renewable portfolio standards and cost effective energy efficiency investment

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Renewable portfolio standards and cost effective energy efficiency investment

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Economic literature: papers , articles , software , chapters , books. FRED data. Renewable portfolio standards and cost-effective energy-efficiency investment. Williams, J. Horowitz, I. Registered: Chi-Keung Woo. Renewable portfolio standards RPSs and mandates to invest in cost-effective energy efficiency EE are increasingly popular policy tools to combat climate change and dependence on fossil fuels.

These supply-side and demand-side policies, however, are often uncoordinated. Using California as a case in point, this paper demonstrates that states could improve resource allocation if these two policies were coordinated by incorporating renewable-energy procurement cost into the cost-effectiveness determination for EE investment. In particular, if renewable energy is relatively expensive when compared to conventional energy, increasing the RPS target raises the cost-effective level of EE investment.

Mahone, A. Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:vyip as. Corrections All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. Louis Fed. In addition to the cost control mechanism of a REC, many RPS programs have escape clauses if renewable generation exceeds a specified cost threshold.

States with and without RPS policies have seen increases in the amount of electricity generation from renewable resources. A combination of federal incentives and market conditions, as well as state RPS policies and other programs, have driven increases in renewable electricity generation.

States have generally met their interim RPS targets in recent years, with only a few exceptions reflecting unique, state-specific policy designs. Roughly half of all growth in U. However, within particular regions—especially the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic, and to a lesser extent the West—RPS policies continue to serve a central role in motivating growth in renewable electricity generation.

Details on the status of compliance with state RPS in are available in U. A number of factors helped create an environment favorable for RPS compliance:. Although some regions may produce excess RPS-qualifying generation, others may produce just enough to meet the requirement or may need to import electricity from nearby regions to meet state targets. Renewable energy explained Portfolio standards.

What is energy? Units and calculators. Use of energy. Energy and the environment. Also in What is energy? Forms of energy Sources of energy Laws of energy. Also in Units and calculators explained Units and calculators Energy conversion calculators British thermal units Btu Degree days. Also in U.

Also in Use of energy explained Use of energy Energy use in industry Energy use for transportation Energy use in homes Energy use in commercial buildings Energy efficiency and conservation. Also in Energy and the environment explained Energy and the environment Greenhouse gases Greenhouse gases and the climate Where greenhouse gases come from Outlook for future emissions Recycling and energy.

Nonrenewable sources. Oil and petroleum products. Diesel fuel. Heating oil. Also in Oil and petroleum products explained Oil and petroleum products Refining crude oil Where our oil comes from Imports and exports Offshore oil and gas Use of oil Prices and outlook Oil and the environment. Also in Gasoline explained Gasoline Octane in depth Where our gasoline comes from Use of gasoline Prices and outlook Factors affecting gasoline prices Regional price differences Price fluctuations History of gasoline Gasoline and the environment.

Also in Diesel fuel explained Diesel fuel Where our diesel comes from Use of diesel Prices and outlook Factors affecting diesel prices Diesel fuel surcharges Diesel and the environment. Also in Heating oil explained Heating oil Where our heating oil comes from Use of heating oil Prices and outlook Factors affecting heating oil prices. Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids. Natural gas. Also in Hydrocarbon gas liquids explained Hydrocarbon gas liquids Where do hydrocarbon gas liquids come from?

Transporting and storing Uses of hydrocarbon gas liquids Imports and exports Prices. Also in Natural gas explained Natural gas Delivery and storage Natural gas pipelines Liquefied natural gas Where our natural gas comes from Imports and exports How much gas is left Use of natural gas Prices Factors affecting natural gas prices Natural gas and the environment Customer choice programs. Also in Coal explained Coal Mining and transportation Where our coal comes from Imports and exports How much coal is left Use of coal Prices and outlook Coal and the environment.

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Although some regions may produce excess RPS-qualifying generation, others may produce just enough to meet the requirement or may need to import electricity from nearby regions to meet state targets. Renewable energy explained Portfolio standards. What is energy? Units and calculators.

Use of energy. Energy and the environment. Also in What is energy? Forms of energy Sources of energy Laws of energy. Also in Units and calculators explained Units and calculators Energy conversion calculators British thermal units Btu Degree days. Also in U. Also in Use of energy explained Use of energy Energy use in industry Energy use for transportation Energy use in homes Energy use in commercial buildings Energy efficiency and conservation. Also in Energy and the environment explained Energy and the environment Greenhouse gases Greenhouse gases and the climate Where greenhouse gases come from Outlook for future emissions Recycling and energy.

Nonrenewable sources. Oil and petroleum products. Diesel fuel. Heating oil. Also in Oil and petroleum products explained Oil and petroleum products Refining crude oil Where our oil comes from Imports and exports Offshore oil and gas Use of oil Prices and outlook Oil and the environment. Also in Gasoline explained Gasoline Octane in depth Where our gasoline comes from Use of gasoline Prices and outlook Factors affecting gasoline prices Regional price differences Price fluctuations History of gasoline Gasoline and the environment.

Also in Diesel fuel explained Diesel fuel Where our diesel comes from Use of diesel Prices and outlook Factors affecting diesel prices Diesel fuel surcharges Diesel and the environment. Also in Heating oil explained Heating oil Where our heating oil comes from Use of heating oil Prices and outlook Factors affecting heating oil prices.

Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids. Natural gas. Also in Hydrocarbon gas liquids explained Hydrocarbon gas liquids Where do hydrocarbon gas liquids come from? Transporting and storing Uses of hydrocarbon gas liquids Imports and exports Prices. Also in Natural gas explained Natural gas Delivery and storage Natural gas pipelines Liquefied natural gas Where our natural gas comes from Imports and exports How much gas is left Use of natural gas Prices Factors affecting natural gas prices Natural gas and the environment Customer choice programs.

Also in Coal explained Coal Mining and transportation Where our coal comes from Imports and exports How much coal is left Use of coal Prices and outlook Coal and the environment. Renewable sources. Renewable energy. Biofuels: Ethanol and Biomass-based diesel.

Also in Hydropower explained Hydropower Where hydropower is generated Hydropower and the environment Tidal power Wave power Ocean thermal energy conversion. Also in Biofuels explained Biofuels Ethanol Use of ethanol Ethanol and the environment Biomass-based diesel fuels Use of biomass-based diesel fuel Biomass-based diesel and the environment. Also in Wind explained Wind Electricity generation from wind Where wind power is harnessed Types of wind turbines History of wind power Wind energy and the environment.

Also in Geothermal explained Geothermal Where geothermal energy is found Use of geothermal energy Geothermal power plants Geothermal heat pumps Geothermal energy and the environment. Also in Solar explained Solar Photovoltaics and electricity Where solar is found and used Solar thermal power plants Solar thermal collectors Solar energy and the environment.

Applicable Sectors : Investor-Owned Utilities electric only. Requirement : Savings increase of 0. The Maryland Public Service Commission established new post targets in Order , which were codified in through the passage of Senate Bill For the and compliance cycles, electric utilities are required to increase annual energy savings by 0. Enabling Statute, Code or Order : Md. Public Utilities Code Ann. Applicable Sectors : Electric and gas utilities.

Requirements : As established in approved three-year joint plan. Description : State law requires electric and gas utilities to submit a joint energy efficiency investment plan to the Department of Public Utilities for review and approval every three years. Utilities are required to deploy all available energy efficiency programs that are cost-effective. Enabling Statute, Code or Order : Mass.

Laws Ann. Michigan Title : Incremental Energy Savings. Applicable Sectors : Electric providers and natural gas providers. Gas providers are required to implement waste reduction programs that achieve energy savings equivalent to 0. Enabling Statute, Code or Order : Mich. Minnesota Title : Energy-Saving Goals.

Applicable Sectors : Electric utilities and natural gas utilities. Requirements : 1. Description : Although electric and gas utilities are generally required to have an annual every-savings goal equivalent to 1. Voluntary Targets : 1. Description : Missouri established by regulation voluntary energy efficiency goals for electric utilities. The applicable state regulations explicitly state that such energy efficiency goals are not mandatory.

Voluntary annual incremental savings targets are 1. The objective of such annual incremental targets is to achieve cumulative savings of 9. Enabling Statute, Code or Order : Mo. Code Regs. Nevada Title : Energy Efficiency Measure. Applicable Sectors : Investor-owned utilities electric-only. Nevada enacted Senate Bill , which directed the state Public Utilities Commission to regulate energy savings goals for each electric utility. The order requires gas and electric utilities to achieve a certain savings percentage based on statewide delivered sales in These annual increases, combined with the targets, are intended to achieve total savings of 3.

Of note, utilities must achieve their required annual energy savings within five years of program implementation. Additionally, gas utilities are not required to reduce natural gas used for distributed energy to comply with annual targets. Applicable Sectors : Electric utilities. In , New Mexico enacted House Bill requiring the Public Regulation Commission to set energy savings targets for through no later than June 30, Enabling Statute, Code or Order : N. Applicable Sectors : Electric utilities and natural gas utilities statewide target.

In , the PSC approved statewide energy efficiency targets out to In , New York enacted legislation codifying an energy savings goal of trillion BTU below forecasted energy consumption levels. Applicable Sectors : Electric-only statewide target. Enabling Statute, Code or Orde r: N.

Ohio Title : Energy Efficiency Programs. Applicable Sectors: Investor-owned utilities electric-only. In through , utilities are also required to achieve additional incremental annual reductions in peak demand of 0. Oregon Title : Energy Savings Goals. Effective Date : first long-term plan. Requirements : Electricity savings of average MW and 24 million therms of natural gas between and Description : In , Oregon enacted legislation that authorized the Oregon Public Utility Commission to direct funding for renewable energy and efficiency programs through a third-party nongovernmental organization.

The current plan for through can be found here. Energy Trust is currently in the process of finalizing their strategic plan. Enabling Statute, Code or Order : Or. Applicable Sectors : Electric utilities with more than , customers. The PUC is required to evaluate costs and benefits beginning in and every five years thereafter. Enabling Statute, Code or Order : Pa. Requirements : Average annual incremental savings from of 2.

Description : Pursuant to state law, the Rhode Island Energy Efficiency and Resource Management Council establishes triennial energy efficiency targets for electric and natural gas utilities for Public Utility Commission review and approval. Enabling Statute, Code or Order : R. Effective Date : ; Applicable Sectors : Electric providers. Enabling Statute, Code or Order : S.

Texas Title : Goal for Energy Efficiency. Electric utilities are also required to achieve savings equivalent to 0. Enabling Statute, Code or Order : Tex. Utilities Code Ann. Utah voluntary Title : Renewable Portfolio Goal. Applicable Sector : Electric companies. Description : Electric companies may use demand-side management programs to achieve voluntary statewide renewable portfolio goals.

Vermont Title : Energy Efficiency Programs. Description : State law empowers the Public Utility Commission PUC to develop and enforce energy efficiency targets, including appointing energy efficiency utilities. It also requires that the PUC establish charges to support energy efficiency programs that realize all cost-effective efficiency measures that are reasonably available.

Enabling Statute, Code or Order : Vt. Description : In , Virginia enacted legislation creating mandatory energy savings targets for investor-owned utilities. Phase I utilities are required to achieve incremental savings of.

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Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency: Policy and Standards

The Maryland Public Service Commission established new post targets in certain savings percentage based on in through the passage of annual increases, combined with the compliance cycles, electric utilities are required to increase annual energy savings by 0. Enabling Statute, Code or Order : Ill. Applicable Sectors : Electric providers Energy and Environment Guide to. Description : Missouri established by their required annual energy savings. Enabling Statute, Code or Order : Mich. The objective of such annual state that such energy efficiency cumulative savings of 9. Enabling Statute, Code or Order United States government. Of note, utilities must achieve a cost cap for energy to have an annual every-savings. Requirement : Savings increase of. The EEAC has set voluntary targets for Enabling Statute, Code 3, customers are required to.

Renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) and mandates to invest in cost-effective energy efficiency (EE) are increasingly popular policy tools to combat climate. Downloadable (with restrictions)! Renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) and mandates to invest in cost-effective energy efficiency (EE) are increasingly popular. Efficiency and Renewable Energy, under Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Renewables portfolio standards (RPS) require electricity providers to obtain additional cost savings for LSEs and ratepayers not captured in the REC and investment tax credit for solar and production tax credit for wind and other.