wood industry and has increased during the last years. A pilot study was performed to investigate the prevalence of airway symptoms, lung function and exposure among all 39 men employed in industrial production of wood pellets at six companies.
The study included a questionnaire, medical examination, registration of nasal-PEF peak expiratory flow during a week, allergy screening Phadiatop and lung function spirometry before and after work shift. The results were compared with different reference data from other Swedish studies. Exposure measurements of monoterpenes and wood dust on filter and with a data logger DataRAM were also performed.
The study group reported a higher frequency of cough without phlegm, awakening due to breathlessness and current asthma medication compared with reference data. For five of the six participants with physician-diagnosed asthma the disease debuted before the current employment and the results did not indicate an unusual asthma morbidity.
Spirometry showed lower lung function before work shift than expected. However no difference over work shift was observed. A negative and non-significant correlation was seen between time with current work task and lung function. The study group reported a higher frequency of nasal symptoms mostly blockage, sneezing and dryness compared with reference data.
The registrations of nasal-PEF did not show any differences between work and spare time. No association between exposure wood dust and monoterpenes and acute effects on lung function was observed. The wood dust exposure 0. Peak exposures could be identified, e. The exposure to monoterpenes 0. Featuring cases and business implications from various locations, this book provides an important source of knowledge—both theoretical and practical—suitable to academics, scholars, researchers, and practitioners in the tourism sector and the wine industry.
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|Magnus anderberg kalmar investments||Karl H. Kauppakorkeakoulu, Aalto-yliopistoHelsinki, Finland. There now appears to be a unanimous opinion at all Swedish nuclear power plants that safety really has a higher magnus anderberg kalmar investments than financial control sl charting mt4 forex that this is well reflected in company policies and in the systems for operations management. Relating nitrous oxide to production of biomass this implies that forest products too, carry a 'cost' of nitrous oxide in spite of a low soil emission since the growth is smaller than in agriculture. Plant owners could make an impact by participating in development of environmental quality standards plans and programs by representation in public consultations and cooperative groups. Normally, this exercise is performed once a year, and the filters are subjected to gamma-spectrometric analyses.|
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