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THE NORTH FACE MENS CLASSIC NUPTSE VEST BLACK

The lighting fixture , through the processor , may be made to provide the various functions ascribed to the various embodiments of the invention disclosed herein. In another embodiment, the processor may be replaced by hard wiring or another type of control whereby the lighting fixture produces only a single color of light. Referring to FIG. An individual lighting fixture or a set of lighting fixtures can be provided with a data connection to one or more external devices, or, in certain embodiments of the invention, with other light modules A data connection may thus include any system or method to deliver data by radio frequency, ultrasonic, auditory, infrared, optical, microwave, laser, electromagnetic, or other transmission or connection method or system.

That is, any use of the electromagnetic spectrum or other energy transmission mechanism could provide a data connection as disclosed herein. In an embodiment of the invention, the lighting fixture may be equipped with a transmitter, receiver, or both to facilitate communication, and the processor may be programmed to control the communication capabilities in a conventional manner.

The light fixtures may receive data over the data connection from a transmitter , which may be a conventional transmitter of a communications signal, or may be part of a circuit or network connected to the lighting fixture That is, the transmitter should be understood to encompass any device or method for transmitting data to the light fixture The transmitter may be linked to or be part of a control device that generates control data for controlling the light modules In one embodiment of the invention, the control device is a computer, such as a laptop computer.

The control data may be in any form suitable for controlling the processor to control the collection of component illumination sources In one embodiment of the invention, the control data is formatted according to the DMX protocol, and conventional software for generating DMX instructions is used on a laptop or personal computer as the control device to control the lighting fixtures The lighting fixture may also be provided with memory for storing instructions to control the processor , so that the lighting fixture may act in stand alone mode according to pre-programmed instructions.

The foregoing embodiments of a lighting fixture will generally reside in one of any number of different housings. Such housing is, however, not necessary, and the lighting fixture could be used without a housing to still form a lighting fixture. A housing may provide for lensing of the resultant light produced and may provide protection of the lighting fixture and its components. A housing may be included in a lighting fixture as this term is used throughout this document.

The depicted embodiment comprises a substantially cylindrical body section , a lighting module , a conductive sleeve , a power module , a second conductive sleeve , and an enclosure plate It is to be assumed here that the lighting module and the power module contain the electrical structure and software of lighting fixture , a different power module and lighting fixture as known to the art, or as described in U.

Screws , , , allow the entire apparatus to be mechanically connected. Body section , conductive sleeves and and enclosure plate are preferably made from a material that conducts heat, such as aluminum. Body section has an emission end , a reflective interior portion not shown and an illumination end Lighting module is mechanically affixed to said illumination end Said emission end may be open, or, in one embodiment may have affixed thereto a filter Filter may be a clear filter, a diffusing filter, a colored filter, or any other type of filter known to the art.

In one embodiment, the filter will be permanently attached to the body section , but in other embodiments, the filter could be removably attached. In a still further embodiment, the filter need not be attached to the emission end of body portion but may be inserted anywhere in the direction of light emission from the lighting module Lighting module may be disk-shaped with two sides.

The illumination side not shown comprises a plurality of component light sources which produce a predetermined selection of different spectrums of light. The connection side may hold an electrical connector male pin assembly Both the illumination side and the connection side can be coated with aluminum surfaces to better allow the conduction of heat outward from the plurality of component light sources to the body section Likewise, power module is generally disk shaped and may have every available surface covered with aluminum for the same reason.

Power module has a connection side holding an electrical connector female pin assembly adapted to fit the pins from assembly Power module has a power terminal side holding a terminal for connection to a source of power such as an AC or DC electrical source. Any standard AC or DC jack may be used, as appropriate. Interposed between lighting module and power module is a conductive aluminum sleeve , which substantially encloses the space between modules and As shown, a disk-shaped enclosure plate and screws , , and can seal all of the components together, and conductive sleeve is thus interposed between enclosure plate and power module Alternatively, a method of connection other than screws , , , and may be used to seal the structure together.

Once sealed together as a unit, the lighting fixture may be connected to a data network as described above and may be mounted in any convenient manner to illuminate an area. The depicted embodiment comprises a lower body section , an upper body section and a lighting platform Again, the lighting fixture can contain the lighting fixture , a different lighting fixture known to the art, or a lighting fixture described anywhere else in this document.

The lighting platform shown here is designed to have a linear track of component illumination devices in this case LEDs although such a design is not necessary. Such a design is desirable for an embodiment of the invention, however. In addition, although the linear track of component illumination sources in depicted in FIG.

In one embodiment of the invention, the upper body section can comprise a filter as discussed above, or may be translucent, transparent, semi-translucent, or semi-transparent. Further shown in FIG. This holder comprises clip attachments which may be used to frictionally engage the lighting fixture to enable a particular alignment of lighting fixture relative to the holder The mounting also contains attachment plate which may be attached to the clip attachments by any type of attachment known to the art whether permanent, removable, or temporary.

Attachment plate may then be used to attach the entire apparatus to a surface such as, but not limited to, a wall or ceiling. In one embodiment, the lighting fixture is generally cylindrical in shape when assembled as shown in FIG. In addition, in one embodiment, the lighting fixture only can emit light through the upper body section and not through the lower body section Without a holder , directing the light emitted from such a lighting fixture could be difficult and motion could cause the directionality of the light to undesirably alter.

In another embodiment, as shown in FIG. In one aspect, using appropriate rectifier and voltage transformation means 97 , the processor , mounting and component illumination sources may be placed in a conventional Edison-mount i. In another aspect, the lightbulb may include a data connection , as discussed above, to receive data from a transmitter, which may be a conventional transmitter of a communications signal, or may be part of a circuit or network connected to the lighting fixture.

In yet another aspect, the lightbulb may include a sensor as discussed further below in connection with FIG. The lightbulb also may include a manual control system or user interface, as discussed further below in connection with FIG. In yet another embodiment, as shown in FIGS. As in the embodiment of FIG. Voltage transformation means 97 or other power related circuitry may be employed to derive appropriate power from power connectors for the processor and component illumination sources.

In FIGS. While not shown explicitly in FIGS. In one embodiment of the invention, it is recognized that prespecified ranges of available colors may be desirable and it may also be desirable to build lighting fixtures in such a way as to maximize the illumination of the lighting apparatus for particular color therein.

This is best shown through a numerical example. Let us assume that a lighting fixture contains 30 component illumination sources in three different wavelengths, primary red, primary blue, and primary green such as individual LEDs. In addition, let us assume that each of these illumination sources produces the same intensity of light, they just produce at different colors.

Now, there are multiple different ways that the thirty illumination sources for any given lighting fixture can be chosen. There could be 10 of each of the illumination sources, or alternatively there could be 30 primary blue colored illumination sources. It should be readily apparent that these light fixtures would be useful for different types of lighting.

The second light apparatus produces more intense primary blue light there are 30 sources of blue light than the first light source which only has 10 primary blue light sources, the remaining 20 light sources have to be off to produce primary blue light , but is limited to only producing primary blue light.

The second light fixture can produce more colors of light, because the spectrums of the component illumination sources can be mixed in different percentages, but cannot produce as intense blue light. It should be readily apparent from this example that the selection of the individual component illumination sources can change the resultant spectrum of light the fixture can produce.

It should also be apparent that the same selection of components can produce lights which can produce the same colors, but can produce those colors at different intensities. To put this another way, the full-on point of a lighting fixture the point where all the component illumination sources are at maximum will be different depending on what the component illumination sources are. A lighting system may accordingly be specified using a full-on point and a range of selectable colors. This system has many potential applications such as, but not limited to, retail display lighting and theater lighting.

Often times numerous lighting fixtures of a plurality of different colors are used to present a stage or other area with interesting shadows and desirable features. Problems can arise, however, because lamps used regularly have similar intensities before lighting filters are used to specify colors of those fixtures.

Due to differences in transmission of the various filters for instance blue filters often loose significantly more intensity than red filters , lighting fixtures must have their intensity controlled to compensate. For this reason, lighting fixtures are often operated at less than their full capability to allow mixing requiring additional lighting fixtures to be used. With the lighting fixtures of the instant invention, the lighting fixtures can be designed to produce particular colors at identical intensities of chosen colors when operating at their full potential; this can allow easier mixing of the resultant light, and can result in more options for a lighting design scheme.

Such a system enables the person building or designing lighting fixtures to generate lights that can produce a pre-selected range of colors, while still maximizing the intensity of light at certain more desirable colors. These lighting fixtures would therefore allow a user to select certain color s of lighting fixtures for an application independent of relative intensity.

The lighting fixtures can then be built so that the intensities at these colors are the same. Only the spectrum is altered. It also enables a user to select lighting fixtures that produce a particular high-intensity color of light, and also have the ability to select nearby colors of light in a range.

The range of colors which can be produced by the lighting fixture can be specified instead of, or in addition to, the full-on point. The lighting fixture can then be provided with control systems that enable a user of the lighting fixture to intuitively and easily select a desired color from the available range. One embodiment of such a system works by storing the spectrums of each of the component illumination sources.

In this example embodiment, the illumination sources are LEDs. By selecting different component LEDs with different spectrums, the designer can define the color range of a lighting fixture. An easy way to visualize the color range is to use the CIE diagram which shows the entire lighting range of all colors of light which can exist. One embodiment of a system provides a light-authoring interface such as an interactive computer interface.

The interface has several channels for selecting LEDs. Once selected, varying the intensity slide bar can change the relative number of LEDs of that type in the resultant lighting fixture. A line connecting these two points represents the extent that the color from these two LEDs can be mixed to produce additional colors. When a third and fourth channel are used, an area can be plotted on the CIE diagram representing the possible combinations of the selected LEDs. Although the area shown here is a polygon of four sides it would be understood by one of skill in the art that the area could be a point line or a polygon with any number of sides depending on the LEDs chosen.

In addition to specifying the color range, the intensities at any given color can be calculated from the LED spectrums. By knowing the number of LEDs for a given color and the maximum intensity of any of these LEDs, the total light output at a particular color is calculated. A diamond or other symbol may be plotted on the diagram to represent the color when all of the LEDs are on full brightness or the point may represent the present intensity setting.

Because a lighting fixture can be made of a plurality of component illumination sources, when designing a lighting fixture, a color that is most desirable can be selected, and a lighting fixture can be designed that maximizes the intensity of that color. Alternatively, a fixture may be chosen and the point of maximum intensity can be determined from this selection. A tool may be provided to allow calculation of a particular color at a maximum intensity.

Alternatively, a selection of LEDs may be chosen and the point of maximum intensity determined; both directions of calculation are included in embodiments of this invention. Therefore the system in one embodiment of the invention contains a collection of the spectrums of a number of different LEDs, provides an interface for a user to select LEDs that will produce a range of color that encloses the desirable area, and allows a user to select the number of each LED type such that when the unit is on full, a target color is produced.

In an alternative embodiment, the user would simply need to provide a desired spectrum, or color and intensity, and the system could produce a lighting fixture which could generate light according to the requests.

Once the light has been designed, in one embodiment, it is further desirable to make the light's spectrum easily accessible to the lighting fixture's user. As was discussed above, the lighting fixture may have been chosen to have a particular array of illumination sources such that a particular color is obtained at maximum intensity. However, there may be other colors that can be produced by varying the relative intensities of the component illumination sources. The spectrum of the lighting fixture can be controlled within the predetermined range specified by the area To control the lighting color within the range, it is recognized that each color within the polygon is the additive mix of the component LEDs with each color contained in the components having a varied intensity.

That is, to move from one point in FIG. This may be less than intuitive for the final user of the lighting fixture who simply wants a particular color, or a particular transition between colors and does not know the relative intensities to shift to. This is particularly true if the LEDs used do not have spectra with a single well-determined peak of color.

A lighting fixture may be able to generate several shades of orange, but how to get to each of those shades may require control. In order to be able to carry out such control of the spectrum of the light, it is desirable in one embodiment to create a system and method for linking the color of the light to a control device for controlling the light's color.

That is, a method whereby, with the specification of a particular color of light by a controller, the lighting fixture can turn on the appropriate illumination sources at the appropriate intensity to create that color of light. In one embodiment, the lighting fixture design software shown in FIG. This mapping will generally take one of two forms: 1 a lookup table, or 2 a parametric equation, although other forms could be used as would be known to one of skill in the art.

Software on board the lighting fixture such as in the processor above or on board a lighting controller, such as one of those known to the art, or described above, can be configured to accept the input of a user in selecting a color, and producing a desired light. This mapping may be performed by a variety of methods. In one embodiment, statistics are known about each individual component illumination sources within the lighting fixture, so mathematical calculations may be made to produce a relationship between the resulting spectrum and the component spectrums.

Such calculations would be well understood by one of skill in the art. In another embodiment, an external calibration system may be used. One layout of such a system is disclosed in FIG. Here the calibration system includes a lighting fixture that is connected to a processor and which receives input from a light sensor or transducer The processor may be processor or may be an additional or alternative processor.

Between these two devices modulating the brightness or color of the output and measuring the brightness and color of the output, the lighting fixture can be calibrated where the relative settings of the component illumination sources or processor settings are directly related to the output of the fixture the light sensor settings. Since the sensor can detect the net spectrum produced by the lighting fixture, it can be used to provide a direct mapping by relating the output of the lighting fixture to the settings of the component LEDs.

Once the mapping has been completed, other methods or systems may be used for the light fixture's control. Such methods or systems will enable the determination of a desired color, and the production by the lighting fixture of that color. The control system may be automatic, may accept input from a user, or may be any combination of these two.

The system may also include a processor which may be processor or another processor to enable the light to change color. A user computer interface control system with which a user may select a desired color of light is used as a control system The interface could enable any type of user interaction in the determination of color. For example, the interface may provide a palette, chromaticity diagram, or other color scheme from which a user may select a color, e.

The interface may include a display screen, a computer keyboard, a mouse, a trackpad, or any other suitable system for interaction between the processor and a user. In certain embodiments, the system may permit a user to select a set of colors for repeated use, capable of being rapidly accessed, e.

In certain embodiments, the interface may also include a look-up table capable of correlating color names with approximate shades, converting color coordinates from one system, e. The interface may also include one or more closed-form equations for converting from, for example, a user-specified color temperature associated with a particular color of white light into suitable signals for the different component illumination sources of the lighting fixture The system may further include a sensor as discussed below for providing information to the processor , e.

In another embodiment, a manual control system is used in the system , as depicted in FIG. For example, a dial or slider may be used in a system to modulate the net color spectrum produced, the illumination along the color temperature curve, or any other modulation of the color of the lighting fixture. Alternatively, a joystick, trackball, trackpad, mouse, thumb-wheel, touch-sensitive surface, or a console with two or more sliders, dials, or other controls may be used to modulate the color, temperature, or spectrum.

These manual controls may be used in conjunction with a computer interface control system as discussed above, or may be used independently, possibly with related markings to enable a user to scan through an available color range. One such manual control system is shown in greater detail in FIG. The depicted control unit features a dial marked to indicate a range of color temperatures, e. It would be understood by one of skill in the art that broader, narrower, or overlapping ranges may be employed, and a similar system could be employed to control lighting fixtures that can produce light of a spectrum beyond white, or not including white.

A manual control system may be included as part of a processor controlling an array of lighting units, coupled to a processor, e. Additionally, instead of a dial, a manual control system may employ a slider, a mouse, or any other control or input device suitable for use in the systems and methods described herein.

In another embodiment, the calibration system depicted in FIG. For instance a selected color could be input by the user and the calibration system could measure the spectrum of ambient light; compare the measured spectrum with the selected spectrum, adjust the color of light produced by the lighting fixture , and repeat the procedure to minimize the difference between the desired spectrum and the measured spectrum. For example, if the measured spectrum is deficient in red wavelengths when compared with the target spectrum, the processor may increase the brightness of red LEDs in the lighting fixture, decrease the brightness of blue and green LEDs in the lighting fixture, or both, in order to minimize the difference between the measured spectrum and the target spectrum and potentially also achieve a target brightness i.

The system could also be used to match a color produced by a lighting fixture to a color existing naturally. For instance, a film director could find light in a location where filming does not occur and measure that light using the sensor. This could then provide the desired color which is to be produced by the lighting fixture.

In one embodiment, these tasks can be performed simultaneously potentially using two separate sensors. In a yet further embodiment, the director can remotely measure a lighting condition with a sensor and store that lighting condition on memory associated with that sensor The sensor's memory may then be transferred at a later time to the processor which may set the lighting fixture to mimic the light recorded. The sensor used to measure the illumination conditions may be a photodiode, a phototransistor, a photoresistor, a radiometer, a photometer, a calorimeter, a spectral radiometer, a camera, a combination of two or more of the preceding devices, or any other system capable of measuring the color or brightness of illumination conditions.

A calorimeter or spectral radiometer is advantageous because a number of wavelengths can be simultaneously detected, permitting accurate measurements of color and brightness simultaneously. A color temperature sensor which may be employed in the systems methods described herein is disclosed in U.

In embodiments wherein the sensor detects an image, e. Such a system simplifies procedures employed by cinematographers, for example, attempting to produce a consistent appearance of an object to promote continuity between scenes of a film, or by photographers, for example, trying to reproduce lighting conditions from an earlier shoot.

In certain embodiments, the lighting fixture may be used as the sole light source, while in other embodiments, such as is depicted in FIG. This use can be to supplement the output of the second source. For example, a fluorescent light emitting illumination weak in red portions of the spectrum may be supplemented with a lighting fixture emitting primarily red wavelengths to provide illumination conditions more closely resembling natural sunlight.

Similarly, such a system may also be useful in outdoor image capture situations, because the color temperature of natural light varies as the position of the sun changes. A lighting fixture may be used in conjunction with a sensor as controller to compensate for changes in sunlight to maintain constant illumination conditions for the duration of a session. Any of the above systems could be deployed in the system disclosed in FIG.

A lighting system for a location may comprise a plurality of lighting fixtures which are controllable by a central control system The light within the location or on a particular location such as the stage depicted here is now desired to mimic another type of light such as sunlight. A first sensor is taken outside and the natural sunlight is measured and recorded.

This recording is then provided to central control system A second sensor which may be the same sensor in one embodiment is present on the stage The central control system now controls the intensity and color of the plurality of lighting fixtures and attempts to match the input spectrum of said second sensor with the prerecorded natural sunlight's spectrum. In this manner, interior lighting design can be dramatically simplified as desired colors of light can be reproduced or simulated in a closed setting.

This can be in a theatre as depicted here , or in any other location such as a home, an office, a soundstage, a retail store, or any other location where artificial lighting is used. Such a system could also be used in conjunction with other secondary light sources to create a desired lighting effect. The above systems allow for the creation of lighting fixtures with virtually any type of spectrum. A lighting fixture which produces white light according to the above invention can comprise any collection of component illumination sources such that the area defined by the illumination sources can encapsulate at least a portion of the black body curve.

The black body curve in FIG. In a preferred embodiment, the entire black body curve would be encapsulated allowing the lighting fixture to produce any temperature of white light. For a variable color white light with the highest possible intensity, a significant portion of the black body curve may be enclosed. The intensity at different color whites along the black body curve can then be simulated.

The maximum intensity produced by this light could be placed along the black body curve. For example, the full-on color could be placed at approximately K noon day sunlight shown by point in FIG. Such a lighting apparatus would then be able to produce K light at a high intensity; in addition, the light may adjust for differences in temperature for instance cloudy sunlight by moving around in the defined area.

Although this system generates white light with a variable color temperature, it is not necessarily a high quality white light source. A number of combinations of colors of illumination sources can be chosen which enclose the black body curve, and the quality of the resulting lighting fixtures may vary depending on the illumination sources chosen. Since white light is a mixture of different wavelengths of light, it is possible to characterize white light based on the component colors of light that are used to generate it.

Red, green, and blue RGB can combine to form white; as can light blue, amber, and lavender; or cyan, magenta and yellow. Natural white light sunlight contains a virtually continuous spectrum of wavelengths across the human visible band and beyond. This can be seen by examining sunlight through a prism, or looking at a rainbow. Many artificial white lights are technically white to the human eye, however, they can appear quite different when shown on colored surfaces because they lack a virtually continuous spectrum.

As an extreme example one could create a white light source using two lasers or other narrow band optical sources with complimentary wavelengths. These sources would have an extremely narrow spectral width perhaps 1 nm wide. To exemplify this, we will choose wavelengths of nm and nm. These are considered complimentary since they will additively combine to make light which the human eye perceives as white light. The intensity levels of these two lasers can be adjusted to some ratio of powers that will produce white light that appears to have a color temperature of K.

If this source were directed at a white surface, the reflected light will appear as K white light. The problem with this type of white light is that it will appear extremely artificial when shown on a colored surface. A colored surface as opposed to colored light is produced because the surface absorbs and reflects different wavelengths of light.

If hit by white light comprising a full spectrum light with all wavelengths of the visible band at reasonable intensity , the surface will absorb and reflect perfectly. However, the white light above does not provide the complete spectrum.

To again use an extreme example, if a surface only reflected light from nm nm it will appear a fairly deep green in full-spectrum light, but will appear black it absorbs all the spectrums present in the above described laser-generated artificial white light.

Further, since the CRI index relies on a limited number of observations, there are mathematical loopholes in the method. Since the spectrums for CRI color samples are known, it is a relatively straightforward exercise to determine the optimal wavelengths and minimum numbers of narrow band sources needed to achieve a high CRI. This source will fool the CRI measurement, but not the human observer. The CRI method is at best an estimator of the spectrum that the human eye can see.

An everyday example is the modern compact fluorescent lamp. It has a fairly high CRI of 80 and a color temperature of K but still appears unnatural. The spectrum of a compact fluorescent is shown in FIG. Due to the desirability of high-quality light in particular high-quality white light that can be varied over different temperatures or spectrums, a further embodiment of this invention comprises systems and method for generating higher-quality white light by mixing the electromagnetic radiation from a plurality of component illumination sources such as LEDs.

This is accomplished by choosing LEDs that provide a white light that is targeted to the human eye's interpretation of light, as well as the mathematical CRI index. That light can then be maximized in intensity using the above system. Further, because the color temperature of the light can be controlled, this high quality white light can therefore still have the control discussed above and can be a controllable, high-quality, light which can produce high-quality light across a range of colors.

To produce a high-quality white light, it is necessary to examine the human eye's ability to see light of different wavelengths and determine what makes a light high-quality. In it's simplest definition, a high-quality white light provides low distortion to colored objects when they are viewed under it. It therefore makes sense to begin by examining a high-quality light based on what the human eye sees. For the purposes of this disclosure, it will be accepted that sunlight is a high-quality white light.

The sensitivity of the human eye is known as the Photopic response. The Photopic response can be thought of as a spectral transfer function for the eye, meaning that it indicates how much of each wavelength of light input is seen by the human observer. The eye's Photopic response is important since it can be used to describe the boundaries on the problem of generating white light or of any color of light.

Therefore a high-quality white light may include only visible light, or may include visible light and other electromagnetic radiation which may result in a photobiological response. This will generally be electromagnetic radiation less than nm ultraviolet light or greater than nm infrared light. Using the first part of the description, the source is not required to have any power above nm or below nm since the eye has only minimal response at these wavelengths.

A high-quality source would preferably be substantially continuous between these wavelengths otherwise colors could be distorted but can fall-off towards higher or lower wavelengths due to the sensitivity of the eye. Further, the spectral distribution of different temperatures of white light will be different. To illustrate this, spectral distributions for two blackbody sources with temperatures of K and K are shown in FIG.

As seen in FIG. The K curve is heavily weighted towards higher wavelengths. This distribution makes sense intuitively, since lower color temperatures appear to be yellow-to-reddish. Any holes, i. Since the blackbody curves are continuous, even the dramatic change from K to K will only shift colors towards red, making them appear warmer but not devoid of color. This comparison shows that an important specification of any high-quality artificial light fixture is a continuous spectrum across the photopic response of the human observer.

Having examined these relationships of the human eye, a fixture for producing controllable high-quality white light would need to have the following characteristic. The light has a substantially continuous spectrum over the wavelengths visible to the human eye, with any holes or gaps locked in the areas where the human eye is less responsive. In addition, in order to make a high-quality white light controllable over a range of temperatures, it would be desirable to produce a light spectrum which can have relatively equal values of each wavelength of light, but can also make different wavelengths dramatically more or less intense with regards to other wavelengths depending on the color temperature desired.

The clearest waveform which would have such control would need to mirror the scope of the photopic response of the eye, while still being controllable at the various different wavelengths. The CRI rating for these values is usually extremely low or possibly negative. In an additional case, since the CRI rating relies on eight particular color samples, it is possible to get a high CRI, while not having a particularly high-quality light because the white light functions well for those particular color samples specified by the CRI rating.

That is, a high CRI index could be obtained by a white light composed of eight 1 nm sources which were perfectly lined up with the eight CRI color structures. This would, however, not be a high-quality light source for illuminating other colors. The fluorescent lamp shown in FIG. Although the light from a fluorescent lamp is white, it is comprised of many spikes such as and The position of these spikes has been carefully designed so that when measured using the CRI samples they yield a high rating.

In other words, these spikes fool the CRI calculation but not the human observer. The result is a white light that is usable but not optimal i. The dramatic peaks in the spectrum of a fluorescent light are also clear in FIG. These peaks are part of the reason that fluorescent light looks very artificial. Even if light is produced within the spectral valleys, it is so dominated by the peaks that a human eye has difficulty seeing it. A high-quality white light may be produced according to this disclosure without the dramatic peaks and valleys of a florescent lamp.

A spectral peak is the point of intensity of a particular color of light which has less intensity at points immediately to either side of it. A maximum spectral peak is the highest spectral peak within the region of interest. It is therefore possible to have multiple peaks within a chosen portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, only a single maximum peak, or to have no peaks at all.

For instance, FIG. A valley is the opposite of a peak and is a point that is a minimum and has points of higher intensity on either side of it an inverted plateau is also a valley. A special plateau can also be a spectrum peak. A plateau involves a series of concurrent points of the same intensity with the points on either side of the series having less intensity. It should be clear that high-quality white light simulating black-body sources do not have significant peaks and valleys within the area of the human eye's photopic response as is shown in FIG.

Most artificial light, does however have some peaks and valleys in this region such shown in FIG. This is especially true for higher temperature light whereas for lower temperature light the continuous line has a positive upward slope with no peaks or valleys and shallow valleys in the shorter wavelength areas would be less noticeable, as would slight peaks in the longer wavelengths.

To take into account this peak and valley relationship to high-quality white light, the following is desirable in a high-quality white light of one embodiment of this invention. The lowest valley in the visible range should have a greater intensity than the intensity attributable to background noise as would be understood by one of skill in the art.

In another embodiment, it is desirable to mimic the shape of the black body spectra at different temperatures; for higher temperatures 4, K to 10, K this may be similar to the peaks and valleys analysis above. For lower temperatures, another analysis would be that most valleys should be at a shorter wavelength than the highest peak. This would be desirable in one embodiment for color temperatures less than K. In another embodiment it would be desirable to have this in the region K to K.

From the above analysis high-quality artificial white light should therefore have a spectrum that is substantially continuous between the nm and nm without dramatic spikes. Further, to be controllable, the light should be able to produce a spectrum that resembles natural light at various color temperatures.

Due to the use of mathematical models in the industry, it is also desirable for the source to yield a high CRI indicative that the reference colors are being preserved and showing that the high-quality white light of the instant invention does not fail on previously known tests.

In order to build a high-quality white light lighting fixture using LEDs as the component illumination sources, it is desirable in one embodiment to have LEDs with particular maximum spectral peaks and spectral widths. It would also be desirable for each of the LEDs to produce equal intensities of light to allow for easy mixing.

One system for creating white light includes a large number for example around of LEDs, each of which has a narrow spectral width and each of which has a maximum spectral peak spanning a predetermined portion of the range from about nm to about nm, possibly with some overlap, and possibly beyond the boundaries of visible light. This light source may produce essentially white light, and may be controllable to produce any color temperature and also any color.

It allows for smaller variation than the human eye can see and therefore the light fixture can make changes more finely than a human can perceive. Such a light fixture is therefore one embodiment of the invention, but other embodiments can use fewer LEDs when perception by humans is the focus.

In another embodiment of the invention, a significantly smaller number of LEDs can be used with the spectral width of each LED increased to generate a high-quality white light. One embodiment of such a light fixture is shown in FIG. It should be recognized here that a nine LED lighting fixture does not necessarily contain exactly nine total illumination sources.

It contains some number of each of nine different colored illuminating sources. This number will usually be the same for each color, but need not be. High-brightness LEDs with a spectral width of about 25 nm are generally available. The solid line indicates the additive spectrum of all of the LED spectrums at equal power as could be created using the above method lighting fixture.

The powers of the LEDs may be adjusted to generate a range of color temperature and colors as well by adjusting the relative intensities of the nine LEDs. This nine LED lighting fixture has the ability to reproduce a wide range of color temperatures as well as a wide range of colors as the area of the CIE diagram enclosed by the component LEDs covers most of the available colors.

It enables control over the production of non-continuous spectrums and the generation of particular high-quality colors by choosing to use only a subset of the available LED illumination sources. It should be noted that the choice of location of the dominant wavelength of the nine LEDs could be moved without significant variation in the ability to produce white light. In addition, different colored LEDs may be added. Such additions may improve the resolution as was discussed in the LED example above.

Any of these light fixtures may meet the quality standards above. They may produce a spectrum that is continuous over the photopic response of the eye, that is without dramatic peaks, and that can be controlled to produce a white light of multiple desired color temperatures.

The nine LED white light source is effective since its spectral resolution is sufficient to accurately simulate spectral distributions within human-perceptible limits. However, fewer LEDs may be used. If the specifications of making high-quality white light are followed, the fewer LEDs may have an increased spectral width to maintain the substantially continuous spectrum that fills the Photopic response of the eye.

The decrease could be from any number of LEDs from 8 to 2. The 1 LED case allows for no color mixing and therefore no control. To have a temperature controllable white light fixture at least two colors of LEDs may be required. One embodiment of the current invention includes three different colored LEDs. Three LEDs allow for a two dimensional area a triangle to be available as the spectrum for the resultant fixture. The additive spectrum of the three LEDs offers less control than the nine LED lighting fixture, but may meet the criteria for a high-quality white light source as discussed above.

The spectrum may be continuous without dramatic peaks. It is also controllable, since the triangle of available white light encloses the black body curve. This source may lose fine control over certain colors or temperatures that were obtained with a greater number of LEDs as the area enclosed on the CIE diagram is a triangle, but the power of these LEDs can still be controlled to simulate sources of different color temperatures. Such an alteration is shown in FIGS.

One skilled in the art would see that alternative temperatures may also be generated. These spectrums fill the photopic response of the eye and are continuous, which means they appear more natural than artificial light sources such as fluorescent lights. Both spectra may be characterized as high-quality since the CRIs measure in the high 90s.

In the design of a white lighting fixture, one impediment is the lack of availability for LEDs with a maximum spectral peak of nm. This wavelength is at the center of the Photopic response of the eye and one of the clearest colors to the eye. The introduction of an LED with a dominant wavelength at or near nm would simplify the generation of LED-based white light, and a white light fixture with such an LED comprises one embodiment of this invention.

In another embodiment of the invention, a non-LED illumination source that produces light with a maximum spectral peak from about nm to about nm could also be used to fill this particular spectral gap. In a still further embodiment, this non-LED source could comprise an existing white light source and a filter to make that resulting light source have a maximum spectral peak in this general area. In another embodiment high-quality white light may be generated using LEDs without spectral peaks around nm to fill in the gap in the Photopic response left by the absence of green LEDs.

One possibility is to fill the gap with a non-LED illumination source. Another, as described below, is that a high-quality controllable white light source can be generated using a collection of one or more different colored LEDs where none of the LEDs have a maximum spectral peak in the range of about nm to nm. To build a white light lighting fixture that is controllable over a generally desired range of color temperatures, it is first necessary to determine the criteria of temperature desired.

In one embodiment, this is chosen to be color temperatures from about K to about K which is commonly used by lighting designers in industry. However, any range could be chosen for other embodiments including the range from K to 10, K which covers most variation in visible white light or any sub-range thereof. The overall output spectrum of this light may achieve a CRI comparable to standard light sources already existing. Peaks and valleys may also be minimized in the range as much as possible and particularly to have a continuous curve where no intensity is zero there is at least some spectral content at each wavelength throughout the range.

In recent years, white LEDs have become available. The phosphor down-coverts some of the blue light into green and red. The spectrum shown in FIG. This is because not all of the pump energy from the blue LED is down-converted. This has the effect of cooling the overall spectrum since the higher portion of the spectrum is considered to be warm. Therefore the LED on its own does not meet the above lighting criteria. This spectrum contains a maximum spectral peak at about nm and does not accurately fill the photopic response of the human eye.

A single LED also allows for no control of color temperature and therefore a system of the desired range of color temperatures cannot be generated with this LED alone. Using a combination of the bin A or C LEDs will enable the source to fill the spectrum around the center of the Photopic response, nm. However, the lowest achievable color temperature will be K from using the bin C LED alone which does not cover the entire range of color temperatures previously discussed.

This combination will appear abnormally cool blue on its own as the additive spectrum will still have a significant peak around nm. In certain embodiments, the system may permit a user to select a set of colors for repeated use, capable of being rapidly accessed, e.

In certain embodiments, the interface may also include a look-up table capable of correlating color names with approximate shades, converting color coordinates from one system, e. The interface may also include one or more closed-form equations for converting from, for example, a user-specified color temperature associated with a particular color of white light into suitable signals for the different component illumination sources of the lighting fixture The system may further include a sensor as discussed below for providing information to the processor , e.

In another embodiment, a manual control system is used in the system , as depicted in FIG. For example, a dial or slider may be used in a system to modulate the net color spectrum produced, the illumination along the color temperature curve, or any other modulation of the color of the lighting fixture. Alternatively, a joystick, trackball, trackpad, mouse, thumb-wheel, touch-sensitive surface, or a console with two or more sliders, dials, or other controls may be used to modulate the color, temperature, or spectrum.

These manual controls may be used in conjunction with a computer interface control system as discussed above, or may be used independently, possibly with related markings to enable a user to scan through an available color range. One such manual control system is shown in greater detail in FIG. The depicted control unit features a dial marked to indicate a range of color temperatures, e.

It would be understood by one of skill in the art that broader, narrower, or overlapping ranges may be employed, and a similar system could be employed to control lighting fixtures that can produce light of a spectrum beyond white, or not including white. A manual control system may be included as part of a processor controlling an array of lighting units, coupled to a processor, e.

Additionally, instead of a dial, a manual control system may employ a slider, a mouse, or any other control or input device suitable for use in the systems and methods described herein. In another embodiment, the calibration system depicted in FIG. For instance a selected color could be input by the user and the calibration system could measure the spectrum of ambient light; compare the measured spectrum with the selected spectrum, adjust the color of light produced by the lighting fixture , and repeat the procedure to minimize the difference between the desired spectrum and the measured spectrum.

For example, if the measured spectrum is deficient in red wavelengths when compared with the target spectrum, the processor may increase the brightness of red LEDs in the lighting fixture, decrease the brightness of blue and green LEDs in the lighting fixture, or both, in order to minimize the difference between the measured spectrum and the target spectrum and potentially also achieve a target brightness i. The system could also be used to match a color produced by a lighting fixture to a color existing naturally.

For instance, a film director could find light in a location where filming does not occur and measure that light using the sensor. This could then provide the desired color which is to be produced by the lighting fixture. In one embodiment, these tasks can be performed simultaneously potentially using two separate sensors. In a yet further embodiment, the director can remotely measure a lighting condition with a sensor and store that lighting condition on memory associated with that sensor The sensor's memory may then be transferred at a later time to the processor which may set the lighting fixture to mimic the light recorded.

The sensor used to measure the illumination conditions may be a photodiode, a phototransistor, a photoresistor, a radiometer, a photometer, a colorimeter, a spectral radiometer, a camera, a combination of two or more of the preceding devices, or any other system capable of measuring the color or brightness of illumination conditions.

A colorimeter or spectral radiometer is advantageous because a number of wavelengths can be simultaneously detected, permitting accurate measurements of color and brightness simultaneously. A color temperature sensor which may be employed in the systems methods described herein is disclosed in U.

In embodiments wherein the sensor detects an image, e. Such a system simplifies procedures employed by cinematographers, for example, attempting to produce a consistent appearance of an object to promote continuity between scenes of a film, or by photographers, for example, trying to reproduce lighting conditions from an earlier shoot.

In certain embodiments, the lighting fixture may be used as the sole light source, while in other embodiments, such as is depicted in FIG. This use can be to supplement the output of the second source. For example, a fluorescent light emitting illumination weak in red portions of the spectrum may be supplemented with a lighting fixture emitting primarily red wavelengths to provide illumination conditions more closely resembling natural sunlight.

Similarly, such a system may also be useful in outdoor image capture situations, because the color temperature of natural light varies as the position of the sun changes. A lighting fixture may be used in conjunction with a sensor as controller to compensate for changes in sunlight to maintain constant illumination conditions for the duration of a session. Any of the above systems could be deployed in the system disclosed in FIG.

A lighting system for a location may comprise a plurality of lighting fixtures which are controllable by a central control system The light within the location or on a particular location such as the stage depicted here is now desired to mimic another type of light such as sunlight. A first sensor is taken outside and the natural sunlight is measured and recorded. This recording is then provided to central control system A second sensor which may be the same sensor in one embodiment is present on the stage The central control system now controls the intensity and color of the plurality of lighting fixtures and attempts to match the input spectrum of said second sensor with the prerecorded natural sunlight's spectrum.

In this manner, interior lighting design can be dramatically simplified as desired colors of light can be reproduced or simulated in a closed setting. This can be in a theatre as depicted here , or in any other location such as a home, an office, a soundstage, a retail store, or any other location where artificial lighting is used. Such a system could also be used in conjunction with other secondary light sources to create a desired lighting effect.

The above systems allow for the creation of lighting fixtures with virtually any type of spectrum. A lighting fixture which produces white light according to the above invention can comprise any collection of component illumination sources such that the area defined by the illumination sources can encapsulate at least a portion of the black body curve.

The black body curve in FIG. In a preferred embodiment, the entire black body curve would be encapsulated allowing the lighting fixture to produce any temperature of white light. For a variable color white light with the highest possible intensity, a significant portion of the black body curve may be enclosed. The intensity at different color whites along the black body curve can then be simulated. The maximum intensity produced by this light could be placed along the black body curve.

For example, the full-on color could be placed at approximately K noon day sunlight shown by point in FIG. Such a lighting apparatus would then be able to produce K light at a high intensity; in addition, the light may adjust for differences in temperature for instance cloudy sunlight by moving around in the defined area. Although this system generates white light with a variable color temperature, it is not necessarily a high quality white light source.

A number of combinations of colors of illumination sources can be chosen which enclose the black body curve, and the quality of the resulting lighting fixtures may vary depending on the illumination sources chosen. Since white light is a mixture of different wavelengths of light, it is possible to characterize white light based on the component colors of light that are used to generate it.

Red, green, and blue RGB can combine to form white; as can light blue, amber, and lavender; or cyan, magenta and yellow. Natural white light sunlight contains a virtually continuous spectrum of wavelengths across the human visible band and beyond. This can be seen by examining sunlight through a prism, or looking at a rainbow. Many artificial white lights are technically white to the human eye, however, they can appear quite different when shown on colored surfaces because they lack a virtually continuous spectrum.

As an extreme example one could create a white light source using two lasers or other narrow band optical sources with complimentary wavelengths. These sources would have an extremely narrow spectral width perhaps 1 nm wide. To exemplify this, we will choose wavelengths of nm and nm.

These are considered complimentary since they will additively combine to make light which the human eye perceives as white light. The intensity levels of these two lasers can be adjusted to some ratio of powers that will produce white light that appears to have a color temperature of K.

If this source were directed at a white surface, the reflected light will appear as K white light. The problem with this type of white light is that it will appear extremely artificial when shown on a colored surface. A colored surface as opposed to colored light is produced because the surface absorbs and reflects different wavelengths of light. If hit by white light comprising a full spectrum light with all wavelengths of the visible band at reasonable intensity , the surface will absorb and reflect perfectly.

However, the white light above does not provide the complete spectrum. To again use an extreme example, if a surface only reflected light from nm nm it will appear a fairly deep green in full-spectrum light, but will appear black it absorbs all the spectrums present in the above described laser-generated artificial white light. Further, since the CRI index relies on a limited number of observations, there are mathematical loopholes in the method.

Since the spectrums for CRI color samples are known, it is a relatively straightforward exercise to determine the optimal wavelengths and minimum numbers of narrow band sources needed to achieve a high CRI. This source will fool the CRI measurement, but not the human observer. The CRI method is at best an estimator of the spectrum that the human eye can see. An everyday example is the modern compact fluorescent lamp. It has a fairly high CRI of 80 and a color temperature of K but still appears unnatural.

The spectrum of a compact fluorescent is shown in FIG. Due to the desirability of high-quality light in particular high-quality white light that can be varied over different temperatures or spectrums, a further embodiment of this invention comprises systems and method for generating higher-quality white light by mixing the electromagnetic radiation from a plurality of component illumination sources such as LEDs.

This is accomplished by choosing LEDs that provide a white light that is targeted to the human eye's interpretation of light, as well as the mathematical CRI index. That light can then be maximized in intensity using the above system. Further, because the color temperature of the light can be controlled, this high quality white light can therefore still have the control discussed above and can be a controllable, high-quality, light which can produce high-quality light across a range of colors.

To produce a high-quality white light, it is necessary to examine the human eye's ability to see light of different wavelengths and determine what makes a light high-quality. In it's simplest definition, a high-quality white light provides low distortion to colored objects when they are viewed under it.

It therefore makes sense to begin by examining a high-quality light based on what the human eye sees. For the purposes of this disclosure, it will be accepted that sunlight is a high-quality white light. The sensitivity of the human eye is known as the Photopic response. The Photopic response can be thought of as a spectral transfer function for the eye, meaning that it indicates how much of each wavelength of light input is seen by the human observer.

The eye's Photopic response is important since it can be used to describe the boundaries on the problem of generating white light or of any color of light. Therefore a high-quality white light may include only visible light, or may include visible light and other electromagnetic radiation which may result in a photobiological response. This will generally be electromagnetic radiation less than nm ultraviolet light or greater than nm infrared light. Using the first part of the description, the source is not required to have any power above nm or below nm since the eye has only minimal response at these wavelengths.

A high-quality source would preferably be substantially continuous between these wavelengths otherwise colors could be distorted but can fall-off towards higher or lower wavelengths due to the sensitivity of the eye. Further, the spectral distribution of different temperatures of white light will be different. To illustrate this, spectral distributions for two blackbody sources with temperatures of K and K are shown in FIG.

As seen in FIG. The K curve is heavily weighted towards higher wavelengths. This distribution makes sense intuitively, since lower color temperatures appear to be yellow-to-reddish. Any holes, i. Since the blackbody curves are continuous, even the dramatic change from K to K will only shift colors towards red, making them appear warmer but not devoid of color.

This comparison shows that an important specification of any high-quality artificial light fixture is a continuous spectrum across the photopic response of the human observer. Having examined these relationships of the human eye, a fixture for producing controllable high-quality white light would need to have the following characteristic. The light has a substantially continuous spectrum over the wavelengths visible to the human eye, with any holes or gaps locked in the areas where the human eye is less responsive.

In addition, in order to make a high-quality white light controllable over a range of temperatures, it would be desirable to produce a light spectrum which can have relatively equal values of each wavelength of light, but can also make different wavelengths dramatically more or less intense with regards to other wavelengths depending on the color temperature desired.

The clearest waveform which would have such control would need to mirror the scope of the photopic response of the eye, while still being controllable at the various different wavelengths. The CRI rating for these values is usually extremely low or possibly negative. In an additional case, since the CRI rating relies on eight particular color samples, it is possible to get a high CRI, while not having a particularly high-quality light because the white light functions well for those particular color samples specified by the CRI rating.

That is, a high CRI index could be obtained by a white light composed of eight 1 nm sources which were perfectly lined up with the eight CRI color structures. This would, however, not be a high-quality light source for illuminating other colors. The fluorescent lamp shown in FIG. Although the light from a fluorescent lamp is white, it is comprised of many spikes such as and The position of these spikes has been carefully designed so that when measured using the CRI samples they yield a high rating.

In other words, these spikes fool the CRI calculation but not the human observer. The result is a white light that is usable but not optimal i. The dramatic peaks in the spectrum of a fluorescent light are also clear in FIG. These peaks are part of the reason that fluorescent light looks very artificial. Even if light is produced within the spectral valleys, it is so dominated by the peaks that a human eye has difficulty seeing it.

A high-quality white light may be produced according to this disclosure without the dramatic peaks and valleys of a florescent lamp. A spectral peak is the point of intensity of a particular color of light which has less intensity at points immediately to either side of it. A maximum spectral peak is the highest spectral peak within the region of interest. It is therefore possible to have multiple peaks within a chosen portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, only a single maximum peak, or to have no peaks at all.

For instance, FIG. A valley is the opposite of a peak and is a point that is a minimum and has points of higher intensity on either side of it an inverted plateau is also a valley. A special plateau can also be a spectrum peak. A plateau involves a series of concurrent points of the same intensity with the points on either side of the series having less intensity.

It should be clear that high-quality white light simulating black-body sources do not have significant peaks and valleys within the area of the human eye's photopic response as is shown in FIG. Most artificial light, does however have some peaks and valleys in this region such shown in FIG. This is especially true for higher temperature light whereas for lower temperature light the continuous line has a positive upward slope with no peaks or valleys and shallow valleys in the shorter wavelength areas would be less noticeable, as would slight peaks in the longer wavelengths.

To take into account this peak and valley relationship to high-quality white light, the following is desirable in a high-quality white light of one embodiment of this invention. The lowest valley in the visible range should have a greater intensity than the intensity attributable to background noise as would be understood by one of skill in the art.

In another embodiment, it is desirable to mimic the shape of the black body spectra at different temperatures; for higher temperatures 4, K to 10, K this may be similar to the peaks and valleys analysis above. For lower temperatures, another analysis would be that most valleys should be at a shorter wavelength than the highest peak. This would be desirable in one embodiment for color temperatures less than K.

In another embodiment it would be desirable to have this in the region K to K. From the above analysis high-quality artificial white light should therefore have a spectrum that is substantially continuous between the nm and nm without dramatic spikes. Further, to be controllable, the light should be able to produce a spectrum that resembles natural light at various color temperatures.

Due to the use of mathematical models in the industry, it is also desirable for the source to yield a high CRI indicative that the reference colors are being preserved and showing that the high-quality white light of the instant invention does not fail on previously known tests. In order to build a high-quality white light lighting fixture using LEDs as the component illumination sources, it is desirable in one embodiment to have LEDs with particular maximum spectral peaks and spectral widths.

It would also be desirable for each of the LEDs to produce equal intensities of light to allow for easy mixing. One system for creating white light includes a large number for example around of LEDs, each of which has a narrow spectral width and each of which has a maximum spectral peak spanning a predetermined portion of the range from about nm to about nm, possibly with some overlap, and possibly beyond the boundaries of visible light.

This light source may produce essentially white light, and may be controllable to produce any color temperature and also any color. It allows for smaller variation than the human eye can see and therefore the light fixture can make changes more finely than a human can perceive.

Such a light fixture is therefore one embodiment of the invention, but other embodiments can use fewer LEDs when perception by humans is the focus. In another embodiment of the invention, a significantly smaller number of LEDs can be used with the spectral width of each LED increased to generate a high-quality white light.

One embodiment of such a light fixture is shown in FIG. It should be recognized here that a nine LED lighting fixture does not necessarily contain exactly nine total illumination sources. It contains some number of each of nine different colored illuminating sources. This number will usually be the same for each color, but need not be. High-brightness LEDs with a spectral width of about 25 nm are generally available. The solid line indicates the additive spectrum of all of the LED spectrums at equal power as could be created using the above method lighting fixture.

The powers of the LEDs may be adjusted to generate a range of color temperature and colors as well by adjusting the relative intensities of the nine LEDs. This nine LED lighting fixture has the ability to reproduce a wide range of color temperatures as well as a wide range of colors as the area of the CIE diagram enclosed by the component LEDs covers most of the available colors. It enables control over the production of non-continuous spectrums and the generation of particular high-quality colors by choosing to use only a subset of the available LED illumination sources.

It should be noted that the choice of location of the dominant wavelength of the nine LEDs could be moved without significant variation in the ability to produce white light. In addition, different colored LEDs may be added. Such additions may improve the resolution as was discussed in the LED example above. Any of these light fixtures may meet the quality standards above. They may produce a spectrum that is continuous over the photopic response of the eye, that is without dramatic peaks, and that can be controlled to produce a white light of multiple desired color temperatures.

The nine LED white light source is effective since its spectral resolution is sufficient to accurately simulate spectral distributions within human-perceptible limits. However, fewer LEDs may be used. If the specifications of making high-quality white light are followed, the fewer LEDs may have an increased spectral width to maintain the substantially continuous spectrum that fills the Photopic response of the eye.

The decrease could be from any number of LEDs from 8 to 2. The 1 LED case allows for no color mixing and therefore no control. To have a temperature controllable white light fixture at least two colors of LEDs may be required. One embodiment of the current invention includes three different colored LEDs.

Three LEDs allow for a two dimensional area a triangle to be available as the spectrum for the resultant fixture. The additive spectrum of the three LEDs offers less control than the nine LED lighting fixture, but may meet the criteria for a high-quality white light source as discussed above. The spectrum may be continuous without dramatic peaks.

It is also controllable, since the triangle of available white light encloses the black body curve. This source may lose fine control over certain colors or temperatures that were obtained with a greater number of LEDs as the area enclosed on the CIE diagram is a triangle, but the power of these LEDs can still be controlled to simulate sources of different color temperatures. Such an alteration is shown in FIGS. One skilled in the art would see that alternative temperatures may also be generated.

These spectrums fill the photopic response of the eye and are continuous, which means they appear more natural than artificial light sources such as fluorescent lights. Both spectra may be characterized as high-quality since the CRIs measure in the high 90s. In the design of a white lighting fixture, one impediment is the lack of availability for LEDs with a maximum spectral peak of nm.

This wavelength is at the center of the Photopic response of the eye and one of the clearest colors to the eye. The introduction of an LED with a dominant wavelength at or near nm would simplify the generation of LED-based white light, and a white light fixture with such an LED comprises one embodiment of this invention. In another embodiment of the invention, a non-LED illumination source that produces light with a maximum spectral peak from about nm to about nm could also be used to fill this particular spectral gap.

In a still further embodiment, this non-LED source could comprise an existing white light source and a filter to make that resulting light source have a maximum spectral peak in this general area. In another embodiment high-quality white light may be generated using LEDs without spectral peaks around nm to fill in the gap in the Photopic response left by the absence of green LEDs. One possibility is to fill the gap with a non-LED illumination source.

Another, as described below, is that a high-quality controllable white light source can be generated using a collection of one or more different colored LEDs where none of the LEDs have a maximum spectral peak in the range of about nm to nm. To build a white light lighting fixture that is controllable over a generally desired range of color temperatures, it is first necessary to determine the criteria of temperature desired. In one embodiment, this is chosen to be color temperatures from about K to about K which is commonly used by lighting designers in industry.

However, any range could be chosen for other embodiments including the range from K to 10,K which covers most variation in visible white light or any sub-range thereof. The overall output spectrum of this light may achieve a CRI comparable to standard light sources already existing. Peaks and valleys may also be minimized in the range as much as possible and particularly to have a continuous curve where no intensity is zero there is at least some spectral content at each wavelength throughout the range.

In recent years, white LEDs have become available. The phosphor down-coverts some of the blue light into green and red. The spectrum shown in FIG. This is because not all of the pump energy from the blue LED is down-converted. This has the effect of cooling the overall spectrum since the higher portion of the spectrum is considered to be warm.

Therefore the LED on its own does not meet the above lighting criteria. This spectrum contains a maximum spectral peak at about nm and does not accurately fill the photopic response of the human eye. A single LED also allows for no control of color temperature and therefore a system of the desired range of color temperatures cannot be generated with this LED alone. Using a combination of the bin A or C LEDs will enable the source to fill the spectrum around the center of the Photopic response, nm.

However, the lowest achievable color temperature will be K from using the bin C LED alone which does not cover the entire range of color temperatures previously discussed. This combination will appear abnormally cool blue on its own as the additive spectrum will still have a significant peak around nm. This is essentially a transparent piece of glass or plastic tinted so as to enable only higher wavelength light to pass through.

One example of such a high-pass filter's transmission is shown in FIG. Optical filters are known to the art and the high pass filter will generally comprise a translucent material, such as plastics, glass, or other transmission media which has been tinted to form a high pass filter such as the one shown in FIG.

One embodiment of the invention includes generating a filter of a desired material to obtain particular physical properties upon specifying the desired optical properties. This filter may be placed over the LEDs directly, or may be filter from the lighting fixture's housing.

One embodiment of the invention allows for the existing fixture to have a preselection of component LEDs and a selection of different filters. These filters may shift the range of resultant colors without alteration of the LEDs. In this way a filter system may be used in conjunction with the selected LEDs to fill an area of the CIE enclosed area by a light fixture that is shifted with respect to the LEDs, thus permitting an additional degree of control.

In one embodiment, this series of filters could enable a single light fixture to produce white light of any temperature by specifying a series of ranges for various filters which, when combined, enclose the white line. One embodiment of this is shown in FIG. This spectral transmission measurement shows that the high pass filter in FIG.

The dotted line in FIG. It is to be expected that the light passing through any substance will result in some decrease in intensity. The filter whose transmission is shown in FIG. Its chromaticity coordinates are shifted from 0. The importance of the chromaticity coordinates becomes evident when the colors of these sources are compared on the CIE Chromaticity Map. This locus indicates the perceived colors of ideal sources called blackbodies. The thicker line highlights the section of the locus that corresponds to the range from K to K.

The original placement was dashed line , while the new color is represented by line which is within the correct region. In one embodiment, however, a non-linear range of color temperatures may be generated using more than two LEDs. The argument could be made that even a linear variation closely approximating the desired range would suffice.

This could be achieved two ways. One, a different LED could be used that has a color temperature of K. Two, the output of the Nichia bin C LED could be passed through an additional filter to shift it even closer to the K point. Each of these systems comprises an additional embodiment of the instant invention.

However, the following example uses a third LED to meet the desired criteria. This LED should have a chromaticity to the right of the K point on the blackbody locus. The range produced using these three LEDs completely encompasses the blackbody locus over the range from K to K.

A light fixture fabricated using these LEDs may meet the requirement of producing white light with the correct chromaticity values. The K spectrum does not have any valleys at lower wavelengths than it's maximum peak. The light is also controllable over these spectra. However, to be considered high-quality white light by the lighting community, the CRI should be above 50 for low color temperatures and above 80 for high color temperatures.

According to the software program that accompanies the CIE The CRI for the K simulated spectrum is 82 and is considered to be high-quality white light. These spectra are also similar in shape to the spectra of natural light as shown in FIGS. This comparison shows that the high-quality white light fixture above will produce white light that is of higher quality than the three standard fluorescent lights , , and used in FIG. Further, the light source above is significantly more controllable than a fluorescent light as the color temperature can be selected as any of those points on curve while the fluorescents are limited to the particular points shown.

The luminous output of the described white light lighting fixture was also measured. The luminous output plotted with respect to the color temperature is given in FIG. The full-on point point of maximum intensity may be moved by altering the color of each of the LEDs present.

It would be understood by one of skill in the art that the above embodiments of white-light fixtures and methods could also include LEDs or other component illumination sources which produce light not visible to the human eye. Therefore any of the above embodiments could also include illumination sources with a maximum spectral peak below nm or above nm. A high-quality LED-based light may be configured to replace a fluorescent tube. In one embodiment, a replacement high-quality LED light source useful for replacing fluorescent tubes would function in an existing device designed to use fluorescent tubes.

Such a device is shown in FIG. The lighting fixture may include a ballast The ballast maybe a magnetic type or electronic type ballast for supplying the power to at least one tube which has traditionally been a fluorescent tube. The ballast includes power input connections to be connected with an external power supply.

The external power supply may be a building's AC supply or any other power supply known in the art. The ballast has tube connections and which attach to a tube coupler for easy insertion and removal of tubes These connections deliver the requisite power to the tube. In a magnetic ballasted system, the ballast may be a transformer with a predetermined impedance to supply the requisite voltage and current.

The fluorescent tube acts like a short circuit so the ballast's impedance is used to set the tube current. This means that each tube wattage requires a particular ballast. For example, a forty-watt fluorescent tube will only operate on a forty-watt ballast because the ballast is matched to the tube. Other fluorescent lighting fixtures use electronic ballasts with a high frequency sine wave output to the bulb.

Even in these systems, the internal ballast impedance of the electronic ballast still regulates the current through the tube. The lighting fixture may comprise, in one embodiment, a variation on the fighting fixture in FIGS. The lighting fixture can comprise a bottom portion with a generally rounded underside and a generally flat connection surface The lighting fixture also comprises a top portion with a generally rounded upper portion and a generally flat connection surface The top portion will generally be comprised of a translucent, transparent, or similar material allowing light transmission and may comprise a filter similar to filter The flat connection surfaces and can be placed together to form a generally cylindrical lighting fixture and can be attached by any method known in the art.

Between top portion and bottom portion is a lighting fixture which comprises a generally rectangular mounting and a strip of at least one component illumination source such as an LED This construction is by no means necessary and the lighting fixture need not have a housing with it or could have a housing of any type known in the art. Although a single strip is shown, one of skill in the art would understand that multiple strips, or other patterns of arrangement of the illumination sources, could be used.

The strips generally have the component LEDs in a sequence that separates the colors of LEDs if there are multiple colors of LEDs but such an arrangement is not required. The lighting fixture will generally have lamp connectors for connecting the lighting fixture to the existing lamp couplers e. The LED system may also include a control circuit This circuit may convert the ballast voltage into D. The control circuit may control the LEDs with constant D.

In a preferred embodiment, the control circuit would include a processor for generating pulse width modulated control signals, or other similar control signals, for the LEDs. These white lights therefore are examples of how a high-quality white light fixture can be generated with component illumination sources, even where those sources have dominant wavelengths outside the region of nm to nm. The above white light fixtures can contain programming which enables a user to easily control the light and select any desired color temperature that is available in the light.

These equations may be applied directly or may be used to create a look-up table so that binary values corresponding to a particular color temperature can be determined quickly. This table can reside in any form of programmable memory for use in controlling color temperature such as, but not limited to, the control described in U. In another embodiment, the light could have a selection of switches, such as DIP switches enabling it to operate in a stand-alone mode, where a desired color temperature can be selected using the switches, and changed by alteration of the stand alone product The light could also be remotely programmed to operate in a standalone mode as discussed above.

The lighting fixture in FIG. This switch may be a selector switch for selecting the color temperature, color of the LED system, or any other illumination conditions. For example, the switch may have multiple settings for different colors. This external control could be provided by any of the controllers discussed previously. Some fluorescent ballasts also provide for dimming where a dimmer switch on the wall will change the ballast output characteristics and as a result change the fluorescent light illumination characteristics.

The LED lighting system may use this as information to change the illumination characteristics. The control circuit can monitor the ballast characteristics and adjust the LED control signals in a corresponding fashion. These control signals may be preprogrammed to provide dimming, color changing, a combination of effects or any other illumination effects as the ballasts' characteristics change.

A user may desire different colors in a room at different times. The system could change color or other lighting conditions with respect to the dimmer or any other input. A user may also want to recreate the lighting conditions of incandescent light. One of the characteristics of such lighting is that it changes color temperature as its power is reduced. The incandescent light may be K at full power but the color temperature will reduce as the power is reduced and it may be K when the lamp is dimmed to a great extent.

Fluorescent lamps do not reduce in color temperature when they are dimmed. Typically, the fluorescent lamp's color does not change when the power is reduced. The LED system can be programmed to reduce in color temperature as the lighting conditions are dimmed. This may be achieved using a look-up table for selected intensities, through a mathematical description of the relationship between intensity and color temperature, any other method known in the art, or any combination of methods.

The LED system can be programmed to provide virtually any lighting conditions. The LED system may include a receiver for receiving signals, a transducer, a sensor or other device for receiving information. The receiver could be any receiver such as, but not limited to, a wire, cable, network, electromagnetic receiver, IR receiver, RF receiver, microwave receiver or any other receiver. A remote control device could be provided to change the lighting conditions remotely.

Lighting instructions may also be received from a network. For example, a building may have a network where information is transmitted through a wireless system and the network could control the illumination conditions throughout a building. This could be accomplished from a remote site as well as on site. This may provide for added building security or energy savings or convenience. The LED lighting system may also include optics to provide for evenly distributed lighting conditions from the fluorescent lighting fixture.

The optics may be attached to the LED system or associated with the system. The system has applications in environments where variations in available lighting may affect aesthetic choices. In an example embodiment, the lighting fixture may be used in a retail embodiment to sell paint or other color sensitive items.

A paint sample may be viewed in a retail store under the same lighting conditions present where the paint will ultimately be used. For example, the lighting fixture may be adjusted for outdoor lighting, or may be more finely tuned for sunny conditions, cloudy conditions, or the like. The lighting fixture may also be adjusted for different forms of interior lighting, such as halogen, fluorescent, or incandescent lighting. In a further embodiment, a portable sensor as discussed above may be taken to a site where the paint is to be applied, and the light spectrum may be analyzed and recorded.

The same light spectrum may subsequently be reproduced by the lighting fixture, so that paint may be viewed under the same lighting conditions present at the site where the paint is to be used. The lighting fixture may similarly be used for clothing decisions, where the appearance of a particular type and color of fabric may be strongly influenced by lighting conditions. For example, a wedding dress and bride may be viewed under lighting conditions expected at a wedding ceremony, in order to avoid any unpleasant surprises.

The lighting fixture can also be used in any of the applications, or in conjunction with any of the systems or methods discussed elsewhere in this disclosure. In another example embodiment, the lighting fixture may be used to accurately reproduce visual effects. In certain visual arts, such as photography, cinematography, or theater, make-up is typically applied in a dressing room or a salon, where lighting may be different than on a stage or other site.

The lighting fixture may thus be used to reproduce the lighting expected where photographs will be taken, or a performance given, so that suitable make-up may be chosen for predictable results. As with the retail applications above, a sensor may be used to measure actual lighting conditions so that the lighting conditions may be reproduced during application of make-up.

In theatrical or film presentations, colored light often corresponds to the colors of specific filters which can be placed on white lighting instruments to generate a specific resulting shade. There are generally a large selection of such filters in specific shades sold by selected companies. In addition, mixing the colors is not an exact science which can result in, slight variations in the colors as lighting fixtures are moved, or even change temperature, during a performance or film shoot.

Thus, in one embodiment there is provided a system for controlling illumination in a theatrical environment. In another embodiment, there is provided a system for controlling illumination in cinematography. The wide variety of light sources available create significant problems for film production in particular. Differences in lighting between adjacent scenes can disrupt the continuity of a film and create jarring effects for the viewer. Correcting the lighting to overcome these differences can be exacting, because the lighting available in an environment is not always under the complete control of the film crew.

Sunlight, for example, varies in color temperature during the day, most apparently at dawn and dusk, when yellows and reds abound, lowering the color temperature of the ambient light. Fluorescent light does not generally fall on the color temperature curve, often having extra intensity in blue-green regions of the spectrum, and is thus described by a correlated color temperature, representing the point on the color temperature curve that best approximates the incident light.

Each of these lighting problems may be addressed using the systems described above. The availability of a number of different fluorescent bulb types, each providing a different color temperature through the use of a particular phosphor, makes color temperature prediction and adjustment even more complicated.

High-pressure sodium vapor lamps, used primarily for street lighting, produce a brilliant yellowish-orange light that will drastically skew color balance. Operating at even higher internal pressures are mercury vapor lamps, sometimes used for large interior areas such as gymnasiums. These can result in a pronounced greenish-blue cast in video and film.

Thus, there is provided a system for simulating mercury vapor lamps, and a system for supplementing light sources, such as mercury vapor lamps, to produce a desired resulting color. These embodiments may have particular use in cinematography. To try and recreate all of these lighting types, it is often necessary for a filmmaker or theatre designer to place these specific types of lights in their design. At the same time, the need to use these lights may thwart the director's theatric intention.

The gym lights flashing quickly on and off in a supernatural thriller is a startling-effect, but it cannot be achieved naturally through mercury vapor lamps which take up to five minutes to warm up and produce the appropriate color light. Other visually sensitive fields depend on light of a specific color temperature or spectrum.

For example, surgical and dental workers often require colored light that emphasizes contrasts between different tissues, as well as between healthy and diseased tissue. Doctors also often rely on tracers or markers that reflect, radiate, or fluoresce color of a specific wavelength or spectrum to enable them to detect blood vessels or other small structures.

They can view these structures by shining light of the specific wavelength in the general area where the tracers are, and view the resultant reflection or fluorescing of the tracers. In many instances, different procedures may benefit from using a customized color temperature or particular color of light tailored to the needs of each specific procedure. Thus, there is provided a system for the visualization of medical, dental or other imaging conditions. In one embodiment, the system uses LEDs to produce a controlled range of light within a predetermined spectrum.

Further, there is often a desire to alter lighting conditions during an activity, a stage should change colors as the sun is supposed to rise, a color change may occur to change the color of a fluorescing tracer, or a room could have the color slowly altered to make a visitor more uncomfortable with the lighting as the length of their stay increased. While the invention has been disclosed in connection with the embodiments shown and described in detail, various equivalents, modifications, and improvements will be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art from the above description.

Such equivalents, modifications, and improvements are intended to be encompassed by the following claims. An exemplary bulb includes at least one first white LED and at least one power connection having a form configured to engage mechanically and electrically with one of a conventional Edison-mount screw-type light bulb socket, a conventional fluorescent tube coupler arrangement, and a conventional halogen MR socket arrangement.

The LED-based light bulb substantially corresponds in shape to a corresponding one of a conventional Edison-mount screw-type light bulb, a conventional fluorescent tube, and a conventional halogen MR light bulb, based on the form of the at least one power connection. Provisional Applications: Ser.

An LED-based light bulb, comprising: at least one first white LED to generate first radiation having a first spectrum;. The light bulb of claim 1 , further comprising an at least partially transparent or translucent housing through which at least some of the first radiation, when generated, passes. The light bulb of claim 1 , wherein the first voltage is an A.

The light bulb of claim 1 , wherein the first voltage is provided by a ballast, and wherein the at least one voltage transformation device provides the second voltage as a D. The light bulb of claim 1 , further comprising at least one user interface to facilitate control of the first radiation.

The light bulb of claim 6 , further including: at least one processor, coupled to the at least one voltage transformation device and the at least one white LED, to control at least the first radiation; and. The light bulb of claim 6 , further comprising at least one optical filter to selectively transmit a portion of at least one of the first radiation and the second radiation.

The light bulb of claim 6 , further comprising at least one controller to independently control a first intensity of the first radiation and a second intensity of the second radiation. The light bulb of claim 12 , further comprising at least one user interface coupled to the at least one controller to facilitate an adjustment of a color or color temperature of light generated by the light bulb.

The light bulb of claim 12 , wherein the light bulb is configured to generate essentially white light based on a mixing of at least some of the first radiation and at least some of the second radiation, and wherein the at least one controller is configured to independently control the at least one first white LED and the at least one second LED so as to provide at least one particular color temperature of the essentially white light generated by the light bulb.

The light bulb of claim 14 , further including a memory storing data representing the first intensity of the first radiation and the second intensity of the second radiation to provide the at least one particular color temperature of the essentially white light.

The light bulb of claim 14 , wherein the at least one particular color temperature includes a plurality of different color temperatures, and wherein the light bulb further comprises at least one user interface coupled to the at least one controller to facilitate a selection of at least some of the plurality of different color temperatures of the essentially white light generated by the light bulb.

The light bulb of claim 16 , further including a memory storing data representing multiple values for the first intensity of the first radiation and the second intensity of the second radiation to provide the plurality of different color temperatures.

The light bulb of claim 12 , further comprising at least one sensor coupled to the at least one controller to generate at least one control signal in response to at least one detectable condition, wherein the at least one controller is configured to control the first intensity of the first radiation and the second intensity of the second radiation in response to the at least one control signal. The light bulb of claim 12 , wherein the at least one controller is configured to independently control the at least one first white LED and the at least one second LED using a pulse width modulation PWM technique.

The light bulb of claim 12 , further comprising at least one of a receiver and a transmitter coupled to the at least one controller to communicate at least one control signal to or from the light bulb.

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While not shown explicitly in FIGS. In one embodiment of the invention, it is recognized that prespecified ranges of available colors may be desirable and it may also be desirable to build lighting fixtures in such a way as to maximize the illumination of the lighting apparatus for particular color therein. This is best shown through a numerical example. Let us assume that a lighting fixture contains 30 component illumination sources in three different wavelengths, primary red, primary blue, and primary green such as individual LEDs.

In addition, let us assume that each of these illumination sources produces the same intensity of light, they just produce at different colors. Now, there are multiple different ways that the thirty illumination sources for any given lighting fixture can be chosen.

There could be 10 of each of the illumination sources, or alternatively there could be 30 primary blue colored illumination sources. It should be readily apparent that these light fixtures would be useful for different types of lighting.

The second light apparatus produces more intense primary blue light there are 30 sources of blue light than the first light source which only has 10 primary blue light sources, the remaining 20 light sources have to be off to produce primary blue light , but is limited to only producing primary blue light.

The second light fixture can produce more colors of light, because the spectrums of the component illumination sources can be mixed in different percentages, but cannot produce as intense blue light. It should be readily apparent from this example that the selection of the individual component illumination sources can change the resultant spectrum of light the fixture can produce.

It should also be apparent that the same selection of components can produce lights which can produce the same colors, but can produce those colors at different intensities. To put this another way, the full-on point of a lighting fixture the point where all the component illumination sources are at maximum will be different depending on what the component illumination sources are. A lighting system may accordingly be specified using a full-on point and a range of selectable colors.

This system has many potential applications such as, but not limited to, retail display lighting and theater lighting. Often times numerous lighting fixtures of a plurality of different colors are used to present a stage or other area with interesting shadows and desirable features. Problems can arise, however, because lamps used regularly have similar intensities before lighting filters are used to specify colors of those fixtures.

Due to differences in transmission of the various filters for instance blue filters often loose significantly more intensity than red filters , lighting fixtures must have their intensity controlled to compensate. For this reason, lighting fixtures are often operated at less than their full capability to allow mixing requiring additional lighting fixtures to be used.

With the lighting fixtures of the instant invention, the lighting fixtures can be designed to produce particular colors at identical intensities of chosen colors when operating at their full potential; this can allow easier mixing of the resultant light, and can result in more options for a lighting design scheme. Such a system enables the person building or designing lighting fixtures to generate lights that can produce a pre-selected range of colors, while still maximizing the intensity of light at certain more desirable colors.

These lighting fixtures would therefore allow a user to select certain color s of lighting fixtures for an application independent of relative intensity. The lighting fixtures can then be built so that the intensities at these colors are the same. Only the spectrum is altered. It also enables a user to select lighting fixtures that produce a particular high-intensity color of light, and also have the ability to select nearby colors of light in a range.

The range of colors which can be produced by the lighting fixture can be specified instead of, or in addition to, the full-on point. The lighting fixture can then be provided with control systems that enable a user of the lighting fixture to intuitively and easily select a desired color from the available range.

One embodiment of such a system works by storing the spectrums of each of the component illumination sources. In this example embodiment, the illumination sources are LEDs. By selecting different component LEDs with different spectrums, the designer can define the color range of a lighting fixture.

An easy way to visualize the color range is to use the CIE diagram which shows the entire lighting range of all colors of light which can exist. One embodiment of a system provides a light-authoring interface such as an interactive computer interface. The interface has several channels for selecting LEDs. Once selected, varying the intensity slide bar can change the relative number of LEDs of that type in the resultant lighting fixture.

A line connecting these two points represents the extent that the color from these two LEDs can be mixed to produce additional colors. When a third and fourth channel are used, an area can be plotted on the CIE diagram representing the possible combinations of the selected LEDs. Although the area shown here is a polygon of four sides it would be understood by one of skill in the art that the area could be a point line or a polygon with any number of sides depending on the LEDs chosen.

In addition to specifying the color range, the intensities at any given color can be calculated from the LED spectrums. By knowing the number of LEDs for a given color and the maximum intensity of any of these LEDs, the total light output at a particular color is calculated. A diamond or other symbol may be plotted on the diagram to represent the color when all of the LEDs are on full brightness or the point may represent the present intensity setting.

Because a lighting fixture can be made of a plurality of component illumination sources, when designing a lighting fixture, a color that is most desirable can be selected, and a lighting fixture can be designed that maximizes the intensity of that color. Alternatively, a fixture may be chosen and the point of maximum intensity can be determined from this selection. A tool may be provided to allow calculation of a particular color at a maximum intensity. Alternatively, a selection of LEDs may be chosen and the point of maximum intensity determined; both directions of calculation are included in embodiments of this invention.

Therefore the system in one embodiment of the invention contains a collection of the spectrums of a number of different LEDs, provides an interface for a user to select LEDs that will produce a range of color that encloses the desirable area, and allows a user to select the number of each LED type such that when the unit is on full, a target color is produced.

In an alternative embodiment, the user would simply need to provide a desired spectrum, or color and intensity, and the system could produce a lighting fixture which could generate light according to the requests. Once the light has been designed, in one embodiment, it is further desirable to make the light's spectrum easily accessible to the lighting fixture's user. As was discussed above, the lighting fixture may have been chosen to have a particular array of illumination sources such that a particular color is obtained at maximum intensity.

However, there may be other colors that can be produced by varying the relative intensities of the component illumination sources. The spectrum of the lighting fixture can be controlled within the predetermined range specified by the area To control the lighting color within the range, it is recognized that each color within the polygon is the additive mix of the component LEDs with each color contained in the components having a varied intensity.

That is, to move from one point in FIG. This may be less than intuitive for the final user of the lighting fixture who simply wants a particular color, or a particular transition between colors and does not know the relative intensities to shift to.

This is particularly true if the LEDs used do not have spectra with a single well-determined peak of color. A lighting fixture may be able to generate several shades of orange, but how to get to each of those shades may require control. In order to be able to carry out such control of the spectrum of the light, it is desirable in one embodiment to create a system and method for linking the color of the light to a control device for controlling the light's color.

That is, a method whereby, with the specification of a particular color of light by a controller, the lighting fixture can turn on the appropriate illumination sources at the appropriate intensity to create that color of light. In one embodiment, the lighting fixture design software shown in FIG.

This mapping will generally take one of two forms: 1 a lookup table, or 2 a parametric equation, although other forms could be used as would be known to one of skill in the art. Software on board the lighting fixture such as in the processor above or on board a lighting controller, such as one of those known to the art, or described above, can be configured to accept the input of a user in selecting a color, and producing a desired light.

This mapping may be performed by a variety of methods. In one embodiment, statistics are known about each individual component illumination sources within the lighting fixture, so mathematical calculations may be made to produce a relationship between the resulting spectrum and the component spectrums.

Such calculations would be well understood by one of skill in the art. In another embodiment, an external calibration system may be used. One layout of such a system is disclosed in FIG. Here the calibration system includes a lighting fixture that is connected to a processor and which receives input from a light sensor or transducer The processor may be processor or may be an additional or alternative processor. Between these two devices modulating the brightness or color of the output and measuring the brightness and color of the output, the lighting fixture can be calibrated where the relative settings of the component illumination sources or processor settings are directly related to the output of the fixture the light sensor settings.

Since the sensor can detect the net spectrum produced by the lighting fixture, it can be used to provide a direct mapping by relating the output of the lighting fixture to the settings of the component LEDs. Once the mapping has been completed, other methods or systems may be used for the light fixture's control.

Such methods or systems will enable the determination of a desired color, and the production by the lighting fixture of that color. The control system may be automatic, may accept input from a user, or may be any combination of these two. The system may also include a processor which may be processor or another processor to enable the light to change color. A user computer interface control system with which a user may select a desired color of light is used as a control system The interface could enable any type of user interaction in the determination of color.

For example, the interface may provide a palette, chromaticity diagram, or other color scheme from which a user may select a color, e. The interface may include a display screen, a computer keyboard, a mouse, a trackpad, or any other suitable system for interaction between the processor and a user.

In certain embodiments, the system may permit a user to select a set of colors for repeated use, capable of being rapidly accessed, e. In certain embodiments, the interface may also include a look-up table capable of correlating color names with approximate shades, converting color coordinates from one system, e. The interface may also include one or more closed-form equations for converting from, for example, a user-specified color temperature associated with a particular color of white light into suitable signals for the different component illumination sources of the lighting fixture The system may further include a sensor as discussed below for providing information to the processor , e.

In another embodiment, a manual control system is used in the system , as depicted in FIG. For example, a dial or slider may be used in a system to modulate the net color spectrum produced, the illumination along the color temperature curve, or any other modulation of the color of the lighting fixture.

Alternatively, a joystick, trackball, trackpad, mouse, thumb-wheel, touch-sensitive surface, or a console with two or more sliders, dials, or other controls may be used to modulate the color, temperature, or spectrum. These manual controls may be used in conjunction with a computer interface control system as discussed above, or may be used independently, possibly with related markings to enable a user to scan through an available color range.

One such manual control system is shown in greater detail in FIG. The depicted control unit features a dial marked to indicate a range of color temperatures, e. It would be understood by one of skill in the art that broader, narrower, or overlapping ranges may be employed, and a similar system could be employed to control lighting fixtures that can produce light of a spectrum beyond white, or not including white.

A manual control system may be included as part of a processor controlling an array of lighting units, coupled to a processor, e. Additionally, instead of a dial, a manual control system may employ a slider, a mouse, or any other control or input device suitable for use in the systems and methods described herein. In another embodiment, the calibration system depicted in FIG. For instance a selected color could be input by the user and the calibration system could measure the spectrum of ambient light; compare the measured spectrum with the selected spectrum, adjust the color of light produced by the lighting fixture , and repeat the procedure to minimize the difference between the desired spectrum and the measured spectrum.

For example, if the measured spectrum is deficient in red wavelengths when compared with the target spectrum, the processor may increase the brightness of red LEDs in the lighting fixture, decrease the brightness of blue and green LEDs in the lighting fixture, or both, in order to minimize the difference between the measured spectrum and the target spectrum and potentially also achieve a target brightness i.

The system could also be used to match a color produced by a lighting fixture to a color existing naturally. For instance, a film director could find light in a location where filming does not occur and measure that light using the sensor. This could then provide the desired color which is to be produced by the lighting fixture.

In one embodiment, these tasks can be performed simultaneously potentially using two separate sensors. In a yet further embodiment, the director can remotely measure a lighting condition with a sensor and store that lighting condition on memory associated with that sensor The sensor's memory may then be transferred at a later time to the processor which may set the lighting fixture to mimic the light recorded.

The sensor used to measure the illumination conditions may be a photodiode, a phototransistor, a photoresistor, a radiometer, a photometer, a calorimeter, a spectral radiometer, a camera, a combination of two or more of the preceding devices, or any other system capable of measuring the color or brightness of illumination conditions. A calorimeter or spectral radiometer is advantageous because a number of wavelengths can be simultaneously detected, permitting accurate measurements of color and brightness simultaneously.

A color temperature sensor which may be employed in the systems methods described herein is disclosed in U. In embodiments wherein the sensor detects an image, e. Such a system simplifies procedures employed by cinematographers, for example, attempting to produce a consistent appearance of an object to promote continuity between scenes of a film, or by photographers, for example, trying to reproduce lighting conditions from an earlier shoot.

In certain embodiments, the lighting fixture may be used as the sole light source, while in other embodiments, such as is depicted in FIG. This use can be to supplement the output of the second source. For example, a fluorescent light emitting illumination weak in red portions of the spectrum may be supplemented with a lighting fixture emitting primarily red wavelengths to provide illumination conditions more closely resembling natural sunlight.

Similarly, such a system may also be useful in outdoor image capture situations, because the color temperature of natural light varies as the position of the sun changes. A lighting fixture may be used in conjunction with a sensor as controller to compensate for changes in sunlight to maintain constant illumination conditions for the duration of a session.

Any of the above systems could be deployed in the system disclosed in FIG. A lighting system for a location may comprise a plurality of lighting fixtures which are controllable by a central control system The light within the location or on a particular location such as the stage depicted here is now desired to mimic another type of light such as sunlight. A first sensor is taken outside and the natural sunlight is measured and recorded. This recording is then provided to central control system A second sensor which may be the same sensor in one embodiment is present on the stage The central control system now controls the intensity and color of the plurality of lighting fixtures and attempts to match the input spectrum of said second sensor with the prerecorded natural sunlight's spectrum.

In this manner, interior lighting design can be dramatically simplified as desired colors of light can be reproduced or simulated in a closed setting. This can be in a theatre as depicted here , or in any other location such as a home, an office, a soundstage, a retail store, or any other location where artificial lighting is used. Such a system could also be used in conjunction with other secondary light sources to create a desired lighting effect. The above systems allow for the creation of lighting fixtures with virtually any type of spectrum.

A lighting fixture which produces white light according to the above invention can comprise any collection of component illumination sources such that the area defined by the illumination sources can encapsulate at least a portion of the black body curve. The black body curve in FIG. In a preferred embodiment, the entire black body curve would be encapsulated allowing the lighting fixture to produce any temperature of white light.

For a variable color white light with the highest possible intensity, a significant portion of the black body curve may be enclosed. The intensity at different color whites along the black body curve can then be simulated. The maximum intensity produced by this light could be placed along the black body curve.

For example, the full-on color could be placed at approximately K noon day sunlight shown by point in FIG. Such a lighting apparatus would then be able to produce K light at a high intensity; in addition, the light may adjust for differences in temperature for instance cloudy sunlight by moving around in the defined area. Although this system generates white light with a variable color temperature, it is not necessarily a high quality white light source. A number of combinations of colors of illumination sources can be chosen which enclose the black body curve, and the quality of the resulting lighting fixtures may vary depending on the illumination sources chosen.

Since white light is a mixture of different wavelengths of light, it is possible to characterize white light based on the component colors of light that are used to generate it. Red, green, and blue RGB can combine to form white; as can light blue, amber, and lavender; or cyan, magenta and yellow. Natural white light sunlight contains a virtually continuous spectrum of wavelengths across the human visible band and beyond. This can be seen by examining sunlight through a prism, or looking at a rainbow.

Many artificial white lights are technically white to the human eye, however, they can appear quite different when shown on colored surfaces because they lack a virtually continuous spectrum. As an extreme example one could create a white light source using two lasers or other narrow band optical sources with complimentary wavelengths.

These sources would have an extremely narrow spectral width perhaps 1 nm wide. To exemplify this, we will choose wavelengths of nm and nm. These are considered complimentary since they will additively combine to make light which the human eye perceives as white light. The intensity levels of these two lasers can be adjusted to some ratio of powers that will produce white light that appears to have a color temperature of K.

If this source were directed at a white surface, the reflected light will appear as K white light. The problem with this type of white light is that it will appear extremely artificial when shown on a colored surface. A colored surface as opposed to colored light is produced because the surface absorbs and reflects different wavelengths of light.

If hit by white light comprising a full spectrum light with all wavelengths of the visible band at reasonable intensity , the surface will absorb and reflect perfectly. However, the white light above does not provide the complete spectrum. To again use an extreme example, if a surface only reflected light from nm nm it will appear a fairly deep green in full-spectrum light, but will appear black it absorbs all the spectrums present in the above described laser-generated artificial white light.

Further, since the CRI index relies on a limited number of observations, there are mathematical loopholes in the method. Since the spectrums for CRI color samples are known, it is a relatively straightforward exercise to determine the optimal wavelengths and minimum numbers of narrow band sources needed to achieve a high CRI. This source will fool the CRI measurement, but not the human observer. The CRI method is at best an estimator of the spectrum that the human eye can see.

An everyday example is the modern compact fluorescent lamp. It has a fairly high CRI of 80 and a color temperature of K but still appears unnatural. The spectrum of a compact fluorescent is shown in FIG. Due to the desirability of high-quality light in particular high-quality white light that can be varied over different temperatures or spectrums, a further embodiment of this invention comprises systems and method for generating higher-quality white light by mixing the electromagnetic radiation from a plurality of component illumination sources such as LEDs.

This is accomplished by choosing LEDs that provide a white light that is targeted to the human eye's interpretation of light, as well as the mathematical CRI index. That light can then be maximized in intensity using the above system. Further, because the color temperature of the light can be controlled, this high quality white light can therefore still have the control discussed above and can be a controllable, high-quality, light which can produce high-quality light across a range of colors.

To produce a high-quality white light, it is necessary to examine the human eye's ability to see light of different wavelengths and determine what makes a light high-quality. In it's simplest definition, a high-quality white light provides low distortion to colored objects when they are viewed under it. It therefore makes sense to begin by examining a high-quality light based on what the human eye sees.

For the purposes of this disclosure, it will be accepted that sunlight is a high-quality white light. The sensitivity of the human eye is known as the Photopic response. The Photopic response can be thought of as a spectral transfer function for the eye, meaning that it indicates how much of each wavelength of light input is seen by the human observer.

The eye's Photopic response is important since it can be used to describe the boundaries on the problem of generating white light or of any color of light. Therefore a high-quality white light may include only visible light, or may include visible light and other electromagnetic radiation which may result in a photobiological response. This will generally be electromagnetic radiation less than nm ultraviolet light or greater than nm infrared light.

Using the first part of the description, the source is not required to have any power above nm or below nm since the eye has only minimal response at these wavelengths. A high-quality source would preferably be substantially continuous between these wavelengths otherwise colors could be distorted but can fall-off towards higher or lower wavelengths due to the sensitivity of the eye. Further, the spectral distribution of different temperatures of white light will be different. To illustrate this, spectral distributions for two blackbody sources with temperatures of K and K are shown in FIG.

As seen in FIG. The K curve is heavily weighted towards higher wavelengths. This distribution makes sense intuitively, since lower color temperatures appear to be yellow-to-reddish. Any holes, i. Since the blackbody curves are continuous, even the dramatic change from K to K will only shift colors towards red, making them appear warmer but not devoid of color.

This comparison shows that an important specification of any high-quality artificial light fixture is a continuous spectrum across the photopic response of the human observer. Having examined these relationships of the human eye, a fixture for producing controllable high-quality white light would need to have the following characteristic.

The light has a substantially continuous spectrum over the wavelengths visible to the human eye, with any holes or gaps locked in the areas where the human eye is less responsive. In addition, in order to make a high-quality white light controllable over a range of temperatures, it would be desirable to produce a light spectrum which can have relatively equal values of each wavelength of light, but can also make different wavelengths dramatically more or less intense with regards to other wavelengths depending on the color temperature desired.

The clearest waveform which would have such control would need to mirror the scope of the photopic response of the eye, while still being controllable at the various different wavelengths. The CRI rating for these values is usually extremely low or possibly negative. In an additional case, since the CRI rating relies on eight particular color samples, it is possible to get a high CRI, while not having a particularly high-quality light because the white light functions well for those particular color samples specified by the CRI rating.

That is, a high CRI index could be obtained by a white light composed of eight 1 nm sources which were perfectly lined up with the eight CRI color structures. This would, however, not be a high-quality light source for illuminating other colors. The fluorescent lamp shown in FIG. Although the light from a fluorescent lamp is white, it is comprised of many spikes such as and The position of these spikes has been carefully designed so that when measured using the CRI samples they yield a high rating.

In other words, these spikes fool the CRI calculation but not the human observer. The result is a white light that is usable but not optimal i. The dramatic peaks in the spectrum of a fluorescent light are also clear in FIG. These peaks are part of the reason that fluorescent light looks very artificial. Even if light is produced within the spectral valleys, it is so dominated by the peaks that a human eye has difficulty seeing it.

A high-quality white light may be produced according to this disclosure without the dramatic peaks and valleys of a florescent lamp. A spectral peak is the point of intensity of a particular color of light which has less intensity at points immediately to either side of it. A maximum spectral peak is the highest spectral peak within the region of interest. It is therefore possible to have multiple peaks within a chosen portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, only a single maximum peak, or to have no peaks at all.

For instance, FIG. A valley is the opposite of a peak and is a point that is a minimum and has points of higher intensity on either side of it an inverted plateau is also a valley. A special plateau can also be a spectrum peak. A plateau involves a series of concurrent points of the same intensity with the points on either side of the series having less intensity. It should be clear that high-quality white light simulating black-body sources do not have significant peaks and valleys within the area of the human eye's photopic response as is shown in FIG.

Most artificial light, does however have some peaks and valleys in this region such shown in FIG. This is especially true for higher temperature light whereas for lower temperature light the continuous line has a positive upward slope with no peaks or valleys and shallow valleys in the shorter wavelength areas would be less noticeable, as would slight peaks in the longer wavelengths.

To take into account this peak and valley relationship to high-quality white light, the following is desirable in a high-quality white light of one embodiment of this invention. The lowest valley in the visible range should have a greater intensity than the intensity attributable to background noise as would be understood by one of skill in the art.

In another embodiment, it is desirable to mimic the shape of the black body spectra at different temperatures; for higher temperatures 4, K to 10, K this may be similar to the peaks and valleys analysis above. For lower temperatures, another analysis would be that most valleys should be at a shorter wavelength than the highest peak. This would be desirable in one embodiment for color temperatures less than K. In another embodiment it would be desirable to have this in the region K to K. From the above analysis high-quality artificial white light should therefore have a spectrum that is substantially continuous between the nm and nm without dramatic spikes.

Further, to be controllable, the light should be able to produce a spectrum that resembles natural light at various color temperatures. Due to the use of mathematical models in the industry, it is also desirable for the source to yield a high CRI indicative that the reference colors are being preserved and showing that the high-quality white light of the instant invention does not fail on previously known tests.

In order to build a high-quality white light lighting fixture using LEDs as the component illumination sources, it is desirable in one embodiment to have LEDs with particular maximum spectral peaks and spectral widths. It would also be desirable for each of the LEDs to produce equal intensities of light to allow for easy mixing.

One system for creating white light includes a large number for example around of LEDs, each of which has a narrow spectral width and each of which has a maximum spectral peak spanning a predetermined portion of the range from about nm to about nm, possibly with some overlap, and possibly beyond the boundaries of visible light. This light source may produce essentially white light, and may be controllable to produce any color temperature and also any color. It allows for smaller variation than the human eye can see and therefore the light fixture can make changes more finely than a human can perceive.

Such a light fixture is therefore one embodiment of the invention, but other embodiments can use fewer LEDs when perception by humans is the focus. In another embodiment of the invention, a significantly smaller number of LEDs can be used with the spectral width of each LED increased to generate a high-quality white light.

One embodiment of such a light fixture is shown in FIG. It should be recognized here that a nine LED lighting fixture does not necessarily contain exactly nine total illumination sources. It contains some number of each of nine different colored illuminating sources. This number will usually be the same for each color, but need not be.

High-brightness LEDs with a spectral width of about 25 nm are generally available. The solid line indicates the additive spectrum of all of the LED spectrums at equal power as could be created using the above method lighting fixture. The powers of the LEDs may be adjusted to generate a range of color temperature and colors as well by adjusting the relative intensities of the nine LEDs. This nine LED lighting fixture has the ability to reproduce a wide range of color temperatures as well as a wide range of colors as the area of the CIE diagram enclosed by the component LEDs covers most of the available colors.

It enables control over the production of non-continuous spectrums and the generation of particular high-quality colors by choosing to use only a subset of the available LED illumination sources. It should be noted that the choice of location of the dominant wavelength of the nine LEDs could be moved without significant variation in the ability to produce white light.

In addition, different colored LEDs may be added. Such additions may improve the resolution as was discussed in the LED example above. Any of these light fixtures may meet the quality standards above. They may produce a spectrum that is continuous over the photopic response of the eye, that is without dramatic peaks, and that can be controlled to produce a white light of multiple desired color temperatures.

The nine LED white light source is effective since its spectral resolution is sufficient to accurately simulate spectral distributions within human-perceptible limits. However, fewer LEDs may be used. If the specifications of making high-quality white light are followed, the fewer LEDs may have an increased spectral width to maintain the substantially continuous spectrum that fills the Photopic response of the eye.

The decrease could be from any number of LEDs from 8 to 2. The 1 LED case allows for no color mixing and therefore no control. To have a temperature controllable white light fixture at least two colors of LEDs may be required. One embodiment of the current invention includes three different colored LEDs. Three LEDs allow for a two dimensional area a triangle to be available as the spectrum for the resultant fixture. The additive spectrum of the three LEDs offers less control than the nine LED lighting fixture, but may meet the criteria for a high-quality white light source as discussed above.

The spectrum may be continuous without dramatic peaks. It is also controllable, since the triangle of available white light encloses the black body curve. This source may lose fine control over certain colors or temperatures that were obtained with a greater number of LEDs as the area enclosed on the CIE diagram is a triangle, but the power of these LEDs can still be controlled to simulate sources of different color temperatures.

Such an alteration is shown in FIGS. One skilled in the art would see that alternative temperatures may also be generated. These spectrums fill the photopic response of the eye and are continuous, which means they appear more natural than artificial light sources such as fluorescent lights. Both spectra may be characterized as high-quality since the CRIs measure in the high 90s. In the design of a white lighting fixture, one impediment is the lack of availability for LEDs with a maximum spectral peak of nm.

This wavelength is at the center of the Photopic response of the eye and one of the clearest colors to the eye. The introduction of an LED with a dominant wavelength at or near nm would simplify the generation of LED-based white light, and a white light fixture with such an LED comprises one embodiment of this invention.

In another embodiment of the invention, a non-LED illumination source that produces light with a maximum spectral peak from about nm to about nm could also be used to fill this particular spectral gap. In a still further embodiment, this non-LED source could comprise an existing white light source and a filter to make that resulting light source have a maximum spectral peak in this general area.

In another embodiment high-quality white light may be generated using LEDs without spectral peaks around nm to fill in the gap in the Photopic response left by the absence of green LEDs. One possibility is to fill the gap with a non-LED illumination source. Another, as described below, is that a high-quality controllable white light source can be generated using a collection of one or more different colored LEDs where none of the LEDs have a maximum spectral peak in the range of about nm to nm.

To build a white light lighting fixture that is controllable over a generally desired range of color temperatures, it is first necessary to determine the criteria of temperature desired. In one embodiment, this is chosen to be color temperatures from about K to about K which is commonly used by lighting designers in industry.

However, any range could be chosen for other embodiments including the range from K to 10, K which covers most variation in visible white light or any sub-range thereof. The overall output spectrum of this light may achieve a CRI comparable to standard light sources already existing. Peaks and valleys may also be minimized in the range as much as possible and particularly to have a continuous curve where no intensity is zero there is at least some spectral content at each wavelength throughout the range.

In recent years, white LEDs have become available. The phosphor down-coverts some of the blue light into green and red. The spectrum shown in FIG. This is because not all of the pump energy from the blue LED is down-converted. This has the effect of cooling the overall spectrum since the higher portion of the spectrum is considered to be warm.

Therefore the LED on its own does not meet the above lighting criteria. This spectrum contains a maximum spectral peak at about nm and does not accurately fill the photopic response of the human eye. A single LED also allows for no control of color temperature and therefore a system of the desired range of color temperatures cannot be generated with this LED alone. Using a combination of the bin A or C LEDs will enable the source to fill the spectrum around the center of the Photopic response, nm.

However, the lowest achievable color temperature will be K from using the bin C LED alone which does not cover the entire range of color temperatures previously discussed. This combination will appear abnormally cool blue on its own as the additive spectrum will still have a significant peak around nm.

This is essentially a transparent piece of glass or plastic tinted so as to enable only higher wavelength light to pass through. One example of such a high-pass filter's transmission is shown in FIG. Optical filters are known to the art and the high pass filter will generally comprise a translucent material, such as plastics, glass, or other transmission media which has been tinted to form a high pass filter such as the one shown in FIG.

One embodiment of the invention includes generating a filter of a desired material to obtain particular physical properties upon specifying the desired optical properties. This filter may be placed over the LEDs directly, or may be filter from the lighting fixture's housing. One embodiment of the invention allows for the existing fixture to have a preselection of component LEDs and a selection of different filters. These filters may shift the range of resultant colors without alteration of the LEDs.

In this way a filter system may be used in conjunction with the selected LEDs to fill an area of the CIE enclosed area by a light fixture that is shifted with respect to the LEDs, thus permitting an additional degree of control. In one embodiment, this series of filters could enable a single light fixture to produce white light of any temperature by specifying a series of ranges for various filters which, when combined, enclose the white line.

One embodiment of this is shown in FIG. This spectral transmission measurement shows that the high pass filter in FIG. The dotted line in FIG. It is to be expected that the light passing through any substance will result in some decrease in intensity. The filter whose transmission is shown in FIG. Its chromaticity coordinates are shifted from 0. The importance of the chromaticity coordinates becomes evident when the colors of these sources are compared on the CIE Chromaticity Map.

This locus indicates the perceived colors of ideal sources called blackbodies. The thicker line highlights the section of the locus that corresponds to the range from K to K. The original placement was dashed line , while the new color is represented by line which is within the correct region.

In one embodiment, however, a non-linear range of color temperatures may be generated using more than two LEDs. The argument could be made that even a linear variation closely approximating the desired range would suffice. This could be achieved two ways. One, a different LED could be used that has a color temperature of K.

Two, the output of the Nichia bin C LED could be passed through an additional filter to shift it even closer to the K point. Each of these systems comprises an additional embodiment of the instant invention. However, the following example uses a third LED to meet the desired criteria.

This LED should have a chromaticity to the right of the K point on the blackbody locus. The range produced using these three LEDs completely encompasses the blackbody locus over the range from K to K. A light fixture fabricated using these LEDs may meet the requirement of producing white light with the correct chromaticity values. The K spectrum does not have any valleys at lower wavelengths than it's maximum peak.

The light is also controllable over these spectra. However, to be considered high-quality white light by the lighting community, the CRI should be above 50 for low color temperatures and above 80 for high color temperatures. According to the software program that accompanies the CIE The CRI for the K simulated spectrum is 82 and is considered to be high-quality white light.

These spectra are also similar in shape to the spectra of natural light as shown in FIGS. This comparison shows that the high-quality white light fixture above will produce white light that is of higher quality than the three standard fluorescent lights , , and used in FIG.

Further, the light source above is significantly more controllable than a fluorescent light as the color temperature can be selected as any of those points on curve while the fluorescents are limited to the particular points shown. The luminous output of the described white light lighting fixture was also measured. The luminous output plotted with respect to the color temperature is given in FIG.

The full-on point point of maximum intensity may be moved by altering the color of each of the LEDs present. It would be understood by one of skill in the art that the above embodiments of white-light fixtures and methods could also include LEDs or other component illumination sources which produce light not visible to the human eye.

Therefore any of the above embodiments could also include illumination sources with a maximum spectral peak below nm or above nm. A high-quality LED-based light may be configured to replace a fluorescent tube. In one embodiment, a replacement high-quality LED light source useful for replacing fluorescent tubes would function in an existing device designed to use fluorescent tubes.

Such a device is shown in FIG. The lighting fixture may include a ballast The ballast maybe a magnetic type or electronic type ballast for supplying the power to at least one tube which has traditionally been a fluorescent tube.

The ballast includes power input connections to be connected with an external power supply. The external power supply may be a building's AC supply or any other power supply known in the art. The ballast has tube connections and which attach to a tube coupler for easy insertion and removal of tubes These connections deliver the requisite power to the tube.

In a magnetic ballasted system, the ballast may be a transformer with a predetermined impedance to supply the requisite voltage and current. The fluorescent tube acts like a short circuit so the ballast's impedance is used to set the tube current.

This means that each tube wattage requires a particular ballast. For example, a forty-watt fluorescent tube will only operate on a forty-watt ballast because the ballast is matched to the tube. Other fluorescent lighting fixtures use electronic ballasts with a high frequency sine wave output to the bulb. Even in these systems, the internal ballast impedance of the electronic ballast still regulates the current through the tube.

The lighting fixture may comprise, in one embodiment, a variation on the fighting fixture in FIGS. The lighting fixture can comprise a bottom portion with a generally rounded underside and a generally flat connection surface The lighting fixture also comprises a top portion with a generally rounded upper portion and a generally flat connection surface The top portion will generally be comprised of a translucent, transparent, or similar material allowing light transmission and may comprise a filter similar to filter The flat connection surfaces and can be placed together to form a generally cylindrical lighting fixture and can be attached by any method known in the art.

Such a system simplifies procedures employed by cinematographers, for example, attempting to produce a consistent appearance of an object to promote continuity between scenes of a film, or by photographers, for example, trying to reproduce lighting conditions from an earlier shoot.

In certain embodiments, the lighting fixture may be used as the sole light source, while in other embodiments, such as is depicted in FIG. This use can be to supplement the output of the second source. For example, a fluorescent light emitting illumination weak in red portions of the spectrum may be supplemented with a lighting fixture emitting primarily red wavelengths to provide illumination conditions more closely resembling natural sunlight.

Similarly, such a system may also be useful in outdoor image capture situations, because the color temperature of natural light varies as the position of the sun changes. A lighting fixture may be used in conjunction with a sensor as controller to compensate for changes in sunlight to maintain constant illumination conditions for the duration of a session.

Any of the above systems could be deployed in the system disclosed in FIG. A lighting system for a location may comprise a plurality of lighting fixtures which are controllable by a central control system The light within the location or on a particular location such as the stage depicted here is now desired to mimic another type of light such as sunlight. A first sensor is taken outside and the natural sunlight is measured and recorded.

This recording is then provided to central control system A second sensor which may be the same sensor in one embodiment is present on the stage The central control system now controls the intensity and color of the plurality of lighting fixtures and attempts to match the input spectrum of said second sensor with the prerecorded natural sunlight's spectrum.

In this manner, interior lighting design can be dramatically simplified as desired colors of light can be reproduced or simulated in a closed setting. This can be in a theatre as depicted here , or in any other location such as a home, an office, a soundstage, a retail store, or any other location where artificial lighting is used.

Such a system could also be used in conjunction with other secondary light sources to create a desired lighting effect. The above systems allow for the creation of lighting fixtures with virtually any type of spectrum. A lighting fixture which produces white light according to the above invention can comprise any collection of component illumination sources such that the area defined by the illumination sources can encapsulate at least a portion of the black body curve. The black body curve in FIG.

In a preferred embodiment, the entire black body curve would be encapsulated allowing the lighting fixture to produce any temperature of white light. For a variable color white light with the highest possible intensity, a significant portion of the black body curve may be enclosed. The intensity at different color whites along the black body curve can then be simulated.

The maximum intensity produced by this light could be placed along the black body curve. For example, the full-on color could be placed at approximately K noon day sunlight shown by point in FIG. Such a lighting apparatus would then be able to produce K light at a high intensity; in addition, the light may adjust for differences in temperature for instance cloudy sunlight by moving around in the defined area. Although this system generates white light with a variable color temperature, it is not necessarily a high quality white light source.

A number of combinations of colors of illumination sources can be chosen which enclose the black body curve, and the quality of the resulting lighting fixtures may vary depending on the illumination sources chosen. Since white light is a mixture of different wavelengths of light, it is possible to characterize white light based on the component colors of light that are used to generate it. Red, green, and blue RGB can combine to form white; as can light blue, amber, and lavender; or cyan, magenta and yellow.

Natural white light sunlight contains a virtually continuous spectrum of wavelengths across the human visible band and beyond. This can be seen by examining sunlight through a prism, or looking at a rainbow. Many artificial white lights are technically white to the human eye, however, they can appear quite different when shown on colored surfaces because they lack a virtually continuous spectrum.

As an extreme example one could create a white light source using two lasers or other narrow band optical sources with complimentary wavelengths. These sources would have an extremely narrow spectral width perhaps 1 nm wide. To exemplify this, we will choose wavelengths of nm and nm. These are considered complimentary since they will additively combine to make light which the human eye perceives as white light.

The intensity levels of these two lasers can be adjusted to some ratio of powers that will produce white light that appears to have a color temperature of K. If this source were directed at a white surface, the reflected light will appear as K white light.

The problem with this type of white light is that it will appear extremely artificial when shown on a colored surface. A colored surface as opposed to colored light is produced because the surface absorbs and reflects different wavelengths of light. If hit by white light comprising a full spectrum light with all wavelengths of the visible band at reasonable intensity , the surface will absorb and reflect perfectly.

However, the white light above does not provide the complete spectrum. To again use an extreme example, if a surface only reflected light from nm nm it will appear a fairly deep green in full-spectrum light, but will appear black it absorbs all the spectrums present in the above described laser-generated artificial white light. Further, since the CRI index relies on a limited number of observations, there are mathematical loopholes in the method.

Since the spectrums for CRI color samples are known, it is a relatively straightforward exercise to determine the optimal wavelengths and minimum numbers of narrow band sources needed to achieve a high CRI. This source will fool the CRI measurement, but not the human observer.

The CRI method is at best an estimator of the spectrum that the human eye can see. An everyday example is the modern compact fluorescent lamp. It has a fairly high CRI of 80 and a color temperature of K but still appears unnatural. The spectrum of a compact fluorescent is shown in FIG. Due to the desirability of high-quality light in particular high-quality white light that can be varied over different temperatures or spectrums, a further embodiment of this invention comprises systems and method for generating higher-quality white light by mixing the electromagnetic radiation from a plurality of component illumination sources such as LEDs.

This is accomplished by choosing LEDs that provide a white light that is targeted to the human eye's interpretation of light, as well as the mathematical CRI index. That light can then be maximized in intensity using the above system. Further, because the color temperature of the light can be controlled, this high quality white light can therefore still have the control discussed above and can be a controllable, high-quality, light which can produce high-quality light across a range of colors.

To produce a high-quality white light, it is necessary to examine the human eye's ability to see light of different wavelengths and determine what makes a light high-quality. In it's simplest definition, a high-quality white light provides low distortion to colored objects when they are viewed under it.

It therefore makes sense to begin by examining a high-quality light based on what the human eye sees. For the purposes of this disclosure, it will be accepted that sunlight is a high-quality white light. The sensitivity of the human eye is known as the Photopic response.

The Photopic response can be thought of as a spectral transfer function for the eye, meaning that it indicates how much of each wavelength of light input is seen by the human observer. The eye's Photopic response is important since it can be used to describe the boundaries on the problem of generating white light or of any color of light.

Therefore a high-quality white light may include only visible light, or may include visible light and other electromagnetic radiation which may result in a photobiological response. This will generally be electromagnetic radiation less than nm ultraviolet light or greater than nm infrared light. Using the first part of the description, the source is not required to have any power above nm or below nm since the eye has only minimal response at these wavelengths. A high-quality source would preferably be substantially continuous between these wavelengths otherwise colors could be distorted but can fall-off towards higher or lower wavelengths due to the sensitivity of the eye.

Further, the spectral distribution of different temperatures of white light will be different. To illustrate this, spectral distributions for two blackbody sources with temperatures of K and K are shown in FIG. As seen in FIG. The K curve is heavily weighted towards higher wavelengths. This distribution makes sense intuitively, since lower color temperatures appear to be yellow-to-reddish. Any holes, i. Since the blackbody curves are continuous, even the dramatic change from K to K will only shift colors towards red, making them appear warmer but not devoid of color.

This comparison shows that an important specification of any high-quality artificial light fixture is a continuous spectrum across the photopic response of the human observer. Having examined these relationships of the human eye, a fixture for producing controllable high-quality white light would need to have the following characteristic. The light has a substantially continuous spectrum over the wavelengths visible to the human eye, with any holes or gaps locked in the areas where the human eye is less responsive.

In addition, in order to make a high-quality white light controllable over a range of temperatures, it would be desirable to produce a light spectrum which can have relatively equal values of each wavelength of light, but can also make different wavelengths dramatically more or less intense with regards to other wavelengths depending on the color temperature desired.

The clearest waveform which would have such control would need to mirror the scope of the photopic response of the eye, while still being controllable at the various different wavelengths. The CRI rating for these values is usually extremely low or possibly negative. In an additional case, since the CRI rating relies on eight particular color samples, it is possible to get a high CRI, while not having a particularly high-quality light because the white light functions well for those particular color samples specified by the CRI rating.

That is, a high CRI index could be obtained by a white light composed of eight 1 nm sources which were perfectly lined up with the eight CRI color structures. This would, however, not be a high-quality light source for illuminating other colors. The fluorescent lamp shown in FIG. Although the light from a fluorescent lamp is white, it is comprised of many spikes such as and The position of these spikes has been carefully designed so that when measured using the CRI samples they yield a high rating.

In other words, these spikes fool the CRI calculation but not the human observer. The result is a white light that is usable but not optimal i. The dramatic peaks in the spectrum of a fluorescent light are also clear in FIG. These peaks are part of the reason that fluorescent light looks very artificial. Even if light is produced within the spectral valleys, it is so dominated by the peaks that a human eye has difficulty seeing it.

A high-quality white light may be produced according to this disclosure without the dramatic peaks and valleys of a florescent lamp. A spectral peak is the point of intensity of a particular color of light which has less intensity at points immediately to either side of it. A maximum spectral peak is the highest spectral peak within the region of interest.

It is therefore possible to have multiple peaks within a chosen portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, only a single maximum peak, or to have no peaks at all. For instance, FIG. A valley is the opposite of a peak and is a point that is a minimum and has points of higher intensity on either side of it an inverted plateau is also a valley.

A special plateau can also be a spectrum peak. A plateau involves a series of concurrent points of the same intensity with the points on either side of the series having less intensity. It should be clear that high-quality white light simulating black-body sources do not have significant peaks and valleys within the area of the human eye's photopic response as is shown in FIG.

Most artificial light, does however have some peaks and valleys in this region such shown in FIG. This is especially true for higher temperature light whereas for lower temperature light the continuous line has a positive upward slope with no peaks or valleys and shallow valleys in the shorter wavelength areas would be less noticeable, as would slight peaks in the longer wavelengths. To take into account this peak and valley relationship to high-quality white light, the following is desirable in a high-quality white light of one embodiment of this invention.

The lowest valley in the visible range should have a greater intensity than the intensity attributable to background noise as would be understood by one of skill in the art. In another embodiment, it is desirable to mimic the shape of the black body spectra at different temperatures; for higher temperatures 4, K to 10, K this may be similar to the peaks and valleys analysis above.

For lower temperatures, another analysis would be that most valleys should be at a shorter wavelength than the highest peak. This would be desirable in one embodiment for color temperatures less than K. In another embodiment it would be desirable to have this in the region K to K.

From the above analysis high-quality artificial white light should therefore have a spectrum that is substantially continuous between the nm and nm without dramatic spikes. Further, to be controllable, the light should be able to produce a spectrum that resembles natural light at various color temperatures.

Due to the use of mathematical models in the industry, it is also desirable for the source to yield a high CRI indicative that the reference colors are being preserved and showing that the high-quality white light of the instant invention does not fail on previously known tests.

In order to build a high-quality white light lighting fixture using LEDs as the component illumination sources, it is desirable in one embodiment to have LEDs with particular maximum spectral peaks and spectral widths. It would also be desirable for each of the LEDs to produce equal intensities of light to allow for easy mixing.

One system for creating white light includes a large number for example around of LEDs, each of which has a narrow spectral width and each of which has a maximum spectral peak spanning a predetermined portion of the range from about nm to about nm, possibly with some overlap, and possibly beyond the boundaries of visible light. This light source may produce essentially white light, and may be controllable to produce any color temperature and also any color.

It allows for smaller variation than the human eye can see and therefore the light fixture can make changes more finely than a human can perceive. Such a light fixture is therefore one embodiment of the invention, but other embodiments can use fewer LEDs when perception by humans is the focus. In another embodiment of the invention, a significantly smaller number of LEDs can be used with the spectral width of each LED increased to generate a high-quality white light.

One embodiment of such a light fixture is shown in FIG. It should be recognized here that a nine LED lighting fixture does not necessarily contain exactly nine total illumination sources. It contains some number of each of nine different colored illuminating sources.

This number will usually be the same for each color, but need not be. High-brightness LEDs with a spectral width of about 25 nm are generally available. The solid line indicates the additive spectrum of all of the LED spectrums at equal power as could be created using the above method lighting fixture. The powers of the LEDs may be adjusted to generate a range of color temperature and colors as well by adjusting the relative intensities of the nine LEDs. This nine LED lighting fixture has the ability to reproduce a wide range of color temperatures as well as a wide range of colors as the area of the CIE diagram enclosed by the component LEDs covers most of the available colors.

It enables control over the production of non-continuous spectrums and the generation of particular high-quality colors by choosing to use only a subset of the available LED illumination sources. It should be noted that the choice of location of the dominant wavelength of the nine LEDs could be moved without significant variation in the ability to produce white light. In addition, different colored LEDs may be added. Such additions may improve the resolution as was discussed in the LED example above.

Any of these light fixtures may meet the quality standards above. They may produce a spectrum that is continuous over the photopic response of the eye, that is without dramatic peaks, and that can be controlled to produce a white light of multiple desired color temperatures. The nine LED white light source is effective since its spectral resolution is sufficient to accurately simulate spectral distributions within human-perceptible limits.

However, fewer LEDs may be used. If the specifications of making high-quality white light are followed, the fewer LEDs may have an increased spectral width to maintain the substantially continuous spectrum that fills the Photopic response of the eye. The decrease could be from any number of LEDs from 8 to 2.

The 1 LED case allows for no color mixing and therefore no control. To have a temperature controllable white light fixture at least two colors of LEDs may be required. One embodiment of the current invention includes three different colored LEDs.

Three LEDs allow for a two dimensional area a triangle to be available as the spectrum for the resultant fixture. The additive spectrum of the three LEDs offers less control than the nine LED lighting fixture, but may meet the criteria for a high-quality white light source as discussed above. The spectrum may be continuous without dramatic peaks.

It is also controllable, since the triangle of available white light encloses the black body curve. This source may lose fine control over certain colors or temperatures that were obtained with a greater number of LEDs as the area enclosed on the CIE diagram is a triangle, but the power of these LEDs can still be controlled to simulate sources of different color temperatures. Such an alteration is shown in FIGS. One skilled in the art would see that alternative temperatures may also be generated.

These spectrums fill the photopic response of the eye and are continuous, which means they appear more natural than artificial light sources such as fluorescent lights. Both spectra may be characterized as high-quality since the CRIs measure in the high 90s.

In the design of a white lighting fixture, one impediment is the lack of availability for LEDs with a maximum spectral peak of nm. This wavelength is at the center of the Photopic response of the eye and one of the clearest colors to the eye. The introduction of an LED with a dominant wavelength at or near nm would simplify the generation of LED-based white light, and a white light fixture with such an LED comprises one embodiment of this invention.

In another embodiment of the invention, a non-LED illumination source that produces light with a maximum spectral peak from about nm to about nm could also be used to fill this particular spectral gap. In a still further embodiment, this non-LED source could comprise an existing white light source and a filter to make that resulting light source have a maximum spectral peak in this general area.

In another embodiment high-quality white light may be generated using LEDs without spectral peaks around nm to fill in the gap in the Photopic response left by the absence of green LEDs. One possibility is to fill the gap with a non-LED illumination source. Another, as described below, is that a high-quality controllable white light source can be generated using a collection of one or more different colored LEDs where none of the LEDs have a maximum spectral peak in the range of about nm to nm.

To build a white light lighting fixture that is controllable over a generally desired range of color temperatures, it is first necessary to determine the criteria of temperature desired. In one embodiment, this is chosen to be color temperatures from about K to about K which is commonly used by lighting designers in industry. However, any range could be chosen for other embodiments including the range from K to 10,K which covers most variation in visible white light or any sub-range thereof.

The overall output spectrum of this light may achieve a CRI comparable to standard light sources already existing. Peaks and valleys may also be minimized in the range as much as possible and particularly to have a continuous curve where no intensity is zero there is at least some spectral content at each wavelength throughout the range. In recent years, white LEDs have become available. The phosphor down-coverts some of the blue light into green and red.

The spectrum shown in FIG. This is because not all of the pump energy from the blue LED is down-converted. This has the effect of cooling the overall spectrum since the higher portion of the spectrum is considered to be warm. Therefore the LED on its own does not meet the above lighting criteria. This spectrum contains a maximum spectral peak at about nm and does not accurately fill the photopic response of the human eye.

A single LED also allows for no control of color temperature and therefore a system of the desired range of color temperatures cannot be generated with this LED alone. Using a combination of the bin A or C LEDs will enable the source to fill the spectrum around the center of the Photopic response, nm.

However, the lowest achievable color temperature will be K from using the bin C LED alone which does not cover the entire range of color temperatures previously discussed. This combination will appear abnormally cool blue on its own as the additive spectrum will still have a significant peak around nm.

This is essentially a transparent piece of glass or plastic tinted so as to enable only higher wavelength light to pass through. One example of such a high-pass filter's transmission is shown in FIG. Optical filters are known to the art and the high pass filter will generally comprise a translucent material, such as plastics, glass, or other transmission media which has been tinted to form a high pass filter such as the one shown in FIG. One embodiment of the invention includes generating a filter of a desired material to obtain particular physical properties upon specifying the desired optical properties.

This filter may be placed over the LEDs directly, or may be filter from the lighting fixture's housing. One embodiment of the invention allows for the existing fixture to have a preselection of component LEDs and a selection of different filters. These filters may shift the range of resultant colors without alteration of the LEDs. In this way a filter system may be used in conjunction with the selected LEDs to fill an area of the CIE enclosed area by a light fixture that is shifted with respect to the LEDs, thus permitting an additional degree of control.

In one embodiment, this series of filters could enable a single light fixture to produce white light of any temperature by specifying a series of ranges for various filters which, when combined, enclose the white line. One embodiment of this is shown in FIG. This spectral transmission measurement shows that the high pass filter in FIG. The dotted line in FIG. It is to be expected that the light passing through any substance will result in some decrease in intensity.

The filter whose transmission is shown in FIG. Its chromaticity coordinates are shifted from 0. The importance of the chromaticity coordinates becomes evident when the colors of these sources are compared on the CIE Chromaticity Map. This locus indicates the perceived colors of ideal sources called blackbodies. The thicker line highlights the section of the locus that corresponds to the range from K to K. The original placement was dashed line , while the new color is represented by line which is within the correct region.

In one embodiment, however, a non-linear range of color temperatures may be generated using more than two LEDs. The argument could be made that even a linear variation closely approximating the desired range would suffice. This could be achieved two ways. One, a different LED could be used that has a color temperature of K. Two, the output of the Nichia bin C LED could be passed through an additional filter to shift it even closer to the K point.

Each of these systems comprises an additional embodiment of the instant invention. However, the following example uses a third LED to meet the desired criteria. This LED should have a chromaticity to the right of the K point on the blackbody locus. The range produced using these three LEDs completely encompasses the blackbody locus over the range from K to K.

A light fixture fabricated using these LEDs may meet the requirement of producing white light with the correct chromaticity values. The K spectrum does not have any valleys at lower wavelengths than it's maximum peak. The light is also controllable over these spectra.

However, to be considered high-quality white light by the lighting community, the CRI should be above 50 for low color temperatures and above 80 for high color temperatures. According to the software program that accompanies the CIE The CRI for the K simulated spectrum is 82 and is considered to be high-quality white light. These spectra are also similar in shape to the spectra of natural light as shown in FIGS.

This comparison shows that the high-quality white light fixture above will produce white light that is of higher quality than the three standard fluorescent lights , , and used in FIG. Further, the light source above is significantly more controllable than a fluorescent light as the color temperature can be selected as any of those points on curve while the fluorescents are limited to the particular points shown.

The luminous output of the described white light lighting fixture was also measured. The luminous output plotted with respect to the color temperature is given in FIG. The full-on point point of maximum intensity may be moved by altering the color of each of the LEDs present. It would be understood by one of skill in the art that the above embodiments of white-light fixtures and methods could also include LEDs or other component illumination sources which produce light not visible to the human eye.

Therefore any of the above embodiments could also include illumination sources with a maximum spectral peak below nm or above nm. A high-quality LED-based light may be configured to replace a fluorescent tube. In one embodiment, a replacement high-quality LED light source useful for replacing fluorescent tubes would function in an existing device designed to use fluorescent tubes.

Such a device is shown in FIG. The lighting fixture may include a ballast The ballast maybe a magnetic type or electronic type ballast for supplying the power to at least one tube which has traditionally been a fluorescent tube. The ballast includes power input connections to be connected with an external power supply. The external power supply may be a building's AC supply or any other power supply known in the art. The ballast has tube connections and which attach to a tube coupler for easy insertion and removal of tubes These connections deliver the requisite power to the tube.

In a magnetic ballasted system, the ballast may be a transformer with a predetermined impedance to supply the requisite voltage and current. The fluorescent tube acts like a short circuit so the ballast's impedance is used to set the tube current. This means that each tube wattage requires a particular ballast. For example, a forty-watt fluorescent tube will only operate on a forty-watt ballast because the ballast is matched to the tube. Other fluorescent lighting fixtures use electronic ballasts with a high frequency sine wave output to the bulb.

Even in these systems, the internal ballast impedance of the electronic ballast still regulates the current through the tube. The lighting fixture may comprise, in one embodiment, a variation on the fighting fixture in FIGS. The lighting fixture can comprise a bottom portion with a generally rounded underside and a generally flat connection surface The lighting fixture also comprises a top portion with a generally rounded upper portion and a generally flat connection surface The top portion will generally be comprised of a translucent, transparent, or similar material allowing light transmission and may comprise a filter similar to filter The flat connection surfaces and can be placed together to form a generally cylindrical lighting fixture and can be attached by any method known in the art.

Between top portion and bottom portion is a lighting fixture which comprises a generally rectangular mounting and a strip of at least one component illumination source such as an LED This construction is by no means necessary and the lighting fixture need not have a housing with it or could have a housing of any type known in the art.

Although a single strip is shown, one of skill in the art would understand that multiple strips, or other patterns of arrangement of the illumination sources, could be used. The strips generally have the component LEDs in a sequence that separates the colors of LEDs if there are multiple colors of LEDs but such an arrangement is not required.

The lighting fixture will generally have lamp connectors for connecting the lighting fixture to the existing lamp couplers e. The LED system may also include a control circuit This circuit may convert the ballast voltage into D. The control circuit may control the LEDs with constant D. In a preferred embodiment, the control circuit would include a processor for generating pulse width modulated control signals, or other similar control signals, for the LEDs.

These white lights therefore are examples of how a high-quality white light fixture can be generated with component illumination sources, even where those sources have dominant wavelengths outside the region of nm to nm. The above white light fixtures can contain programming which enables a user to easily control the light and select any desired color temperature that is available in the light.

These equations may be applied directly or may be used to create a look-up table so that binary values corresponding to a particular color temperature can be determined quickly. This table can reside in any form of programmable memory for use in controlling color temperature such as, but not limited to, the control described in U.

In another embodiment, the light could have a selection of switches, such as DIP switches enabling it to operate in a stand-alone mode, where a desired color temperature can be selected using the switches, and changed by alteration of the stand alone product The light could also be remotely programmed to operate in a standalone mode as discussed above.

The lighting fixture in FIG. This switch may be a selector switch for selecting the color temperature, color of the LED system, or any other illumination conditions. For example, the switch may have multiple settings for different colors. This external control could be provided by any of the controllers discussed previously. Some fluorescent ballasts also provide for dimming where a dimmer switch on the wall will change the ballast output characteristics and as a result change the fluorescent light illumination characteristics.

The LED lighting system may use this as information to change the illumination characteristics. The control circuit can monitor the ballast characteristics and adjust the LED control signals in a corresponding fashion. These control signals may be preprogrammed to provide dimming, color changing, a combination of effects or any other illumination effects as the ballasts' characteristics change.

A user may desire different colors in a room at different times. The system could change color or other lighting conditions with respect to the dimmer or any other input. A user may also want to recreate the lighting conditions of incandescent light. One of the characteristics of such lighting is that it changes color temperature as its power is reduced. The incandescent light may be K at full power but the color temperature will reduce as the power is reduced and it may be K when the lamp is dimmed to a great extent.

Fluorescent lamps do not reduce in color temperature when they are dimmed. Typically, the fluorescent lamp's color does not change when the power is reduced. The LED system can be programmed to reduce in color temperature as the lighting conditions are dimmed. This may be achieved using a look-up table for selected intensities, through a mathematical description of the relationship between intensity and color temperature, any other method known in the art, or any combination of methods.

The LED system can be programmed to provide virtually any lighting conditions. The LED system may include a receiver for receiving signals, a transducer, a sensor or other device for receiving information. The receiver could be any receiver such as, but not limited to, a wire, cable, network, electromagnetic receiver, IR receiver, RF receiver, microwave receiver or any other receiver.

A remote control device could be provided to change the lighting conditions remotely. Lighting instructions may also be received from a network. For example, a building may have a network where information is transmitted through a wireless system and the network could control the illumination conditions throughout a building.

This could be accomplished from a remote site as well as on site. This may provide for added building security or energy savings or convenience. The LED lighting system may also include optics to provide for evenly distributed lighting conditions from the fluorescent lighting fixture. The optics may be attached to the LED system or associated with the system. The system has applications in environments where variations in available lighting may affect aesthetic choices.

In an example embodiment, the lighting fixture may be used in a retail embodiment to sell paint or other color sensitive items. A paint sample may be viewed in a retail store under the same lighting conditions present where the paint will ultimately be used.

For example, the lighting fixture may be adjusted for outdoor lighting, or may be more finely tuned for sunny conditions, cloudy conditions, or the like. The lighting fixture may also be adjusted for different forms of interior lighting, such as halogen, fluorescent, or incandescent lighting. In a further embodiment, a portable sensor as discussed above may be taken to a site where the paint is to be applied, and the light spectrum may be analyzed and recorded.

The same light spectrum may subsequently be reproduced by the lighting fixture, so that paint may be viewed under the same lighting conditions present at the site where the paint is to be used. The lighting fixture may similarly be used for clothing decisions, where the appearance of a particular type and color of fabric may be strongly influenced by lighting conditions. For example, a wedding dress and bride may be viewed under lighting conditions expected at a wedding ceremony, in order to avoid any unpleasant surprises.

The lighting fixture can also be used in any of the applications, or in conjunction with any of the systems or methods discussed elsewhere in this disclosure. In another example embodiment, the lighting fixture may be used to accurately reproduce visual effects.

In certain visual arts, such as photography, cinematography, or theater, make-up is typically applied in a dressing room or a salon, where lighting may be different than on a stage or other site. The lighting fixture may thus be used to reproduce the lighting expected where photographs will be taken, or a performance given, so that suitable make-up may be chosen for predictable results. As with the retail applications above, a sensor may be used to measure actual lighting conditions so that the lighting conditions may be reproduced during application of make-up.

In theatrical or film presentations, colored light often corresponds to the colors of specific filters which can be placed on white lighting instruments to generate a specific resulting shade. There are generally a large selection of such filters in specific shades sold by selected companies. In addition, mixing the colors is not an exact science which can result in, slight variations in the colors as lighting fixtures are moved, or even change temperature, during a performance or film shoot.

Thus, in one embodiment there is provided a system for controlling illumination in a theatrical environment. In another embodiment, there is provided a system for controlling illumination in cinematography. The wide variety of light sources available create significant problems for film production in particular.

Differences in lighting between adjacent scenes can disrupt the continuity of a film and create jarring effects for the viewer. Correcting the lighting to overcome these differences can be exacting, because the lighting available in an environment is not always under the complete control of the film crew.

Sunlight, for example, varies in color temperature during the day, most apparently at dawn and dusk, when yellows and reds abound, lowering the color temperature of the ambient light. Fluorescent light does not generally fall on the color temperature curve, often having extra intensity in blue-green regions of the spectrum, and is thus described by a correlated color temperature, representing the point on the color temperature curve that best approximates the incident light.

Each of these lighting problems may be addressed using the systems described above. The availability of a number of different fluorescent bulb types, each providing a different color temperature through the use of a particular phosphor, makes color temperature prediction and adjustment even more complicated. High-pressure sodium vapor lamps, used primarily for street lighting, produce a brilliant yellowish-orange light that will drastically skew color balance. Operating at even higher internal pressures are mercury vapor lamps, sometimes used for large interior areas such as gymnasiums.

These can result in a pronounced greenish-blue cast in video and film. Thus, there is provided a system for simulating mercury vapor lamps, and a system for supplementing light sources, such as mercury vapor lamps, to produce a desired resulting color. These embodiments may have particular use in cinematography. To try and recreate all of these lighting types, it is often necessary for a filmmaker or theatre designer to place these specific types of lights in their design.

At the same time, the need to use these lights may thwart the director's theatric intention. The gym lights flashing quickly on and off in a supernatural thriller is a startling-effect, but it cannot be achieved naturally through mercury vapor lamps which take up to five minutes to warm up and produce the appropriate color light. Other visually sensitive fields depend on light of a specific color temperature or spectrum.

For example, surgical and dental workers often require colored light that emphasizes contrasts between different tissues, as well as between healthy and diseased tissue. Doctors also often rely on tracers or markers that reflect, radiate, or fluoresce color of a specific wavelength or spectrum to enable them to detect blood vessels or other small structures. They can view these structures by shining light of the specific wavelength in the general area where the tracers are, and view the resultant reflection or fluorescing of the tracers.

In many instances, different procedures may benefit from using a customized color temperature or particular color of light tailored to the needs of each specific procedure. Thus, there is provided a system for the visualization of medical, dental or other imaging conditions. In one embodiment, the system uses LEDs to produce a controlled range of light within a predetermined spectrum.

Further, there is often a desire to alter lighting conditions during an activity, a stage should change colors as the sun is supposed to rise, a color change may occur to change the color of a fluorescing tracer, or a room could have the color slowly altered to make a visitor more uncomfortable with the lighting as the length of their stay increased. While the invention has been disclosed in connection with the embodiments shown and described in detail, various equivalents, modifications, and improvements will be apparent to one of ordinary skill in the art from the above description.

Such equivalents, modifications, and improvements are intended to be encompassed by the following claims. An exemplary bulb includes at least one first white LED and at least one power connection having a form configured to engage mechanically and electrically with one of a conventional Edison-mount screw-type light bulb socket, a conventional fluorescent tube coupler arrangement, and a conventional halogen MR socket arrangement.

The LED-based light bulb substantially corresponds in shape to a corresponding one of a conventional Edison-mount screw-type light bulb, a conventional fluorescent tube, and a conventional halogen MR light bulb, based on the form of the at least one power connection. Provisional Applications: Ser. An LED-based light bulb, comprising: at least one first white LED to generate first radiation having a first spectrum;.

The light bulb of claim 1 , further comprising an at least partially transparent or translucent housing through which at least some of the first radiation, when generated, passes. The light bulb of claim 1 , wherein the first voltage is an A. The light bulb of claim 1 , wherein the first voltage is provided by a ballast, and wherein the at least one voltage transformation device provides the second voltage as a D.

The light bulb of claim 1 , further comprising at least one user interface to facilitate control of the first radiation. The light bulb of claim 6 , further including: at least one processor, coupled to the at least one voltage transformation device and the at least one white LED, to control at least the first radiation; and.

The light bulb of claim 6 , further comprising at least one optical filter to selectively transmit a portion of at least one of the first radiation and the second radiation. The light bulb of claim 6 , further comprising at least one controller to independently control a first intensity of the first radiation and a second intensity of the second radiation.

The light bulb of claim 12 , further comprising at least one user interface coupled to the at least one controller to facilitate an adjustment of a color or color temperature of light generated by the light bulb. The light bulb of claim 12 , wherein the light bulb is configured to generate essentially white light based on a mixing of at least some of the first radiation and at least some of the second radiation, and wherein the at least one controller is configured to independently control the at least one first white LED and the at least one second LED so as to provide at least one particular color temperature of the essentially white light generated by the light bulb.

The light bulb of claim 14 , further including a memory storing data representing the first intensity of the first radiation and the second intensity of the second radiation to provide the at least one particular color temperature of the essentially white light. The light bulb of claim 14 , wherein the at least one particular color temperature includes a plurality of different color temperatures, and wherein the light bulb further comprises at least one user interface coupled to the at least one controller to facilitate a selection of at least some of the plurality of different color temperatures of the essentially white light generated by the light bulb.

The light bulb of claim 16 , further including a memory storing data representing multiple values for the first intensity of the first radiation and the second intensity of the second radiation to provide the plurality of different color temperatures. The light bulb of claim 12 , further comprising at least one sensor coupled to the at least one controller to generate at least one control signal in response to at least one detectable condition, wherein the at least one controller is configured to control the first intensity of the first radiation and the second intensity of the second radiation in response to the at least one control signal.

The light bulb of claim 12 , wherein the at least one controller is configured to independently control the at least one first white LED and the at least one second LED using a pulse width modulation PWM technique. The light bulb of claim 12 , further comprising at least one of a receiver and a transmitter coupled to the at least one controller to communicate at least one control signal to or from the light bulb. The light bulb of claim 12 , wherein the at least one controller is an addressable controller capable of receiving at least one network signal including at least first lighting information relating to a color or a color temperature of light generated by the light bulb.

The light bulb of claim 22 , wherein the LED-based light bulb substantially corresponds in shape to a conventional Edison-mount screw-type light bulb. The light bulb of claim 24 , wherein the LED-based light bulb substantially corresponds in shape to a conventional fluorescent tube. USP true Methods and apparatus for controlling a color temperature of lighting conditions. USB1 en. Electrodeless lamps with externally-grounded probes and improved bulb assemblies.

Method and system for adjusting the frequency of a resonator assembly for a plasma lamp. Electrodeless lamps with grounded coupling elements and improved bulb assemblies. Opto-thermal solution for multi-utility solid state lighting device using conic section geometries. USB2 en. Low energy or minimum disturbance method for measuring frequency response functions of ultrasonic surgical devices in determining optimum operating point.

USDS1 en. External resonator electrode-less plasma lamp and method of exciting with radio-frequency energy. LED-based lighting methods, apparatus, and systems employing LED light bars, occupancy sensing, and local state machine. Illumination apparatus confining light by total internal reflection and methods of forming the same. LED lighting methods, apparatus, and systems including historic sensor data logging. Illumination apparatus with high conversion efficiency and methods of forming the same.

Methods, systems, and apparatus for mapping a network of lighting fixtures with light module identification. LED lighting methods, apparatus, and systems including rules-based sensor data logging. Methods, apparatus, and systems for automatic power adjustment based on energy demand information. LED lamp or bulb with remote phosphor and diffuser configuration with enhanced scattering properties.

LED lamp with remote phosphor and diffuser configuration utilizing red emitters. Systems and methods for converting alternating current to drive light-emitting diodes. Systems and methods for continuous adjustment of reference signal to control chip. Sensing type lighting device with electromagnetic wireless communication module and controlling method thereof.

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Denis Cho | Natick, Massachusetts | + connections | See Denis's complete profile on Linkedin Senior Vice President Sales, Americas at Digital Lumens. The ballast () maybe a magnetic type or electronic type ballast for supplying the Other fluorescent lighting fixtures use electronic ballasts with a high frequency USA Cho; Sung H. Adapter, fitting into an USB2 Digital Lumens Incorporated LED. 29, , Valerie Finberg, VP, Investor Relations, Lumen 29, , John Stewart, Senior Vice President, Investor Relations, Digital 16, , Dennis Lange, VP Investor Relations, Stanley Black and Decker, Inc. I 14, , Glen Cho.