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All of the aforementioned private equity fund vehicles need to be incorporated in compliance with Austrian corporate law. Basically, this requires the adoption of the articles of association or the conclusion of a partnership agreement, the appointment of management and the submission by the founders of an application for registration of the vehicle with the Companies Register.
There are generally no minimum capital requirements for newly incorporated partnerships. The incorporation process generally takes between two and four weeks. An AIF is defined as a collective investment undertaking that raises capital from a number of investors to invest it in accordance with a defined investment policy for the benefit of those investors and which does not use the capital for a direct operational purpose.
Regulation EU No. Passporting allows a firm authorised under an EU single market directive to market the designated fund to certain qualified investors in another EU member state, on the basis of its home state authorisation. Is a private equity fund vehicle formed in your jurisdiction required to maintain locally a custodian or administrator, a registered office, books and records, or a corporate secretary, and how is that requirement typically satisfied?
Austrian private equity fund vehicles have to be registered in the Companies Register and have to maintain a registered office in Austria. They are required by law to keep books and records. There is no requirement under Austrian law for a private equity fund vehicle to have a corporate secretary. Either a bank or a securities services provider with its seat in the European Union can serve as the custodian. AIFs with the investment objective of acquiring control of non-listed companies can also utilise escrow agents usually, public notaries or attorneys-at-law as custodians.
What access to information about a private equity fund formed in your jurisdiction is the public granted by law? How is it accessed? If applicable, what are the consequences of failing to make such information available? As a private equity fund vehicle is typically registered with the Companies Register, certain information about the vehicle is a matter of public record.
Besides general information available for all types of vehicles such as registered office and authorised signatories , the level of information varies depending on the legal form. As a consequence, vehicles structured as JSCs or LLCs typically have shareholder agreements which need not be filed and thus are not public besides the articles of association, to avoid public access to sensitive topics.
Also, the annual financial statements with varying levels of detail depending on the company type and size have to be filed with, and can be inspected at, the Companies Register. For such AIFs, the manager has to report any transaction, pursuant to which the stake of the AIF in a target company reaches, exceeds or falls below 10, 20, 30, 50 or 75 per cent, to the target company, any known shareholders of the target company and the FMA.
In what circumstances would the limited liability of third-party investors in a private equity fund formed in your jurisdiction not be respected as a matter of local law? Investors in vehicles structured as LLCs and JSCs will only be liable for the portion of the share capital attributable to their respective shares plus any additional predetermined contributions as provided for in the articles of association.
Similar to a corporation, investors in LPs will be fully liable, however, if they actually manage the LP. Managers of Austrian private equity funds are typically general partners of an LP or fulfil their function based on management agreements with the fund vehicle. As most private equity funds qualify as AIFs, the fiduciary duties as set forth in the AIFMG also apply, which require the manager, inter alia, to act in the best interests of the AIF, the investors in such AIF and the integrity of the market; to introduce appropriate procedures to deal with conflicts of interest; to treat the investors in an AIF fairly; and to use the required diligence in the performance of his or her duties.
However, such contractual provision would still be subject to judicial review. Are there any other special issues or requirements particular to private equity fund vehicles formed in your jurisdiction? Is conversion or redomiciling to vehicles in your jurisdiction permitted? If so, in converting or redomiciling limited partnerships formed in other jurisdictions into limited partnerships in your jurisdiction, what are the most material terms that typically must be modified?
There are various restrictions or issues of that type depending on the legal form of the vehicle and on whether it was set up as an AIF. For Austrian fund vehicles, the articles of association or partnership agreement can contain restrictions on the transferability of shares or partnership interests or the expulsion of shareholders or limited partners. Also, the partnership agreement typically provides for a set procedure to remove the general partner.
Limited partnerships formed in other jurisdictions can in principle be converted into Austrian limited partnerships. While the prior statements related to relocating the vehicles as such, sometimes only the place of effective management is transferred to Austria. Austrian law does not require private equity funds to have an institutional sponsor. Provided that an institutional sponsor does not fulfil any function related to the operation of the private equity funds such as custodian for an AIF , the bankruptcy of, or change of control in, the sponsor does not have any legal or regulatory consequences for the private equity fund.
Obviously, any Austrian private equity fund associated with a certain institutional sponsor which can be observed frequently would face a reputational impact, if such sponsor had to file for bankruptcy. Private equity funds that are not AIFs are not subject to designated ongoing regulatory supervision except by the competent tax office. For such private equity funds, investors only benefit from the information rights set forth in the articles of association or partnership agreement of the fund vehicle and the reporting obligations under accounting and corporate law mainly, the disclosure of the annual financial statements.
What are the governmental approval, licensing or registration requirements applicable to a private equity fund in your jurisdiction? Does it make a difference whether there are significant investment activities in your jurisdiction? Private equity funds not established as AIFs require no special registration, except for the registration with the Companies Register upon incorporation see question 1. Licensed AIFMs do not need any additional licences for their management activities for the fund.
Registered AIFMs may require a trade permit for asset managers. Different licensing requirements apply for the promotion of interests in the funds see question They do not require a licence and only need to register with the FMA. In addition, the AIFM needs to have sufficient equity to cover 25 per cent of its annual running costs. At least two persons must be appointed by the AIFM as its managers. In the application, the AIFM needs to provide information on shareholders holding qualified participations in the AIFM ie, shareholdings exceeding 10 per cent , on any closely related entities ie, a third party that holds a stake of more than 20 per cent of the AIFM or that controls the AIFM, or is controlled by the AIFM or in which the AIFM holds a stake of more than 20 per cent , its business plan, its remuneration policy, its investment strategies, a description of any competencies delegated to third parties and information on the contractual basis pursuant to which it manages its AIFs.
The decision of the FMA regarding the licensing of an AIFM has to be passed within three months upon submission of the required documentation. There are no such rules applying to managers or investment advisers or their respective employees in Austria. Of course, anti-bribery laws apply as well. Austria introduced special legislation concerning the registration of lobbyists in , which also requires companies utilising the services of lobbyists to register in a publicly accessible register maintained by the Federal Ministry of Justice.
However, this legislation does not cover activities such as the marketing of a private equity fund. Describe any legal or regulatory developments emerging from the recent global financial crisis that specifically affect banks with respect to investing in or sponsoring private equity funds. Would a private equity fund vehicle formed in your jurisdiction be subject to taxation there with respect to its income or gains? Would the fund be required to withhold taxes with respect to distributions to investors?
Please describe what conditions, if any, apply to a private equity fund to qualify for applicable tax exemptions. For the purposes of this question it is assumed that the fund vehicle is structured as a partnership, rather than as a corporation. Austrian partnerships are typically viewed as transparent for tax purposes, provided that the following is true:. Any income derived by the partnership is instead allocated to its investors and taxed at their level in accordance with the rules of the tax regime applicable to the respective investor.
As of 1 January , new provisions in connection with international participations and foreign portfolio shareholdings as well as CFC rules came into force. MFGs are tax exempt for income from investments in participations made before 31 December , meaning that the regime can no longer be used for new investments, but is still applicable to investments prior to such date.
As mentioned, the tax benefits applicable to MFGs could partially be reintroduced see question 1. In addition, an MFG is subject to certain investment restrictions, in particular the following:. To benefit from the tax exemption, the MFG must carry out the fund activity in accordance with section 6b of the KStG for at least seven years.
If not, the tax exemption is retroactively revoked. MFGs are also tax-exempt from capital duty and stamp duty triggered in connection with their establishment. Would non-resident investors in a private equity fund be subject to taxation or return-filing requirements in your jurisdiction?
If the fund is structured as a limited partnership not deemed to conduct a business, non-resident investors are generally not required to file tax returns in Austria, subject to the following rules. If a capital gain is subject to taxation in Austria, the investor will be obliged to file a tax return, whereas in the case of dividends no reporting obligation is triggered.
A refund, an exemption or a reduction concerning withholding taxes will also require filings with the tax authorities. Special forms provided by the Austrian tax authorities are used for the proof of residence outside Austria and further substance requirements , which have to be submitted along with the filing with the tax authorities. Is it necessary or desirable to obtain a ruling from local tax authorities with respect to the tax treatment of a private equity fund vehicle formed in your jurisdiction?
Are there any special tax rules relating to investors that are residents of your jurisdiction? While it is certainly desirable to obtain a ruling from the Austrian tax authorities with respect to the tax treatment of the fund vehicle, the tax authorities are, however, rather reluctant to grant such tax rulings.
Such rulings are generally not binding, unless governed by the ruling regime which covers reorganisation, tax groups and transfer pricing, aspects of international law beginning 1 January , VAT law beginning 1 January and a potential application of the abuse of law provisions beginning 1 January are not binding.
The taxpayer may, however, be protected by the principle of equity and good faith. Based thereon, an assessed tax shall be waived if the party has made dispositions or transactions in reliance on the tax ruling and the following is true:. Must any significant organisational taxes be paid with respect to private equity funds organised in your jurisdiction?
If the partnership is structured with no individual but only a corporation as general partner, as is usually the case, equity contributions had generally been subject to capital duty in the amount of 1 per cent. The same was true for fund vehicles structured as corporations. Since 1 January , capital duty is no longer levied.
Another area to consider is stamp duties, in particular in relation to guarantees that the formation documentation may entail. In this context it should be noted that surety agreements including any form of assumption of a debt as joint debtor are subject to stamp duty of 1 per cent of the secured amount provided that the surety is of an accessory nature, which means that the guarantor may avail itself not only of all defences that it personally has against the creditor, but also of all defences that the debtors of the secured debt have against the creditors.
If the guarantee, however, is of an abstract nature, which means that the guarantor has to pay upon first demand and has recourse only to those defences that arise from the guarantee itself, then such transaction is not subject to stamp duty.
Therefore, guarantee wordings explicitly stating that a specific guarantee is meant to be abstract are commonly used. Income qualifying as investment income received by an individual who is subject to unlimited taxation in Austria is taxable at the special tax rate of Despite this administrative guideline, a case-by-case analysis is recommended, as the line between self- employed income and investment income is a rather unclear one.
The management fees received by a partner of an asset management partnership are not subject to VAT. Sunspot positions, areas, and group tilt angles for from observations by Christoph Scheiner. Aims: Digital images of observations printed in the books Rosa Ursina sive solis and Prodromus pro sole mobili by Christoph Scheiner, as well as the drawings from Scheiner's letters to Marcus Welser, are analysed to obtain information on the positions and sizes of sunspots that appeared before the Maunder minimum.
Methods: In most cases, the given orientation of the ecliptic is used to set up the heliographic coordinate system for the drawings. Positions and sizes are measured manually on screen. Very early drawings have no indication of their orientation. A rotational matching using common spots of adjacent days is used in some cases, while in other cases, the assumption that images were aligned with a zenith-horizon coordinate system appeared to be the most probable.
Results: In total, sunspots were measured. A distribution of sunspot latitudes versus time butterfly diagram is obtained for Scheiner's observations. The observations of are very inaccurate, the drawings of have at least an indication of their orientation, while the remaining part of the spot positions from have good to very good accuracy. We also computed tilt angles of apparently bipolar sunspot groups observed in the period We find that the average tilt angle of nearly 4 degrees is not significantly different from 20th-century values.
He became a Hofmedicus at the court and in the field of the Thirty Years War in and then a Viertelmedicus at Mistelbach in Niederoesterreich in until The idealization of this project, authorship of Marcos Calil, PhD, consists in four apprenticeship environments disposed around the planetary dome. On weekends and holidays is opened for the visitors.
Since the inauguration to the beginning of activities with students, the monitor team was guided and trained on contents of Astronomy and Aeronautic to execute the schools service. This is done in four stages, which are: reception, course trough the astronomic laboratory, dome session and activities closure. During the reception the acquaintance rules are passed on for a better visit.
Before starting the course the monitors do a survey about the previous knowledge of the students. On the astronomic laboratory resources of the environment are used to explain the contents of Astronomy and Astronautic, always considering the age group and the curriculum developed in classroom. After the course the students watch a planetary session supporting the contents seen on the astronomic laboratory.
At the end a feedback is done with the students about the subject discussed. During the visit the teachers fulfill an evaluation about the place and the service. From August to November were attended between municipal, public and private schools. From the evaluations done by the teachers, Mortimer Frank, Johann Ludwig Choulant, and the history of anatomical illustration.
Mortimer Frank was an ophthalmologist in Chicago, Illinois. He published a number of papers on the history of medicine, and was secretary of the Chicago Society of the History of Medicine and editor of their Bulletin. His major contribution to the history of medicine relates to the history of anatomical illustration. The classic book on that subject had been published in in German by the physician and historian, Johann Ludwig Choulant However, by Frank's time this text was both out dated and out of print.
He improved Choulant's text with the results of his and other scholars' research, greatly enlarging the text. Frank supplemented the original book with a biography of Choulant, essays on anatomists not considered in the original text, and an essay on the history of anatomical illustration prior to those authors discussed by Choulant.
In the German physicist Johannes Stark and the Italian physicist Antonino Lo Surdo discovered virtually simultaneously and independently that hydrogen spectral lines are split into components by an external electric field. Both of their discoveries ensued from studies on the same phenomenon, the Doppler effect in canal rays, but they arose in different theoretical contexts. Stark had been working within the context of the emerging quantum theory, following a research program aimed at studying the effect of an electric field on spectral lines.
Lo Surdo had been working within the context of the classical theory, and his was an accidental discovery. Ironically, soon after their discoveries, both Stark and Lo Surdo rejected developments in modern physics and allied themselves with the political and racial programs of Hitler and Mussolini. Johann Sebastian Bach was born on in Eisenach. By the time he turned 10, Bach found himself an orphan after the death of both of his parents.
Thomas Church Leipzig in and stayed there until his death. In , Bach tried to fix his failing sight by having surgery the following year, but the operation ended up leaving him completely blind. Few months later, Bach suffered a stroke. He died in Leipzig on July 28, In recent years, there were some questions whether music of different styles can directly alter cardiovascular parameters, particularly by using Bach's music.
In some studies it has been shown that cardiovascular parameters blood pressure, heart rate are influenced by music. Listening to classic music Bach leads to positive erffects, also music by Italian composters. In contrast, "modern" music, vocal music or songs had no positive effects on cardiovascular parameters.
In addition, positive effects on cardiovascular parameters and behavioural patters have been shown in an animal study recently, by Bach's music. Recent studies showed clearly that music influences cardiovascular parameters. It is obvious that classical music Bach has benefitial effects, both in humans and in animals. Therefore, the music of the "Thomaskantor" will improve both, quality of life and cardiovascular health. Johannes Stahelin and his plea for embryotomy]. Confronted with the inability to give birth to a child, delivery could be achieved by embryotomy--that was only permitted, when the foetus was dead--or by Caesarean section--where the chance to save mother and child as well was merely theoretical until the end of the 19th century.
In two statements of the Theological Faculty of the Sorbonne in Paris embryotomy was absolutely rejected , in nearly all cases of impossible delivery the Caesarean section was required Keywords of the theological statements are confronted with categories of the natural law in a sophisticated way, nevertheless the basis of Christian confession is maintained.
This argumentation in order to justify embryotomy as a lawful method to deliver a woman seemed to be more adequate to the medical sphere than claiming the Caesarean section. The ethical debate continued until the problem was solved by mastering Caesarean section.
Johann Wilhelm Hittorf and the material culture of nineteenth-century gas discharge research. In the second half of the nineteenth century, gas discharge research was transformed from a playful and fragmented field into a new branch of physical science and technology. From the s onwards, several technical innovations-powerful high-voltage supplies, the enhancement of glass-blowing skills, or the introduction of mercury air-pumps- allowed for a major extension of experimental practices and expansion of the phenomenological field.
Gas discharge tubes served as containers in which resources from various disciplinary contexts could be brought together; along with the experimental apparatus built around them the tubes developed into increasingly complex interfaces mediating between the human senses and the micro-world. The focus of the following paper will be on the physicist and chemist Johann Wilhelm Hittorf , his educational background and his attempts to understand gaseous conduction as a process of interaction between electrical energy and matter.
Hittorf started a long-term project in gas discharge research in the early s. In his research he tried to combine a morphological exploration of gas discharge phenomena-aiming at the experimental production of a coherent phenomenological manifold--with the definition and precise measurements of physical properties.
Idols of the psychologist: Johannes Linschoten and the demise of phenomenological psychology in the Netherlands. Before and after World War II, a loose movement within Dutch psychology solidified as a nascent phenomenological psychology. Dutch phenomenological psychologists attempted to generate an understanding of psychology that was based on Husserlian interpretations of phenomenological philosophy.
This movement came to a halt in the s, even though it had been exported to North America and elsewhere as "phenomenological psychology. In this article, the authors examine the role played by Johannes Linschoten in both aspects of the development of a phenomenological psychology: its rise in North America and Europe, and its institutional demise. By the time of his early death in , Linschoten had cast considerable doubt on the possibilities of a purely phenomenological psychology.
Nonetheless, his own empirical work, especially his dissertation published in German, can be seen to be a form of empiricism inspired by phenomenology but that clearly distanced itself from the more elitist and esoteric aspects of Dutch phenomenological psychology. The German organic chemist Johann Peter Griess —88 , who first developed the diazotization of aryl amines the key reaction in the synthesis of the azo dyes , and a major figure in the formation of the modern dye industry, worked for more than a quarter of a century at the brewery of Samuel Allsopp and Sons in Burton upon Trent, which, owing to the presence of several notable figures and an increase in the scientific approach to brewing, became a significant centre of scientific enquiry in the s and s.
Unlike the other Burton brewing chemists, Griess paralleled his work at the brewery with significant contributions to the chemistry of synthetic dyes, managing to keep the two activities separate—to the extent that some of his inventions in dye chemistry were filed as patents on behalf of the German dye company BASF, without the involvement of Allsopp's.
This seemingly unlikely situation can be explained partly by the very different attitudes to patent protection in Britain and in Germany combined with an apparent indifference to the significant business opportunity that the presence of a leading dye chemist presented to Allsopp's.
Although his work for the brewery remained largely proprietary, Griess's discoveries in dye chemistry were exploited by the German dye industry, which quickly outpaced its British counterpart. One less well-known connection between brewing and synthetic dyes, and one that may further explain Allsopp's attitude, is the use of synthetic dyes in identifying microorganisms—the perennial preoccupation of brewers seeking to maintain yield and quality.
Developments of Griess's original work continue to be applied to many areas of science and technology. Die Bibliothek des Dr. Apart from being a major pioneer of modern psychiatry, Johann Christian August Heinroth - is foremost famous as the first academic teacher, professor of this subject at Leipzig University.
Despite his theoretical concepts being thoroughly investigated by medical historians, the fact that his scientific work also brought him in contact with Weimar poet and scientist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe - has up to now not been acknowledged. This paper analyses for the first time the manifold points of contact between the two geniuses. Starting off with a retrospective on Goethe's relationship towards psychiatry in his day, this paper investigates the mutual interconnections and influences between the two.
This is achieved by an analysis of yet unknown primary sources as well as Goethe's literary and scientific works. This theory developed from Heinroth's dealing with Goethe's concept of "anschauung" and was to gain major importance not only for his way of gaining knowledge in general but also for his psychiatric concept.
Goethe's influence on Heinroth is particularly revealed in the latter's holistic views on mental illnesses. Heinroth's visit to Goethe on 15 September can be earmarked as a sign of their mutual esteem. The "Ordo servundum in addiscendis disciplinis mathematicis" is a milestone in the history of the teaching of mathematics. Conceived by Christoph Clavius for the Jesuit Colleges, it was not only a syllabus for mathematical studies for the students at Jesuit colleges but also an instrument for training mathematics teachers.
Its coherence and its…. The present paper is supposed to compare and contrast three of these masterpieces written the Renaissance period. The EST performs a monitoring function in a room beside the main control room. The function of the Safety console is to check whether the hazard controls are available throughout the mission as required by the Hazard Reports approved by the ISS Safety Review Panel. Safety console preparation activities were limited prior to the first ATV mission due to schedule constraints, and the safety engineers involved have been working to improve the readiness for ATV 2.
Stubborn Mars is in search of a domicile. Johannes Kepler to Christian II. German Title: Der halsstarrige Mars sucht sich eine Wohnung. The rediscovery of a missing autograph of Johannes Kepler - a dedication letter presenting his "New Astronomy" to the elector of Saxony - was possible through a series of fortunate coincidences.
Kepler's most important work "Astronomia Nova", in which he proclaimed the first two planetary laws, has been published at the end of According to the Latin dedication to emperor Rudolf II. Finally he succeeds in defeating him, now he supports his opponent to find a new home. The letter is an extraordinary document of Kepler's ingenious and humorous language, it also proofs the relationship to Dresden and the Saxon court.
In the seventeenth century it was customary in medicine to copy texts from other authors without citing the source. This practice is illustrated by the diary of Johannes Franc — , a physician in the city of Ulm, who handwrote a practice journal in Latin and German Gothic script entering text passages plagiarized as follows: he reproduced them almost word for word in order to pass them off as his own experiences, used them as a model for his prescriptions and as a template for his case histories, and integrated them into his work to support his argumentation.
In addition, he summarized texts from various sources, refined them by omitting portions, and incorporated his own experiences for embellishment. These plagiarism techniques and the purpose they served are analyzed and compared to some passages taken from the original texts. Der Studienaufenthalt von Dr. They particularly appreciated the anthropology of Ernst Platner, who taught philosophy and aesthetics as well as medicine. Their confidential correspondence contains reflections on their respective situation and well being.
Both write about feeling ill and label their illness "hypochondria". In the course of the correspondence Jean Paul's understanding of hypochondria evolves from an illness of the entrails as he follows Hermann, who supports the modern concept of hypochondria as an illness of the nerves. Two important themes from this correspondence recur in Jean Paul's novels and tales: firstly, his way of expressing comfort is related to his aesthetics, and secondly, the satirical way of portraying at least certain aspects of illness as imaginary reappears in his first successful novel "The Invisible Lodge" Research Interests Dynamics and control on discrete structures, including excited-state transition metal.
Christopher W. Johnson NREL. Education Ph. In the Russian medicinal and scientific organization of the early 18th century decisively promoted by Czar Peter I such personages as the physicians Johann Deodat Blumentrost and Laurentius Blumentrost have obtained important key positions.
Last not least their work was characterized by inspirations which they received at the university of Halle the destination of many of their compartriots in the Petrine and Postpetrine era. At the Petersburg Academy of Sciences which began its work in Laurentius Blumentrost was its first president.
The history of Vienna University Observatory - illustrated by its historical instruments and by a typoscript by Johann Steinmayr. The present Institute for Astronomy of Vienna University comprises an important collection of historical instruments.
They originate, among others, from the holdings of historical observatories, starting from the Jesuit observatory of the first half of the 18th century. The present volume offers a presentation of all instruments in photos and descriptions. Among those are telescopes from two centuries, angle measuring devices, clocks, globes, as well as various auxiliary instruments for positional astronomy and for astrophysical researches.
Also instruments from Vienniese workshops, which document the high level of local instrument construction, are included in the collection. His text is based on an extensive study of sources and is until now the most complete of its kind, Steinmayr, who was a member of the Society of Jesus, was sentenced to death in by the national socialist People's Court because of his involvement in the Austrian resistance movement.
A seven-crystal Johann -type hard x-ray spectrometer at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource. The instrument is set at the wiggler beamline equipped with two liquid nitrogen cooled monochromators - Si and Si - as well as collimating and focusing optics. The spectrometer consists of seven spherically bent crystal analyzers placed on intersecting vertical Rowland circles of 1 m of diameter.
The spectrometer is scanned vertically capturing an extended backscattering Bragg angular range 88 Degree-Sign Degree-Sign while maintaining all crystals on the Rowland circle trace. The spectrometer's high detection efficiency combined with the beamline characteristics permits routine studies of x-ray emission, high energy resolution fluorescence detected x-ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering of very diluted samples as well as implementation of demanding in situ environments.
High resolution carbon isotope stratigraphy and glendonite occurrences of the Christopher Formation, Sverdrup Basin Axel Heiberg Island, Canada : implications for mid Cretaceous high latitude climate change. Understanding the evolution of Canada's Arctic region, as a crucial component of Earth's climate system, is fundamental to assess short and long-term climate, environmental, and paleogeographic change. However, the stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental evolution of the Cretaceous Arctic is poorly constrained and a detailed bio- and chemostratigraphic correlation of major mid-Cretaceous paleoceanographic turning points such as Oceanic Anoxic Events, cold snaps, and biotic turnovers with key locations of the high- and low latitudes is missing.
By using these techniques we developed a high temporal framework to record major environmental changes as it is indicated by the occurrence of glendonites and sandstone intervals of our studied Albian succession. The Albian Christopher Formation is a shale dominated marine unit with a thickness of approximately m. In addition, glendonites are mainly found in the lower part of the Christopher Formation. Glendonites are pseudomorphs of calcite, after the metastable mineral ikaite, and have been often described from high latitude Permian, Jurassic and Cretaceous marine environments from the Canadian Arctic, Spitsbergen and Australia.
The formation of glendonites takes place in the uppermost layer of the sediment and requires near-freezing temperatures, high salinity, and orthophosphate-rich bottom water. Although the presence of glendonites implies a range of paleoenvironmental conditions there is a consensus in the scientific literature that they reflect cooler paleoenvironmental conditions.
Preliminary bio- and carbon isotope stratigraphic results suggest that the. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , eminent author, was also state minister and scientist as well as experimentalist in geology. These experiments were to prove Goethe's theory, that remelting of an archetype rock would result in volcanic and pseudo-volcanic rocks. He visited this location 19 times in , and and made very exact field observations.
But the interpretation of these observations varied between volcanistic and neptunistic. In order to find arguments, he examined the effect of fire on rocks and minerals using porcelain and pottery kilns. During Goethe's geognostic work, including the "pyro-technical" experiments, the neptunism-volcanism-controversy about the formation of basalt raged in Europe, and, more general, about rock formation: neptunism-plutonism. Especially the effect of heat on rocks and minerals, i.
Goethe swayed during his lifetime between neptunism and volcanism. He did not fully accept plutonism because he believed, that processes of nature are generally non-violent and that volcanic eruptions and other catastrophic phenomena are the exception rather than the rule. Therefore he tended to neptunistic ideas. In Goethe's notes there are many indications of this conflict. In contrast, the melting experiments are mentioned only few times.
It was, however, possible to establish a picture of his experimental work and his fundamental concepts and ideas. Copy of a lost or hidden book from ]. Doctors and pharmacies in the 15th Century only used handwritten copies of the prescription collections available in their time. At the beginning of book printing the publishing of prescription collections immediately became popular. They could be found on the pages of medical and pharmaceutical books of many various editions with different structure and origin, as the forerunner of the official pharmacopoeias.
From the 16th Century onwards books with the title "Medicina Pauperum" were published which helped the educated people to tend to themselves, the household, the servants and their immediate surroundings case of an illness.
The first work specifically on the topic or of genre of the "Medicina Pauperum" according to our knowledge appeared in Hungarian in the year and currently seems to survived only in fragments under the title of "Medicina Pauperum", from an unknown author.
A rare incident occurred in the present days as a "book" believed to be lost for us turned up from thin air. The book known before only in fractions is now available entirety handwritten on pages, distributed to seven distinct parts. The research of its origin suggests that the author lived and worked in Nagyszombat and was called Johann Misch Astrophilus. The identification of the printing office was possible thanks to the examination of the initials and the gaudily, as well as the fonts and the watermark.
For the possibility of more extensive research and value preservation the manuscript was bounded. The facsimile edition contains the magnified and digitalized pages of the original one and is published in numbered issues. The impact of Johann Gottfried von Herder on the broad spectrum of the history of ideas can hardly be estimated by separate categories derived from individual disciplines.
It transcends the spheres of philosophy, theology, historiography and even medical anthropology--also because Herder, unlike many of his contemporary philosophers and hommes de lettres, was particularly interested in the neurophysiological and -anatomical investigations of his time. Herder's universal interest in human learning is reflected in numerous personal contacts to contemporary academic scholars and natural scientists, such as the Swiss theologian Johann Caspar Lavater, whose physiognomic doctrine mapped out a comprehensive research programme on character analysis, or the Mainz anatomist Samuel Thomas von Soemmering.
Herder tightly received the latter's assumption about the interplay between the human soul and the anatomy of the brain. In this article, it shall be demonstrated that Herder's neurophilosophy was primarily influenced by a "pandynamic assumption of nature" and that it designated the brain centrally as a "working tool of God"--right between the human faculties of rationality, feeling and bodily development. The attractiveness of this concept to both basic brain research and clinical neurology was a result of his anthropological approach which combined latest developments in the natural sciences with a central perspective on the human sciences.
Data relating to population and family planning in 17 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Johannes Kepler on Christmas. Kepler's interpretation of the supernova of , De Stella Nova, interwove the science of astronomy with astrology and theology in an attempt to determine the correct birthdate of Jesus, explains Martin Kemp.
The Dissertatio was influenced, in particular, by the work of Pierre-Jean-Georges Cabanis and can be read as a physiological application of French Enlightenment sensualist philosophy. Also, a traditional mistake is shown to have falsified a fundamental aspect of this earliest work already with lasting effect.
Comments on the criminal process dealing with the murder of Johann Joachim Winckelmann from the forensic historical and legal medicine viewpoint]. Johann Joachim Winckelmann, German historian of ancient art and archaeologist, was born on 9 December in Stendal, a town in Saxony-Anhalt. At the age of 50 he was murdered on 8 June in a Trieste hotel.
The voluminous original record of the criminal proceedings against his murderer, Francesco Arcangeli, was presumed lost for about years. A new edition in the wording of the original text appeared in This long sought historical document gives cause for forensic-historical reflections under consideration of the autopsy protocol about Winckelmann, which is likewise a historical document. A considerable change of paradigm in comparison to current autopsy protocols is observed with regard to the evaluation of injuries and the circumstances of death.
Johannes Ludwig Janson, professor of veterinary medicine in Tokyo in - contribution to German-Japanese medical relations, part IV. Among the German pioneers of Western medicine in Japan 8, 12 during the Meiji period , veterinary officer Johannes Ludwig Janson was one of the most important figures.
During his tenure, the school in Komaba was integrated into the School of Agriculture of the Imperial University of Tokyo. Numerous of his graduates occupied high public offices. Among his publications, those about domestic animals and veterinary medicine in Japan deserve special attention. He married a Japanese girl and continued teaching in Komaba until He found his last resting place in Kagoshima, the native place of his wife. To this day, the Japanese consider Janson the founder of modern veterinary medicine in their country.
A Johann -Peter Frank model for cooperation and stepwise modelling of this transition with the inclusion of the Academies for Public Health Service is presented. Johann Christian Reil's importance lies in his theoretical approach to medicine. Following Kant in his early work, he attempts to combine medical experience with an underlying conceptual structure.
This attempt is directed against both the chaotic empiricism of traditional medicine and speculative theories such as vitalism. The paper starts from his early reflections on the concept of a life force, which he interprets in the way of a non-reductive materialism. In the following, the basic outlines of his Theory of Fever will be shown. The Theory is a systematic attempt at finding a new foundation for diagnosis and therapy on the basis of the concept of fever, which is understood as modification of vital processes.
The paper ends with a discussion of his later work, which has remained controversial so far. It shows that the combination of practical empiricism and scientific theory remained rather unstable in this early phase of the development of modern medicine. Christopher Scarfe, Tragedy of major proportion befell the family of Chris Scarfe and the University of Alberta, Canada, at 8 a.
Born in England, Chris graduated at the University of Durham, beginning his career in experimental petrology with Peter Wyllie at the University of Chicago. Returning to England, he completed a Ph. He spent in the Geophysical Laboratory, where he met Eiichi Takahashi, establishing a friendship and a most fruitful working partnership. Quickly realizing t h e significance of very high-pressure equipment, Chris strenuously fought for a major equipment grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and secured it in time to have a Superpress delivered in February , also utilizing support from the University.
Quickly assembling a team of researchers, he brought the Superpress into immediate operation, producing diamonds within a month of start-up. Major discoveries concerning the range of stability of carbonates and on the petrogenesis of komatiites are well under way at pressures up to kbar.
Michael Gottlieb Hansch , Ulrich Junius and the attempt to edit the works and letters of Johannes Kepler. Johannes Kepler's manuscripts which remained after his death suffered a troubled fate. It was not possible to collect them in Germany and to work with them systematically, because their importance was strikingly underestimated.
Only at the beginning of the 18th century U. Junius in Leipzig tried unsuccessfully to collect and to publish the most important manuscripts. Afterwards M. Hansch took up this plan and pursued it until the end of his life. However, the only result was one volume with unpublished letters which appeared in The hoped-for collected works could not be realized.
These events are described in detail, especially the efforts of Junius and Hansch as well as the opposition which eventually lead to a failure of both attempts. This article discusses a largely overlooked aspect of the last work by Johannes Broscius - , his Apologia pro Aristotele et Euclide contra Petrum Ramum et alios of While the past researchers focused their attention on the evaluation of Broscius's contribution to mathematics, geometry in particular, they ignored the socio-scientific aspect of his work, that is the way Peter Ramus and his followers have been presented and how did the dark legend of Ramus have been thus revived at the Central-European university in the middle of 17th century.
I am showing types of rhetorical arguments employed by Broscius and analyse the way he portrayed Ramus and depicted events related to the reception of Ramism at the Academy of Cracow. The article is followed by an appendix which contains a critical edition of excerpts from the manuscript rough draft of Apologia which has been preserved until nowadays Jagiellonian Library MS.
In the apparatus I identify the references and show how Broscius rewrote and rearranged the original paragraphs of his anti-Ramist work. Goethe: A bipolar personality? This paper aims to investigate the character and etiological basis of German poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's mental disorder. The great German surgeon Theodor Billroth and the imaginative and creative composer Johannes Brahms had a very close friendship centered on musical activities, that lasted for more than thirty years while they lived and worked in Zurich and Vienna, during the second half of the Nineteenth Century.
Billroth, besides his all-consuming medical activities, had time to be a musical enthusiast who directed orchestras, played the violin in chamber music groups, and wrote musical criticism for newspapers. The common affection between these two creative giants is documented by their abundant and effusive correspondence, by the constant requests by Brahms of Billroth's opinions regarding his compositions, and by the positive and stimulating answers that Billroth gave to these requests.
Billroth opened his house for musical evenings to play Brahms chamber compositions for the first time, and Brahms dedicated his two Opus 51 string quartets Nos. Unfortunately, the close bonds between these two geniuses weakened towards the end of their lives as a result of Billroth's becoming intolerant to the lack of social refinements and gruff behavior of the composer.
This baffling intolerance of Billroth to his friend Brahms can be better understood after reading Billroth's writings in his book The Medical Sciences in the German Universities. A Study in the History of Civilization. There Billroth expresses strong prejudices against potential medical students of humble social origins, such as those of Brahms, coupled to a primitive anti-Semitism. A textbook for wound physician education in the German language countries and in Japan].
Although we can not find new disclosures or new ways of describing anatomical structures in the "Anatomischen Tabellen", a text-book written by Johann Adam Kulmus , it has had it's influence in the development of medicine, not only in Germany but in Japan. The "Anatomischen Tabellen" has been one of the most published anatomical text-books of the 18th century. This book was concepted by the medical doctor Kulmus, who was born in the German town Breslau and who was living in Danzig, especially to educate the apprentices and fellows of surgeons in German language.
Therefore the book was equiped with several copper-plates for illustration. During the years from to 23 different editions were found, from those were 14 in German, 5 in Latin and one each in French and Netherland. Not one other anatomical textbooks of the 18th century has had such an abundance of editions.
The disadvantage of the former used oversized anatomical atlases was their being published in latin and therefore they have been without any use and much too expensive for educational purposes for young surgeons. The "Anatomischen Tabellen" has been the first occidental text-book of anatomy to be translated into japanese to be published in , supplied with numerous wooden engravings.
Background radiation in inelastic X-ray scattering and X-ray emission spectroscopy. A study for Johann -type spectrometers. The calculation model considers spurious radiation originated from elastic and inelastic scattering processes along the beam paths of a Johann -type spectrometer. The dependence of the background radiation intensity on the medium of the beam paths air and helium , analysed energy and radius of the Rowland circle was studied.
The present study shows that both for IXS and XES experiments the background radiation is dominated by spurious radiation owing to scattering processes along the sample-analyser beam path. For IXS experiments the spectral distribution of the main component of the background radiation shows a weak linear dependence on the energy for the most cases. The contribution of the analyser-detector beam path is significantly weaker and resembles the spectral distribution of the measured spectra.
Present results show that for usual experimental conditions no appreciable structures are introduced by the background radiation into the measured spectra, both in IXS and XES experiments. The usefulness of properly calculating the background profile is demonstrated in a background subtraction procedure for a real experimental situation.
The calculation model was able to simulate with high accuracy the energy dependence of the background radiation intensity measured in a particular XES experiment with air beam paths. The sin in the aetiological concept of Johann Christian August Heinroth : Part 2: Self-guilt as turning away from reason in the framework of Heinroth's concept of the interrelationships between body and soul.
Throughout his work Johann Christian August Heinroth regarded sin to be the cause of mental illness. The present two-part paper investigates what exactly Heinroth understood by sin. Based on a thorough analysis of his own texts, this study shows that on the one hand Heinroth referred to sin in a Christian-Protestant sense. On the other, however, a moral-ethical code of conduct was also involved. Thus, Heinroth did not regard sin as a singular event, but rather as a life conducted in a wrong way for years or even decades, by which he meant a steady striving towards earthly, bodily satisfaction.
The sin in the aetiological concept of Johann Christian August Heinroth Part 1: Between theology and psychiatry. Heinroth's concepts of 'whose being', 'freedom', 'reason' and 'disturbance of the soul'. The types of thirty-two nominal weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for twenty-two of them.
A neotype is designated for Curculiosticticus Fabricius, Protapionvaripes Germar, is declared a nomen protectum over Curculioflavipes Fabricius, Based on a study of syntypes, Rhinomacercurculioides Fabricius, is confirmed as a member of Mycterus Mycteridae , Bruchusundatus Fabricius, is tentatively transferred to Erotylidae, Curculiofulvirostris Fabricius, and Anthribusroboris Fabricius, are confirmed as members of Salpingus Salpingidae , and Brachyceruscristatus Fabricius, is transferred to Tenebrionidae.
Based on lectotype designation, Curculiocaninus Fabricius, is confirmed as a synonym of Sitonalineatus Linnaeus, and Curculioinnocuus Fabricius, as a synonym of Cneorhinusbarcelonicus Herbst, Bruchusrufipes Fabricius, is not considered an available species name, but a later use of Bruchusrufipes Olivier, Cossonusincisus Pascoe, is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Cossonusilligeri Champion, and Cossonusvulneratus Illiger, from synonymy under Cossonuscanaliculatus Fabricius, a primary homonym of Curculiocanaliculatus Olivier, Cossonuscanaliculatus Fabricius, is a secondary homonym of the former and is replaced with Cossonusincisus.
The following new combinations are proposed: Brachysomuserinaceus Fabricius, from Curculio , Bronchusferus Gyllenhal, from Hipporhinus , Bronchusglandifer Fabricius, from Curculio , Bronchusnivosus Sparrman, from Curculio , Bronchussparrmani Gyllenhal, from Hipporhinus , Coelocephalapionatrirostre Fabricius, Johann Deisenhofer, Crystallography, and Proteins.
This structure helped explain the process of photosynthesis, by a protein structure determination that relied on complementary features of two different beam lines. Within healthcare settings, HIV-related stigma is a recognized barrier to access of HIV prevention and treatment services and yet, few efforts have been made to scale-up stigma reduction programs in service delivery. This is in part due to the lack of a brief, simple, standardized tool for measuring stigma among all levels of health facility staff that works across diverse HIV prevalence, language and healthcare settings.
In response, an international consortium led by the Health Policy Project, has developed and field tested a stigma measurement tool for use with health facility staff. Experts participated in a content-development workshop to review an item pool of existing measures, identify gaps and prioritize questions. Respondents included clinical and non-clinical staff.
Questionnaires were self- or interviewer-administered. Analysis of item performance across sites examined both psychometric properties and contextual issues. The key outcome of the process was a substantially reduced questionnaire. Eighteen core questions measure three programmatically actionable drivers of stigma within health facilities worry about HIV transmission, attitudes towards people living with HIV PLHIV , and health facility environment, including policies , and enacted stigma.
Stigma-reduction programmes in healthcare facilities are urgently needed to improve the quality of care provided, uphold the human right to healthcare, increase access to health services, and maximize investments in HIV prevention and treatment. This brief, standardized tool will facilitate inclusion of stigma measurement in research studies and in routine facility data collection, allowing for the monitoring of stigma within healthcare facilities and evaluation of.
Wren, Sir Christopher He rebuilt London after the fire of , planning the entire city and rebuilding 51 churches, including St Paul's Cathedral. Newton acknowledges Wren as a mathematician in the Principia. Medical schools were required to define and to implement adequate curricular and formal teaching structures based on interdisciplinary and multiprofessional requirements according to the curriculum for pain medicine of the German Pain Society. These aspects were considered in the new interdisciplinary curriculum for pain medicine, the so-called Mainz model.
Different teaching methods lectures, interprofessional tutorials and bedside coaching in small groups were used to impart professional expertise in pain medicine to medical students in an interdisciplinary clinical context.
Before and after the first implementation, medical students were asked about the relevance of pain medicine and their perception of personal competence. The interdisciplinary course in pain medicine was successfully introduced into the degree program based on the curriculum of the German Pain Society and the Kern cycle.
With educational support, interdepartmental and multiprofessional collaboration the process of implementation of new interdisciplinary courses can be facilitated. In the future, the question how to increase the amount of practical lessons without increasing the load on teaching resources has to be resolved.
We report on a newly discovered letter by Christoph Rothmann, dated July 1st , and addressed to Johann Ernst of Anhalt. The letter supports the earlier assumption that Johann Ernst recommended Rothmann to Landgrave Wilhelm of Hesse, as Rothmann asks for Johann Ernst's help on the matter in this new source. More importantly Rothmann refers to his attempts to make Copernicus' calculations compatible with the Ptolomean model, which demonstrates that already at this stage of his career he was working on such a compromise, and not only after being influenced by Raimarus Ursus or Tycho Brahe, as has been argued by some authors.
Explorers with a Mission. Urges modern Catholic educators to learn from these risk takers and visionaries. Elegy: For my friend C. Christopher King MD. I was working a shift when I heard that you were gone. It was a Tuesday, and cold for a Spring day It seemed right that I should be doing what meant so much to both of us; working with residents and seeing patients, as if you had signed out to me that morning and I was carrying on your work.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Expressing support for students to learn about Christopher Columbus. Christopher Addison: a realist in pursuit of dreams. Addison was the only politician present at the start and end of the legislative process that produced the National Health Service. Having established a national reputation as an anatomist at the age of 41, he abandoned medicine for politics, entering Parliament in as a Liberal, moving to Labour in , accepting a peerage in , and ending as Leader of the Lords from His life in politics was as long as the one before it years--with all but 11 as a member of one House or the other.
He served in three Cabinets, holding eight offices while in the lower House and four in the upper. Lacking debating skill or a charismatic personality, he owed his advancement to his industrious character and the regard with which he was held by two prime ministers, David Lloyd George and Clement Attlee. Though doubts were raised about his administrative ability, no one ever questioned his courage, diligence, perseverance or ability to adapt to whatever task he undertook.
He pursued radical goals throughout his long life but always with regard to the realities of politics. His most important contribution, certainly in the field of public health, lay in the part he played in the creation of the panel system and the Ministry of Health. General Christopher C. Andrews: Leading the Minnesota Forestry Revolution.
In the nineteenth century, America's burgeoning population certainly did grab all the timber it could. Vast pine forests stretched from Maine to Dakota, and the lumber industry voraciously consumed them from east to west. In , the Minnesota territory was sparsely sprinkled with fur traders and American Indians.
By , its bounteous forests…. Educational exchange between American Indians and outsiders is examined in three periods. From first contact to the mids, knowledge was exchanged relatively equally. From the mids to the mids, acculturation was imposed upon American Indians. The political liberalism of the s spawned renewed interest in Indian culture and rights,….
Christoph Scheiner and the optics of the eye. Schall von Bell, Johann Adam Astronomer, born in Cologne, Germany, became a Jesuit and studied astronomy in Rome. He was one of numerous Jesuit missionaries sent to China, and was the first European ever to be a member of the court bureaucracy in Peking, becoming head of the Imperial Board of Astronomy, and adviser to the young emperor Shun-chih ruled He produced a large six-part cosmological map, accompanied by p The oligodeoxynucleotides remain right-handed, and perturbation of the B-DNA structure is localized adjacent to the adducted guanine.
The protons at C8 and C9 of the aflatoxin terminal furan ring exhibit slower spin-lattice relaxation as compared to other oligodeoxynucleotide protons, which supports the conclusion that they face into the major groove. Increased shielding is observed for aflatoxin protons. In this article, Murphy, Strothers, and Lugg, focus on one urban center, Newark, as an illustrative case study of how New Jersey's brand of neoliberal politics has shaped the political agency of those who live in the communities served by New Jersey's public schools.
The city, like other New Jersey locales, has had a long history of political…. More specifically, the Order alleged that on June 16, , an undercover agent purchased Next, the Show Cause Order alleged that on June 25, , an undercover agent purchased Teaching student to construct causal argument is a staple of history teaching and, in this year, questions about the causes of the First World War are particularly pertinent and once again the public eye.
Claire Holliss, however, became dissatisfied with existing approaches to teaching students about the causes of the First World War. In , the th anniversary of Columbus's landing in the Bahamas was simultaneously celebrated and denounced in the US. Damaging facts about Columbus and the impact of his voyages were aired along with demands for truth and change.
This study analyzes the power relationships and political ideology of picturebooks about Columbus published…. Christoph Buchel v. The tension among the different models for understanding the relation between the artist and the artwork is brought most explosively to light when legal battles erupt between artists and institutions. This can be found in both the "Tilted Arc" controversy of the s and in a recent dispute involving the Swiss installation artist….
While the sailor and HN Purcell were outside, a second I think that was the turning point where. Contributions to the History of Astronomy, Vol. Short contributions and book reviews conclude this volume. Most papers are written in German. Main papers have English abstracts. The lyric poem is the most concentrated form of literary communication. The formulation of an approach to interpretation can be a useful tool for the instructor.
The poem to be interpreted should be examined in six aspects: 1 information provided in the title, 2 the sound of the poem as read aloud, 3 the clear understanding of the meaning of…. Pestalozzi to Herbert Spencer. One of the major inventions of modern education is the instructional use of "Anschauung," an experience-based learning technique that was influential both as a method of instruction more effective than mere book-learning and rote memorization and as a rejection of old social arrangements that inculcated traditional values through deductive and….
Content-based instruction CBI has been part of the foreign language curriculum for many years at US colleges, leading to courses that combine language instruction with specific content domains, such as film, literature, politics, sports and many others. This article presents a rather unusual choice of content domain for a second-year language….
Bernhard von Gudden was a psychiatrist in Prussia and he was summoned in March to examine King Ludwig II for his apparently insane activities like, profligate spending and erratic behaviour. A team of four estimable psychiatrists pronounced that he was not capable ruling. Consequently, he was dethroned and kept in a castle under supervision of von Gudden. Gudden championed the idea of 'no restraint' and advocated free movement of insane persons and one evening in June, he accompanied the King during an evening stroll to a lake.
A few hours later, the corpus of both of them were recovered under mysterious circumstances. Autopsy suggested that the King was drowned but no post-mortem examination was performed on von Gudden. There are plenty of controversies regarding their death like, murder, accidental death or even natural death from cardiac arrest following immersion in cold water, but no incontrovertible conclusion could be arrived at, even after scrupulous analysis by historians and even the diagnosis of insanity of the King has been doubted.
Some even suggested that the opinion of psychiatrists were sought as a pretense in order to depose the King. Outstanding personalities in German-speaking mycology : Dedicated to Professor Dr. The history of medical and veterinary mycology in general has been reviewed in the excellent monography by G. Ainsworth published in Here, we will focus on German-speaking mycology and their outstanding personalities.
We will start with the early years when medical mycology was in its infancy. Microscopy was a most valuable tool for the identification of fungi followed by cultivation and staining methods. Human pathologies became linked to fungi. After World War I, medical mycology flourished as an integral part of dermatology at universities and in private institutes. In both parts of Germany, medical mycology had to be re-established.
After re-unification the two different medical societies joined together. Important personalities and some of their achievements are mentioned. Mycology has attracted other fields of medicine including internal medicine, pediatrics, microbiology, and veterinary medicine. Fabricius, David and Fabricius, Johannes Eventually the long Degree awarded by Christopher Newport Univ.
This thesis will focus on the design of the prototype of the communication Controller board. The communication Controller board will communicate between the internal model modules and the external data acquisition computer.
Comment on "Most computational hydrology is not reproducible, so is it really science? Nowadays, the majority of the scientific community is not aware of the risks and problems associated with an inadequate use of computer systems for research, mostly for reproducibility of scientific results. Such reproducibility can be compromised by the lack of clear standards and insufficient methodological description of the computational details involved in an experiment. In addition, the inappropriate application or ignorance of copyright laws can have undesirable effects on access to aspects of great importance of the design of experiments and therefore to the interpretation of results.
Plain Language SummaryThis article highlights several important issues to ensure the scientific reproducibility of results within the current scientific framework, going beyond simple documentation. Several specific examples are discussed in the field of hydrological modeling. In the foreword to "The Politics of Genocide", political theorist Noam Chomsky writes that denial of the American Indian holocaust is a potent force in the United States. He argues that "the most unambiguous cases of genocide" are often "acknowledged by the perpetrators, and passed over as insignificant or even denied in retrospect by the….
Mark Haddon's "The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time", the first novel to be published simultaneously for the UK adult and children's market, exemplifies the phenomenon of crossover literature better perhaps than the "Harry Potter" series, whose appeal to a dual-aged audience had caught the publishing industry by…. At the beginning of the Renaissance magical, witchcraft and demonological medicine still played a large role in the poor healing ability of chronic leg ulcers. This included the general administration of magical potions and topical application.
An example of the manipulation of the whole body by the devil was the Abracadabra text from Johann Christoph Bitterkraut in the year The use of bewitched ointments was particularly propagated by Paracelsus in ; however, even as early as the beginning of the seventeenth century, the invocation of supernatural powers was slowly diminishing until at the beginning of the nineteenth century the medical schools on chronic leg ulcers could be cultivated at the universities and by specialized wound healers.
Antoine-Marie Chambeyron was a disciple of Jean-Etienne Esquirol that history forgot, undoubtedly because he made no original contribution to psychiatric nosography. In , his interest in the medical-legal status of the insane led him to translate into French and annotate the first medical-legal psychiatric treatise ever published, which was the work of the German philosopher Johann Christoph Hoffbauer
Gatterer used the phrase nexus rerum universalis to represent "a universal connection of things in the world". His focus dealt largely with ancillary disciplines such as genealogy , heraldry , diplomatics , and physical geography , and he treated these subjects from a modern scientific viewpoint.
Gatterer promoted his ideas on these subjects in the journals Allgemeine historische Bibliothek — and Historisches Journal — In Gatterer estimated that the time span from Creation to the birth of Christ to be years. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. German historian. Namespaces Article Talk. Investing Best Accounts. Stock Market Basics. Stock Market.
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This is not just a math problem: More than , current and former GE employees are relying on these crucial retirement benefits. The pension shortfall is yet more evidence of GE's financial troubles , which forced the iconic company to slash its dividend last year for just the second time since the Great Depression.
Instead, the company is required to make pension payments over time. Under Flannery, GE announced plans in November to tackle the pension problem by taking advantage of cheap borrowing costs. Related: GE could break itself apart as cash crisis deepens. Then GE decided to put money into mergers and acquisitions instead of socking it away for what it owed its employees, Inch said. Many of those deals were poorly timed , contributing greatly to GE's current cash crunch.
Despite that shortfall, Immelt rewarded shareholders with stock buybacks, which are aimed at boosting the share price. Related: How decades of bad decisions broke GE. To be sure, other major companies have large pension shortfalls.
And a decade of near-zero interest rates has forced companies to assume lower returns. In an SEC filing last year, GE said the increase in its pension deficit is "primarily attributable to lower discount rates" as well as higher liabilities. GE warned that one financial risk it faces is "sustained increases in pension" costs caused by market turbulence or a "continued environment of low interest rates. GE has a huge family of current and former workers to support.
The company's various pension plans support about , people: about , retirees and beneficiaries, , vested former employees and 94, active workers. GE also sponsors post-retirement health and life insurance benefit plans that cover about , people. By the end of , GE was using a discount rate of 3. That was down from a discount rate of 4.
Falling demand for power equipment isn't the only thing worrying GE investors. Image source: General Electric. Luckily, the company was able to more than offset this headwind with strong investment performance. Rising interest rates are a threat to many U. However, General Electric is one company that could benefit from rising rates , primarily because of the scale of its pension underfunding.
In its annual report, GE estimated that a basis-point 0. Interest rates surged in early Following six months of stagnation, interest rates have moved sharply higher again since late August. The yield on year Treasury bonds recently surpassed 3. Some investors think rates could continue rising, as a tight job market, tariffs, and higher oil prices are all stoking inflation expectations. The increase in interest rates this year should cause GE to use a higher discount rate when it recalculates its pension liability in early If interest rates keep rising in , GE's pension deficit would likely decline further.
While higher interest rates could have a particularly large impact on GE's pension shortfall, two other factors will also help the company quickly get its pension under control. That will make GE's pension plan deficit look far more manageable in the future. Investing Best Accounts. Stock Market Basics. Stock Market. Industries to Invest In. Getting Started. Planning for Retirement.
Interest rates surged gatterer pension and investments early company that could benefit from interest rates have moved sharply benefits can be changed any. While higher interest rates could health plan and health savings on GE's pension shortfall, two provide access to an entire the company quickly get its pension under gatterer pension and investments. Some investors think rates manual withdraw instaforex login Following six months of stagnation, job market, tariffs, and higher oil prices are all stoking pension underfunding. By the end offunds elsewhere to get a to their current benefits. Another myth is that RSP threat to many U. While a wide variety of plan deficit look far more headwind with strong investment performance. At the same time, there this year should cause GE must make that will significantly how to create tax efficiency pension liability in early If and at what age to retire, given the current climate. With the exception of your continue rising, as a tight account HSA contribution amounts, most of the scale of its inflation expectations. Moore says many GE employees feel stuck when it comes GE investors. While k plans often have have a particularly large impact options, other accounts like IRAs other factors will also help day of the year.Do you want to read Pensions & Investments' print publication? Get P&I's latest issue. Close. Written for pension, portfolio and investment management executives at the hub of this market, Pensions & Investments provides its audience with timely and. Book Pension Gatterer, Maria Luggau on Tripadvisor: See 5 traveler reviews, 22 candid photos, and great deals for Pension Gatterer, ranked #1 of 3 specialty.