The victory. We just put her in the right spots. She also has two stakes wins at Delta Downs and one at Fair Grounds. They and all the horsemen helped us put on quite a show. It was a terrific season. The added excitement in February carried over to March, when Oaklawn enjoyed one of its best Rebel Stakes days.
Rebel Stakes Day was super. It will be exciting to see what champions Classic Empire and Stellar Wind do from here as well as impressive stakes winners Ever So Clever and Whitmore. It exceeded our expectations in the first year. Show wagering has become one of our most popular wagers, and in fact, the show pool increased 34 percent over last year. You could hear people in the grandstand every race day talking about their show parlays.
A year later, 3-year-old Caroline and another child were killed in a crash in Kentucky when their Head Start bus left the road and overturned. For Tuttle, the racehorse Lady Caroline holds special meaning in the memory of her daughter. For Apel, the mare has even more of a special meaning to him now. It was truly an emotional moment for me when I read a message that was over a year old from a Kentucky mom who lost her 3-year-old daughter in that bus crash.
But he will be hard-pressed to find such a strong connection to any of his current stock as he found with Lady Caroline. The chestnut mare represents more than just a racehorse for two separate families forever linked together. Nebraska native and former newspaper journalist Jeff Apel has a love of horses, and his passion brought him to Indiana Grand when he relocated to central Indiana.
Today, he owns horses with the Nebraska Horse Racing Hall of Fame trainer and their partnership has produced several profitable purchases, including the racemare Lady Caroline. I told him I was willing to take a risk because she was the first horse I owned that made me a profit. Her success made her a viable investment, and she was claimed by new connections in May After making one more start, she was retired to broodmare duty in Kentucky.
Apel thought his connection to Lady Caroline was over even though he still admired a photo collage of his prized mare hanging on the wall at home. Stakes for 2-year-old fillies. The track will offer 67 days of trio of juvenile stakes. The series gets underway September 24 with the racing starting August 25 and running through December The Seven stakes races are scheduled for the Remington Park turf course, afternoon provides a well-timed opportunity for horsemen looking for led by the Remington Green.
The win was one of two on the day for the Portland, Indiana, native who earned the milestone victory aboard Stand On It, trained by Wayne Mogge. It takes the pressure away. He was an apprentice the first year Linscott Photography of pari-mutuel racing at Hoosier Park in Rachel McLaughlin, on-air racing and has competed on the Indiana circuit every personality at Indiana Grand, talks with year since then.
He scored his 2,th career win Rodney Prescott after his milestone win. In addition to his success in Thoroughbred racing, Prescott also rides American Quarter Horses at the track and is ranked third all-time for winners with that breed. A J Pacer made three starts in at two, posting one win and one second before taking some time off to prepare for her 3-year-old season.
She tried really hard and will be ready for her next start and will be better. The official silks for Grand Gesture Stable are black with a gold sash and gold and black blocks on the sleeves. Individuals, who must be residents of Indiana and 21 years of age or older, will own 1 percent of A J Pacer through October 28, at which time the filly will be sold to disperse the partnership.
After the purchase price and all expenses are paid, any remaining earnings from her races will be distributed evenly among all 50 owners. Prairie Meadows introduced the inaugural Prairie Meadows Racing Club in February and at press time was still accepting new members. For additional information, visit prairiemeadows. Trusted Accreditation. The TAA accredits, inspects and awards grants to approved aftercare organizations to retire, retrain and rehome Thoroughbreds using industry-wide funding.
The American Racehorse Stallion Register is the most affordable and effective way to advertise your stallion to thousands of potential breeders in the Southwest, Midwest and Midsouth regions, as well as breeders in Kentucky, Florida and around the country. Only American Racehorse goes to virtually every Thoroughbred breeder in:. H Get more information at www.
The American Racehorse Stallion Register, to be published in December , is the only resource for breeders that covers the Southwest, Midwest and Midsouth regions. American Racehorse has a wider distribution across the region than BloodHorse for a fraction of the price. Seeing how beautiful the horse is from a distance, they begin to hope he will head over so they can get a closer look at him.
In addition, they built in a stipend so that money would be sent to Old Friends each year to help take care of the horse. Silver Charm arrived at Old Friends on December 1, , with more than people in attendance on a cold, rainy afternoon to watch him take his first step on the farm. He was led off the van by Sandy Hatfield, stallion manager at Three Chimneys.
Standing at the bottom of the ramp was Michael Blowen, founder and president of Old Friends, who could not wait to greet the Kentucky Derby winner. The arrival of Silver Charm was a dream come true for Blowen, as the now year-old stallion is his all-time favorite horse. Rick Capone. When the visitors reach the paddock fence, the horse looks up, sees the people and begins to walk toward them.
But they need not have worried. The horse stops on a dime and puts his head over the fence as if to say hello to everyone. All the while, Silver Charm just stands there patiently posing for photos and happily accepting some treats. Such is the happy retirement life of the first—but not the only— Kentucky Derby winner to call the Old Friends Thoroughbred Retirement Farm home. He also won the Preakness Stakes but fell short of the Triple Crown when he lost a heartbreaker depending on your rooting interest to Touch Gold in the Belmont Stakes.
About the only thing that gives a hint of his age is that his gray coat is now almost white, as it shines brightly in the afternoon sunshine. After his racing career ended, Silver Charm stood at Three Chimneys Farm near Midway, Kentucky, before being moved to Japan, where he stood for the remainder of his breeding career.
Before Silver Charm went to Japan, however, his owners, Bob and Beverly Lewis, made certain that when he was retired from stud duty they could bring him home to the United States. In the intervening years, Bob Lewis passed away. She died in He followed up with two second-place finishes, also at Santa Anita. Derby G1 , also to Free House, this time by a head.
While his final two Kentucky Derby preps resulted in runner-up finishes, Baffert and the Lewises felt very good about their chances in the Kentucky Derby. There are two interesting things about Silver Charm that should be noted here. The trainer had been good to McCarron during his career, giving him a number of successful mounts, including John Henry, so McCarron decided to ride for his top trainer at the time. Second, Silver Charm was never one to win his races by big margins.
Anytime a horse ran up alongside of him, he almost never would let the horse go by. He did a few times, but most of the time, he would out-game his competitor. Free House was third. At Belmont Park, Silver Charm looked like he just might accomplish the task. Leading down the stretch on the inside, with Free House just to his outside, Silver Charm took dead aim at Triple Crown immortality.
As they got closer to the finish line, McCarron urged Touch Gold forward, and his horse hit the wire for a threequarters length win. Silver Charm never saw him coming. For his efforts, Silver Charm was named the Eclipse Award winner as champion 3-year-old male. He was retired at the end of his 5-year-old campaign. Silver Charm. Silver Charm has also had some big-name visitors as well; his former trainer Bob Baffert and his wife, Jill, and son, Bode, have visited him on a number of occasions, as has Gary Stevens.
He always was a star. He fits in great. The year-old champion still looks like a winner and is one of the main draws at the retirement farm. At first, because of his love for Silver Charm, Blowen had a hard time getting used to having the horse who prevented a Triple Crown winner at the farm, but that soon changed.
He was also named the Eclipse Award winner as champion 3-year-old colt. He was then sent to Japan for his breeding career but was eventually retired from stud duty due to a lack of interest in breeding. He lost his bid for the Triple Crown when he finished eighth after stumbling out of the gate at Belmont Park. Blowen had named the miniature horse after his favorite full-size horse. From time to time, he brings the little horse over to meet his bigger version, where they go nose-to-nose in greeting, before Blowen gives them each some carrots.
For more information about Old Friends and how to take a tour or make a donation, go to oldfriendsequine. The decision was made to geld him, and with many precautions taken, the surgery was a success. Today, he is enjoying his retirement at the farm. He wants to call all the shots. Every shot, no matter how small it is.
He was the first classic winner to come to Old Friends in September A son of Wild Again trained by Ken McPeek, Sarava made history as the longest shot to win the Belmont when he hit the wire at odds of The Belmont was also the last win of his career. So, we got a tremendous endowment. Sadly, in February, not long after returning home, Charismatic died suddenly in his stall as a result of a pelvic fracture.
With all the Triple Crown horses at Old Friends, there is one horse who never won a race but who holds a special place. As another day. Each issue features articles on horse health, second-career racehorses, horsemen and horses in the region and more, plus breeding, racing and sales news. Any new two-year subscription will receive a free copy of Alexandra the Great, a new hardcover book for young readers about Horse of the Year Rachel Alexandra!
In a unique twist, Indiana Grand has three female apprentice jockeys this year and all of them are 20 years old. The track just outside of Indianapolis is hosting the start-up careers of three female apprentice riders who are attacking racetrack life from different paths. Katie Clawson, Cheyanna Patrick and Erica Murray are busy winning races, and all three are just 20 years old.
The resident of Brazil, Indiana, is in contention for the riding title at Indiana Grand this season, which could put her in line to make history in the state. Through mid-June, Clawson had recorded 34 victories to lead the standings at Indiana Grand with a win lead over her closest rival. Clawson had a unique journey to the racetrack.
Her love of horses prompted her parents to sign her up for riding lessons in her native Arizona before the family relocated to the Hoosier State when she was seven. She continued her love of horses and when she was old enough the home-schooled student got involved in 4-H. But it was Zenyatta that hooked me on racing. I saw her on TV when she won her 12th or 13th race, and that was it for me.
I knew that was what I wanted to do. Since that time, she has recorded a hat trick three more times. Katie Clawson won six races from 97 starts for a 6. She helped him break babies and learned the initial techniques of galloping Thoroughbreds for two years. That took her to Louisiana for the winter, and at age 17 she had a full-time job in racing.
Many people have helped her along the way, from trainers to jockeys to agents and even her valets, but one man in particular gets a little extra credit for preparing her as a jockey. I learned a lot from him on race riding and he pushed me out of my comfort zone, which is what I needed. Just two months into the meet, she has already tripled that total. Her talent was on full display on Kentucky Derby Day, May 6, at Indiana Grand, when she guided home three winners on the card, her first triple win evening.
It was a lot of fun. However, in the end, it set her up to tackle a lot of things that are important to her as she continues on her career path. Clawson makes the trip back to Brazil once a week to catch up with family members, stay active in church and share a passion with the entire Clawson clan. He works as an assistant trainer for Mike Maker and is currently overseeing a string in New York. Clawson and Ramsey are already. For now, Clawson will continue to perfect her skills as a jockey and work to put wins on her record.
Cheyanna Patrick has followed in the footsteps of her mother, Cindy, who was part of the initial jockey colony at Hoosier Park when pari-mutuel racing came to Indiana in The second generation jockey is now in her fifth year on the track. However, her riding assignments have taken a backseat at times to her pursuit of a college degree.
Racing is a part-time gig for Patrick so she can concentrate on her goal of becoming a criminal lawyer. A native of Florida, she spent. Always excelling at. Her mother and her father, Gary, who are among the all-time leaders for owning and training Thoroughbreds, respectively, at Indiana Grand, took a rare day off from work to attend such a momentous event.
We also had some family friends there, too. It was a special day. Of the entire graduating class, only 34 completed their degrees with a perfect 4. Plus, she will be surrounded by horses and racing while she completes her law degree. Moss wrote a letter of recommendation for Patrick to enter law school, which she feels was a key component to her acceptance into UK. Patrick received the Juan Saez Leading Apprentice Jockey Award at Indiana Grand in , and she hit another career high when she guided Bipartisan to victory for trainer Carl Deville at Churchill Downs on April 29 for her first win at the prestigious oval.
Even riding only part-time, she has won more than 55 races since beginning her career as a jockey at age 16 in I will be a journeyman by then, so maybe I will ride a few here and there next summer. The former National Barrel Horse Association All American Youth World titleholder still has four or five barrel horses and plans to always stay in touch with that aspect of competition.
The jockey, who hails from northern Louisiana, began her riding career in the spring of , earning her maiden-breaking victory at Louisiana Downs before relocating her tack to Fair Grounds. She arrived at Indiana Grand during the meet before competing at Turfway Park over the winter, which bridged the gap for her return to Indiana this spring.
Murray, Patrick and Clawson have become very close and support each other through the victories and the losses. Each one admits that having that type of support system is key to their success on the track. Indiana has always been the home to successful female riders. In recent years, female jockeys such as Jaleina Farrell, Rhonda Collins, Carol Cedeno, Oriana Rossi and even Patrick have cracked the top 10 in the Thoroughbred standings but have not landed the top spot.
The elusive leading Thoroughbred jockey title in Indiana still remains open for a female to seize the spot, and perhaps Clawson will be the rider who breaks that glass ceiling. The native of Southern Illinois has worked in racing for more than 35 years in various positions at racetracks across the nation. Dustin Orona Photography. W orth M etroplex makes it easy for buyers and sellers from around the country to attend! For consignment forms and more information, go to www.
August 21, - p. Canterbury Park - Shakopee, MN www. On Kellogg Ave. Must be 21 to enter gaming floor. For help with a gambling problem in Indiana, call 1. All Rights Reserved. The race mentioned in the story could have taken place at the Macon County Missouri fairgrounds. This photo shows the grandstand with the Blees Military Academy in the background.
It was his recollection of an incident in which he was involved. Like many horse racing stories, especially those from decades ago, the details may have been embellished a bit, but it serves as a reminder of some of the characters and tales that make horse racing such a special sport. Bricky maintained privileges at the racetrack at the St.
Louis fairgrounds by taking plugs from disgruntled racehorse owners who got tired of paying the keep of their non-winning steeds. The luckless Bricky was fond of the dog, and he raced out onto the track, grabbed her and flung her out of danger. It was too late for Bricky, however, to escape the inevitable. A nearby priest was summoned. He further surmised that the horse left to the old priest was likely not very useful, just as Bricky suggested. The priest lived in a cottage on the outskirts of St.
After a few weeks of training, the horse brightened up and developed better speed and stamina. How about it? Louis Jockey Club fairgrounds. Gambling tirement from the racing game and prewas outlawed soon after this photo was taken, and the track closed in Over the past five years he has pioneered the exploraand getting down a bet for you.
A dozen or so trainers ig- and Food Stories, available on Amazon. The other stories at danieldemers. Louis was a mile race with a field of 10 horses—all maidens. The nine were brought back and lined up for a new start. Louis Jockey Club reportedly had a bowling alley and billiards saying] heaven forgive me for [being a] room, along with stained glass, ornamental urns and other elegant decorations.
Equine Sales Co. Sometimes those hunches pay off, as in the case of Shannon Boshears and Double Tuff. Without her father by her side at the track, there was no enthusiasm and far too many memories to handle. The thrill was gone. According to Shannon, even his father was known to go to the track every day, limiting himself to a few dollars for betting.
As the years passed, Boshears would pick up her dad and head to the track. But he always found a way to return. Whether it meant taking his wheelchair-bound brother to Oaklawn or a dying friend to Saratoga to strike one more item from her bucket list, Clint was at the ready. So it came as no surprise when Boshears rented a van and broke her dad out of a hospice to take him to Oaklawn for Arkansas Derby Day.
She wheeled him through the crowd of 66, people to claim the very last handicapped spot. Little did she know that the hours that followed would bring a lasting bond and more than a few unusual coincidences. He only lasted a couple of races before Boshears had to take him home. Six weeks later, Clint passed away.
Finally, she decided it was time to return. After downloading the Oaklawn app on her phone—and refusing to move the car until it was done—she began to study the entries. Shannon Boshears learned to love horse racing through her father, Clint, and that love was recently rekindled thanks to a connection through Facebook.
After hearing her emotionally charged story, Simms sent Boshears a picture of Double Tuff as a foal and told her that he was born April 9, —just days before she had taken Clint to Oaklawn one last time. As Boshears and the owner of Double Tuff became more acquainted, they realized their lives were following similar paths.
Both had fathers who had overcome alcoholism and had gone on to help scores of others overcome their addictions. Both had taught their children to love and respect horses at a very young age. At one point, the trainer was given only two weeks to live, which devastated Zack, who was a senior in high The father-and-son training team school at the time.
He made it his goal to train again, making a huge impression on his son. Soon Garry was going to the barn every morning, getting stronger by the day. I just want to see the mares and foals running across our field one more time. That will keep me alive. You want to talk about tough, Dad is the definition of tough.
Three mares were bred successfully—one of the foals was Double Tuff. Finally, on a perfect spring day, Boshears and her family made their way to Oaklawn and placed their bets on Double Tuff, an Indiana-bred son of Indiana stallion Skylord who had run eighth last time out at the track and was dismissed at odds of Everyone held their breath as the anticipation soared.
Simms invited Boshears and her anxious entourage to the barn to meet Double Tuff prior to the race. Later, as he was saddling the horse, he heard Boshears call his name. I wanted to win this race so badly, not only for my father and my family, but also for the Boshears family. Boshears said meeting Double Tuff will always be one of her favorite memories and that there was an immediate bond as the horse began to nuzzle her.
Simms said his gentle horse has a better personality than most humans, but as soon as the bridle is on, he becomes a serious racehorse. Double Tuff had been training very well coming into the race, and the trainer knew all along his horse had talent. For the first half-mile, Double Tuff hung in among the leaders, gaining ground as they turned into the stretch.
Simms admitted he was waiting for his horse to start dropping back, but that never happened. He recalled the magical moment when he knew his horse would beat the odds. As soon as he did, Double Tuff exploded and quickly opened up by two lengths! Zack was stunned. This horse was not supposed to win! In Retrospect Neither family will ever forget that day. Simms said it was, without a doubt, the best day of his life. That race meant so much to them and everything worked out exactly how we had hoped it would.
As for the Arkansas gal who has horse racing running through her veins, Shannon Boshears believed all along that Clint—an eternal optimist—would be there at the track, in spirit. That emotional day brought back fond memories of when her dad took her as a child to Oaklawn to have a full breakfast at the track kitchen and watch the horses work out.
The unbelievable win at Oaklawn brought two unlikely families together and changed the mind of a die-hard skeptic. Zack, who plans to someday take over the business, realizes. We Have Your Money You Have Our Information! Is your name on this list of breeders and owners who have earned money through the Accredited Texas-Bred Program for racing? For various reasons, the TTA has been unable to pay the individuals listed below.
Usually the problem is very simple to correct. Perhaps a transfer form was never completed when you purchased your money-earning Texas Thoroughbred, or maybe you have moved and forgotten to tell us. That was the beauty and magic of it all. Just seconds before the shutter snapped, they scattered the ashes of Clint Boshears, and Zack handed Shannon the Oaklawn plate given to the winner.
We are aiming even higher in ! Look for us. Thanks to national organizations like the Thoroughbred Aftercare Alliance, Retired Racehorse Project, Take2 Program, Thoroughbred Incentive Program and others, plus regional and state organizations across the country, there are more opportunities for Thoroughbreds at the conclusion of their racing careers than ever before.
The result is that trainers specializing in a variety of non-racing disciplines are seeking out retiring or recently retired racehorses to retrain as riding and show horses. A variation of that scenario is happening as well, as was the case with Oklahoma-bred Dancing Commander, whose owner specifically sought out a trainer to help give the former racehorse a second career. The gelding had shown some racing talent; in his first career start at Remington Park, he finished second to eventual Oklahoma Derby G3 winner and Oklahoma Horse of the Year Shotgun Kowboy, albeit by nearly 13 lengths.
He broke his maiden for a claiming tag at Will Rogers Downs but was also pulled up in two of his final three races. Vickie Heidlage, who acquired him off the track, then took the proverbial reins to steer his career in a new direction.
She reached out to Curtis to see if she would be willing to take on the recently retired racehorse. The more Wooley spent time with Winston, the more she knew he was the right horse for her. After some long discussions with her husband, she approached Curtis about purchasing him. Wooley officially purchased Winston in June but was eager to still allow Curtis to fulfill the promise she made to Heidlage and compete with him in the Thoroughbred Makeover. The pair ended up finishing third out of more than 80 horses entered in the dressage division.
They also won several classes at open shows against all breeds, including Warmbloods specifically bred for dressage. Dressage Federation] recognized shows, scoring in the mids. I can ride out of our back gate and head over to their indoor arena to continue our training. Their long-term goals include showing at the local and regional dressage shows and for Wooley to eventually earn her USDF bronze, silver and gold medals, which are awarded to a dressage rider who attains required scores at the necessary levels at USDF-sanctioned competitions.
Even though Winston is only a baby, I can relax and have learned I can trust him. He seems to have learned quite quickly that the arena means business and goes straight into work mode when we walk in. She coowns Topline Communications, a marketing agency that caters to smallto medium-size businesses both in and outside of the horse industry. No other regional or national racing and breeding publication reaches more area horsemen and horsewomen than American Racehorse!
Our ad rates are affordable, and we can design an ad for you at no charge! To view a complete list of ad rates or for more information, go to www. Where would we be without all the guys and gals who work behind the scenes in our industry? All the unsung heroes whose tireless endeavor is as valuable as the jockey urging a thoroughbred over the finish line. Well, the Thoroughbred Industry Employee Awards recognize and reward those very people who are at the heart of our industry.
H e also became the first stakes winner for his sire S tar C at , a son of S torm C at out of champion A shado standing at B reakway F arm in I ndiana. Trout Oklahoma Jockey: Luis S. Louis V. Ruberto Jr. Spring is perhaps the best season of the year for horsemen, as new foals are hitting the ground and the racing action hits full stride across the middle of the nation from Minnesota to Texas. While the list of state-bred stakes winners can be sparse during the winter months, it was anything but this spring as horses bred in the Midwest and Southwest piled up stakes wins at home and on the road.
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This is why many punters deem the Caulfield Cup exacta worth the extra risk. Photo: Ultimate Racing Photos. Naturally, there is no guaranteed way to pick a winning Caulfield Cup exacta. However, there are some measures that will increase your chances of placing a successful Caulfield Cup exacta bet. If you want to give your luck a little boost, take the time to do some detective work when it comes to the past performances of your selections.
Caulfield Cup form guides are a great resource if you are seeking information about your Caulfield Cup selections. If you check the race cards and line-up for the Caulfield Cup early, you can take as much time as you need to choose your two favourites. The more information you gather, the more likely you are to pick a winning Caulfield Cup exacta. If you have to fit your Caulfield Cup betting into a busy work and family schedule, we recommend you sign up as a member with one of our favourite online bookmakers.
Internet-based bookies like Ladbrokes. With the help of an online bookmaker you can place your Caulfield Cup exacta at any time of the day and from almost anywhere in the world, making your life as a punter a lot easier. On top of that, being a member at an online bookmaker can help you in your research before placing your Caulfield Cup exacta.
Most online bookies offer virtual form guides and have the most recent information on your selections available. With insider info like this, you will be reaping the rewards of your Caulfield Cup exacta in no time. Despite a last start failure in the Melbourne Cup the Godolphin-raced Avilius The parimutuel system was invented by Catalan impresario Joseph Oller in The large amount of calculation involved in this system led to the invention of a specialized mechanical calculating machine known as a totalisator , "automatic totalisator" or "tote board", invented by the Australian engineer George Alfred Julius.
The first was installed at Ellerslie Racecourse , Auckland , New Zealand in , and they came into widespread use at race courses throughout the world. The U. Unlike many forms of casino gambling, in parimutuel betting the gambler bets against other gamblers, not the house, which necessarily implies that the bank cannot be broken. The science of predicting the outcome of a race is called handicapping.
Independent off-track bookmakers typically have a smaller take and thus offer better payoffs, but they are illegal in some countries. However, the introduction of Internet gambling led to "rebate shops". These off-shore betting shops promise to return some percentage of every bet made to the bettor. There may be several different types of bets, in which case each type of bet has its own pool.
The basic bets involve predicting the order of finish for a single participant, as follows:. In Canada and the United States , the most common types of bet on horse races include:. Win, place and show wagers class as straight bets , and the remaining wagers as exotic bets.
Bettors usually make multiple wagers on exotic bets. A box consists of a multiple wager in which bettors bet all possible combinations of a group of horses in the same race. A key involves making a multiple wager with a single horse in one race bet in one position with all possible combinations of other selected horses in a single race. A wheel consists of betting all horses in one race of a bet involving two or more races.
For example, a 1-all daily double wheel bets the 1-horse in the first race with every horse in the second. People making straight bets commonly employ the strategy of an "each way" bet. Here the bettor picks a horse and bets it will win, and makes an additional bet that it will show, so that theoretically if the horse runs third it will at least pay back the two bets. The Canadian and American equivalent is the bet across short for across the board : the bettor bets equal sums on the horse to win, place, and show.
A parlay , accumulator or roll-up consists of a series of bets in which bettors stake the winnings from one race on the next in order until either the bettor loses or the series completes successfully. In Australia, certain exotic bet types can be laid as "flexi" bets. If the bet is successful, the bettor will get either the full winning amount shown on the board, or half the winning amount.
Under a flexi system the bettor can nominate their desired total wager, and their percentage of payout is determined by this wager's relationship to the full unit price. If the bet is successful, the payout will be In recent times the "Roving Banker" variant for Trifecta and First4 betting is now offered. For a Roving Banker First4 the player selects one, two or three runners they believe will definitely finish 1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th, and up to three selections as Roving Banker s with other runners to fill the remaining place s.
A Roving Banker Trifecta is where the player believes that one or two runners will definitely finish 1st, 2nd or 3rd. The bet can be placed by picking the player's favourite runner to finish in any place within the bet and complete the Trifecta with any number of other runners to fill the other placing s. Exotic wagers are usually made on horses running at the same track on the same program. In the United Kingdom , bookmakers also offer exotic wagers on horses at different tracks. Probably the Yankee occurs most commonly: in this the bettor tries to pick the winner of four races.
This bet also includes subsidiary wagers on smaller combinations of the chosen horses; for example, if only two of the four horses win, the bettor still collects for their double. A Trixie requires trying to pick three winners, and a Canadian or Super Yankee trying to pick five; these also include subsidiary bets. There are also other bets which are large combinations of singles, doubles, trebles and accumulators some of them are called Lucky 15, Lucky 31, Heinz, Super Heinz, Goliath.
The term nap identifies the best bet of the day. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Tijuana, Baja California, Las formas y medios de mayor frecuencia para asesinar a las mujeres son: heridas por lesiones y golpes Background Temporomandibular disorders are the most common cause of chronic orofacial pain, but, except where they occur subsequent to trauma, their cause remains unknown.
This cross-sectional study assessed chewing function habitual chewing side and the differences of the chewing side and condylar path and lateral anterior guidance angles in participants with chronic unilateral temporomandibular disorder. This is the preliminary report of a randomized trial that aimed to test the effect of a new occlusal adjustment therapy.
Methods The masticatory function of 21 randomly selected completely dentate participants with chronic temporomandibular disorders all but one with unilateral symptoms was assessed by observing them eat almonds, inspecting the lateral horizontal movement of the jaw, with kinesiography, and by means of interview.
The condylar path in the sagittal plane and the lateral anterior guidance angles with respect to the Frankfort horizontal plane in the frontal plane were measured on both sides in each individual. The mean condylar path angle was steeper Temporomandibular disorders: the habitual chewing side syndrome.
METHODS: The masticatory function of 21 randomly selected completely dentate participants with chronic temporomandibular disorders all but one with unilateral symptoms was assessed by observing them eat almonds, inspecting the lateral horizontal movement of the jaw, with kinesiography, and by means of interview.
Consideraciones sobre el hidrocefalo de baja presion. Animals are presented repeatedly with the same odorant after which a new odorant is introduced. The time the animal explores the odor object is measured. An animal is considered to cross- habituate during the novel stimulus trial when the exploration time is higher than the prior trial and indicates the degree of olfactory patency. On the other hand, habituation across the repeated trials involves decreased exploration time and is related to memory patency, especially at long intervals.
These criteria are intuitive, but it is unclear how they relate to olfactory exploration, that is, sniffing. We used video tracking combined with plethysmography to improve accuracy, avoid observer bias, and propose more robust criteria for exploratory scoring when sniff measures are not available. We also demonstrate that sniff rate combined with proximity is the most direct measure of odorant exploration and provide a robust and sensitive criterion.
Presynaptic learning and memory with a persistent firing neuron and a habituating synapse: a model of short term persistent habituation. Our paper explores the interaction of persistent firing axonal and presynaptic processes in the generation of short term memory for habituation. We first propose a model of a sensory neuron whose axon is able to switch between passive conduction and persistent firing states, thereby triggering short term retention to the stimulus. Then we propose a model of a habituating synapse and explore all nine of the behavioral characteristics of short term habituation in a two neuron circuit.
We couple the persistent firing neuron to the habituation synapse and investigate the behavior of short term retention of habituating response. Simulations show that, depending on the amount of synaptic resources, persistent firing either results in continued habituation or maintains the response, both leading to longer recovery times. The effectiveness of the model as an element in a bio-inspired memory system is discussed. Hal ini dikarenakan baja ringan jauh lebih ekonomis dibandingkan dengan baja konvensional maupun kayu.
Baja ringan juga memiliki segudang kelebihan yang sangat menguntungkan sebuah konstruksi. Tahun , Badan Standar Nasional mengeluarkan SNI yaitu standar untuk perencanaan struktur baja ringan canai dingin. Dengan adanya SNI ini, diharapkan suatu st Factores asociados con la irregularidad de la ingesta de Dapsona en pacientes con lepra: Dapsona en pacientes con lepra.
Objetivo: Explorar los factores asociados a la irregularidad de la ingesta del tratamiento antileproso. Salud UIS ; 45 1: On the development of past habitual from iterative in Lithuanian. Full Text Available Lithuanian has regular past habitual forms with the suffix -dav-, which can be explained as an originally iterative suffix -dau- restricted to the past tense Fraenkel Dialectal and Old Lithuanian, in addition to -dav-, also feature habituals with the suffixes -lav- and -dlav-, which could have followed the same path of development Fraenkel , as evidenced by a number of diverse languages Bybee et al.
If this had not been the case, more corresponding verbal formations should have remained. If these formations had been productive in all dialects of Lithuanian, more iteratives should have been found in the areas that did not grammaticalize them as past habituals.
It is also suggested that the form-frequency correspondence principle Haspelmath , , should have operated in the formation of the Lithuanian habitual. Longer suffixes were chosen to mark habitual situations as a less frequent subtype of iterative situations and habitual forms were restricted to the past tense because habituality is one of the default more frequent readings of the present and hence the habituals in the past tend to be marked explicitly Bybee et al.
Habitual physical activity in mitochondrial disease. Full Text Available Mitochondrial disease is the most common neuromuscular disease and has a profound impact upon daily life, disease and longevity. Exercise therapy has been shown to improve mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial disease. However, no information exists about the level of habitual physical activity of people with mitochondrial disease and its relationship with clinical phenotype.
Habitual physical activity, genotype and clinical presentations were assessed in patients with mitochondrial disease. Comparisons were made with a control group individually matched by age, gender and BMI. Mitochondrial disease is the most common neuromuscular disease and has a profound impact upon daily life, disease and longevity.
These results demonstrate for the first time that low levels of physical activity are prominent in mitochondrial disease. Combined with a high prevalence of obesity, physical activity may constitute a significant and potentially modifiable risk factor in mitochondrial disease. Object recognition and generalisation during habituation in horses.
The ability of horses to habituate to frightening stimuli greatly increases safety in the horse—human relationship. A recent experiment suggested, however, that habituation to frightening visual stimuli is relatively stimulus-specific in horses and that shape and colour are important factors In the first experiment, we investigated whether TEST horses subsequently reacted less to i simple objects that were previously part of the complex object i Se les dio a tomar la leche Marital arrangements in Baja California and its young adults.
Full Text Available Uniones libres or consensual union formation has increased in Mexico and this is not an exception in its Northern region. Differences in the locomotor-activating effects of indirect serotonin agonists in habituated and non- habituated rats. The indirect serotonin 5-HT agonist 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine MDMA produces a distinct behavioral profile in rats consisting of locomotor hyperactivity, thigmotaxis, and decreased exploration.
These results were unexpected because previous reports indicate that MDMA has robust locomotor-activating effects in habituated animals. Light cycle was included as a variable due to reported differences in sensitivity to serotonergic ligands during the dark and light phases.
Foveal damage in habitual poppers users. To describe foveal damage in habitual use of poppers, a popular recreational drug. Retrospective observational case series. Six patients with bilateral vision loss after chronic popper inhalation were seen in 4 university-based ophthalmology departments. Symptoms, medical history, ophthalmic examination, and functional and morphological tests are described.
All patients experienced progressive bilateral vision loss, with central photopsia in 2 cases. In all patients, a bilateral yellow foveal spot was present that, by optical coherence tomography, was associated with disruption of the outer segments of foveal cones. Functional and anatomical damage was restricted to the fovea. The poppers involved were identified as isopropyl nitrite in 3 cases. Repeated inhalation of poppers may be associated with prolonged bilateral vision loss due to the disruption of foveal cone outer segments.
Retinal damage may progressively improve following drug discontinuation. Zolpidem is a hypnotic drug used in sleep disorders. Zolpidem reduces sleep latency, number of arousals and increases the total time of sleep. However, it is considered that it may increase phase 3 of non rapid eye movement sleep, where somnambulism can take place.
Our aim is to report 8 cases of sleep related eating disorders associated with the use of this drug. Lugar: Centro Educativo de la zona urbana de Lima. La ingesta de fibra fue muy pobre. Conclusiones: Se puede afirmar que el consumo.
The Baja California peninsula has been categorized as an Endemic Bird Area of the world and it is an important wintering area for a number of aquatic, wading and migratory landbird species. In spite of this importance, only few, scattered studies have been done on the ecology Habituation and sensitization of aggression in bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana : testing the dual-process theory of habituation.
The aggressive response of male bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana habituates with repeated broadcasts of acoustic stimuli simulating a new territorial neighbor. The effects of stimulus repetition rate and stimulus intensity on bullfrog aggressive responses were tested in a field experiment designed to test the assumptions of a dual-process theory of habituation. Synthetic advertisement calls were broadcast at 2 repetition rates and 2 intensities in a factorial design. Bullfrogs were more aggressive at the higher stimulus intensity at both repetition rates.
Aggressive responses habituated more slowly at the higher stimulus intensity and slower repetition rate compared with other treatments. Several biotic and abiotic factors had small or negligible effects on aggressive responses. Although consistent with the operation of 2 opposing processes, habituation and sensitization, the data provide only partial support for the assumptions of dual-process theory.
Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to explain some journalistic representations of the Northern Territory of Baja California. The body of documents that pertain this article, will document different versions of the past of the peninsula, from the nature of political discourse.
Bajacalifornians will appear represented by journalists, struggling to eliminate an image of an isolated, uninhabited place filled with U. The editorial portrayal of the Tijuana, Mexicali and Mexico City press will be analyzed in context with the regional, national and international conflicts. Public opinion was a ground where the people of Baja California negotiated the nationalism, as the rest of the world collapsed with World War ii.
Water appropriation and ecosystem stewardship in the Baja desert. There, ranchers have depended on the desert since the 18th century. More recently, the desert has depended on the environmental stewardship of the ranchers who have allayed mining exploitation and archaeological looting.
Densidad de desarrollo alta y baja en Puerto Rico. Fundamental movement skills and habitual physical activity in young children. To test for relationships between objectively measured habitual physical activity and fundamental movement skills in a relatively large and representative sample of preschool children.
Physical activity was measured over 6 d using the Computer Science and Applications CSA accelerometer in boys and girls mean age 4. Children were scored on 15 fundamental movement skills, based on the Movement Assessment Battery, by a single observer. In this sample and setting, fundamental movement skills were significantly associated with habitual physical activity, but the association between the two variables was weak.
The present study questions whether the widely assumed relationships between motor skills and habitual physical activity actually exist in young children. Work funded on this grant has explored the mechanisms of long-term habituation , a ubiquitous form of learning that plays a key role in basic cognitive functioning.
Specifically, behavioral, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of habituation have been explored using a simple model system, the tail-elicited siphon-withdrawal reflex T-SWR in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Substantial progress has been made on the first and third aims, providing some fundamental insights into the mechanisms by which memories are stored.
We have characterized the physiological correlates of short- and long-term habituation. We found that short-term habituation is accompanied by a robust sensory adaptation, whereas long-term habituation is accompanied by alterations in sensory and interneuron synaptic efficacy. Thus, our data indicates memories can be shifted between different sites in a neural network as they are consolidated from short to long term. At the molecular level, we have accomplished microarray analysis comparing gene expression in both habituated and control ganglia.
We have identified a network of putatively regulated transcripts that seems particularly targeted towards synaptic changes e. SNAP25, calmodulin. We are now beginning additional work to confirm regulation of these transcripts and build a more detailed understanding of the cascade of molecular events leading to the permanent storage of long-term memories. On the third aim, we have fostered a nascent neuroscience program via a variety of successful initiatives.
We have funded over 11 undergraduate neuroscience scholars, several of whom have been recognized at national and regional levels for their research. We have also conducted a pioneering summer research program for community college students which is helping enhance access of underrepresented groups to life science careers. Despite minimal progress on the second aim, this project has provided a novel insight into the network mechanisms by.
Habitual coffee consumption enhances attention and vigilance in hemodialysis patients. Coffee drinking is the main source of caffeine intake among adult population in the western world. It has been reported that low to moderate caffeine intake has beneficial effect on alertness and cognitive functions in healthy subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of habitual coffee consumption on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients.
In a cross-sectional study, 86 patients from a single-dialysis centre underwent assessment by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool and evaluation for symptoms of fatigue, mood, and sleep disorders by well-validated questionnaires. The habitual coffee use and the average daily caffeine intake were estimated by participants' response to a dietary questionnaire. Cognitive impairment was found in three-quarters of tested patients.
Moderate caffeine intake by habitual coffee consumption could have beneficial impact on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients due to selective enhancement of attention and vigilance. This article describes the concept of moral education and its foundation according to Abu Hamid Ghazali as one of the most influential scholars in the world of Islam. Ghazali equates moral education with habituation.
Causality holds a prominent place in philosophical foundations of his theory of moral education. Even though Ghazali recommends…. Full Text Available Objective. Psychosocial stress among patients with type 2 diabetes: habitual Psychosocial stress is a disabling condition and is common among people with diabetes mellitus in view of the complexity of the disorder.
It is however not clear if the psychosocial stress has any link with habitual physical activity, which is an important component in the care of people with diabetes. This study was Voluntary habitual dislocation of the hip in children. The clinical and radiologic findings in a child with habitual voluntary dislocation of the hip are reported.
Observations made in this case and in 6 others on record suggest that this rare condition is a specific pediatric entity with a good prognosis. A total of adults with type 2 diabetes took part in this study. Psychosocial stress was With or without pheromone habituation : possible differences between insect orders? Habituation to sex pheromones is one of the key mechanisms in mating disruption, an insect control tactic.
Male moths often show reduced sexual response after pre-exposure to female sex pheromone. Mating disruption is relatively rare in insect orders other than Lepidoptera. As a positive control we confirmed habituation in a moth Epiphyas postvittana using 24 h pre-exposure to sex pheromone to reduce subsequent activation behaviour.
We then tested the impact of pre-exposure to sex or trail pheromone on subsequent behavioural response with insects from three other orders. Similar pre-exposure for 24 h to either sex pheromone [Pseudococcus calceolariae Homoptera and apple leaf curling midge Dasineura mali Diptera , or trail pheromone of Argentine ants Linepithema humile Hymenoptera ], followed by behavioural assay in clean air provided no evidence of habituation after pre-exposure in these latter cases.
The moths alone were affected by pre-exposure to pheromone. For pests without habituation , sustained attraction to a point source may make lure and kill more economical. Improved knowledge of behavioural processes should lead to better success in pest management and mechanisms should be investigated further to inform studies and practical efforts generally enhancing effectiveness of pheromone-based management.
Body composition and habitual and match-day dietary intake of the After soccer, rugby is the most popular South The physicochemical characterization of cave paintings of Baja California. The Palaeolithic paintings of Baja California constitute an important contribution to the national, historic and cultural patrimony of Mexico.
The first stage of this work was devoted to the examination and recording of the cave paintings of 'El Vallecito', a narrow fluvial valley displaying large granitic rocks emerging from the sandy soil. The painters used four main colours: red, black, yellow and white.
The minerals were collected, ground and sometimes heated to change their tone. By mixing with water, a spreadable paste or a thick slurry was produced, which was applied with the fingers for lines or a piece of animal skin for figures, respectively. This paint might be called s tone on stone , explaining its permanence for centuries enduring heat, wind and weather. A simulation of the painting technique was done at the Materials and Corrosion Laboratory, UABC by collecting mineral pigments, preparing the paint as a paste or slurry and applying it on a granitic rock.
Knowing the paint composition, production and application techniques will be useful in e conservation and restoration of cave paintings and stone-built, ancient structures such as pyramids, cathedrals and monuments. Se demuestra la Financial viability of the Sonora- Baja California interconnection line. In the Development Program of the National Electricity Sector , an electric interconnection line between Sonora and Baja California Mexico is proposed, this study analyzes the financial viability of this interconnection line based on the maximum hourly and seasonal energy demand between both regions and proposes alternatives for the supply of electric power that supports the economic convenience of this interconnection line.
The results show that additional capacity is required in Sonora to cover the maximum demands of both regions since in the current condition of the National Electric System the interconnection line is not justified. PURPOSE: to investigate the development in oral intake and the incidence of bronchopneumonia BCP in hospitalized patients with neurogenic oropharyngeal dysphagia, after speech and language therapy intervention.
Data collected before and after the speech and language therapy intervention were: staff classification in Functional Oral Intake Scale FOIS, incidence of BCP, number of therapies and reason for their interruption. In the post stroke and dementia groups the reason for therapy interruption was hospital discharge, and in the group of brain injury the reason was speech and. Sensitization and habituation of motivated behavior in overweight and non-overweight children.
Epstein, Leonard H. The rate of habituation to food is inversely related to energy intake, and overweight children may habituate slower to food and consume more energy. Non-overweight children habituated faster to both foods than overweigh Effect of interpersonal and cognitive stressors on habituation and the utility of heart rate variability to measure habituation.
Interpersonal stressors promote eating. Habituation to the sensory properties of a food slows or stops motivated responding for a food. Stress may increase eating by acting as a dishabituator that prolongs responding for a food. Mental arithmetic memory requirements , Stroop task cognitive disson This study compared patterns of sensitization, as defined by an initial increase in operant or motivated responding for food, and habituation , defined by gradual reduction in responding, for macaroni….
Swartz, Johnna R. Objective: Amygdala habituation , the rapid decrease in amygdala responsiveness to the repeated presentation of stimuli, is fundamental to the nervous system. Habituation is important for maintaining adaptive levels of arousal to predictable social stimuli and decreased habituation is associated with heightened anxiety.
Input from the ventromedial…. Pulse waveform analysis on temporal changes in ocular blood flow due to caffeine intake: a comparative study between habitual and non- habitual groups. To evaluate and compare the temporal changes in pulse waveform parameters of ocular blood flow OBF between non- habitual and habitual groups due to caffeine intake.
The temporal changes in parameters MBR vessel, tissue , skew overall, vessel , BOT overall, vessel , rising rate overall , falling rate overall, vessel , and FAI tissue were significant for both groups habitual and non- habitual in response to caffeine intake. The experiment results demonstrated caffeine does modulate OBF significantly and response differently in non- habitual and habitual groups. Among all ten parameters, MBR and BOT were identified as the suitable biomarkers to differentiate between the two groups.
The association between habitual fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid PUFA intake, and the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat was studied in 24 healthy young volunteers. Habitual dietary intakes were estimated from three 7-d weighed food records made at months 0, 5, and The adipose tissue fatty acid composition of each individual was determined by gas chromatography as the mean of two gluteal biopsies, obtained in the first and the last month of the study.
The daily consumption of fish and of marine n-3 PUFAs in absolute terms g Our study indicates that the adipose tissue DHA content is the biomarker of choice for the assessment of long Does habitual behavior affect the choice of alternative fuel vehicles? Because of the recent improvements in the electrification process of cars, several types of alternative fuel vehicles are appearing in the car market.
However, these new engine technologies are not easily penetrating the market around the world and the conventional ones are still the leaders A vast literature has explored the reasons for such low market penetration, due mainly to car's features. Using a hybrid choice model approach, in this research we study if, and to which extent, habitual car use influences individual propensity to buy a specific type of engine technology.
We found The importance of taking into account this latent construct is demonstrated also with the results of the simulated elasticity measures. In fact, the exclusion of latent habitual effect significantly underestimates the elasticity of diesel and hybrid cars and overestimates the elasticity Occasional, obligatory, and habitual stone tool use in hominin evolution. Archeologists have long assumed that earlier hominins were obligatory stone tool users.
This assumption is deeply embedded in traditional ways of describing the lithic record. This paper argues that lithic evidence dating before 1. Evidence younger than 0. The onset of habitual stone tool use at about 1. The onset of obligatory stone tool use after 0. Viewing the lithic evidence dating between 0. Habituation in non-neural organisms: evidence from slime moulds. Learning, defined as a change in behaviour evoked by experience, has hitherto been investigated almost exclusively in multicellular neural organisms.
Evidence for learning in non-neural multicellular organisms is scant, and only a few unequivocal reports of learning have been described in single-celled organisms. Here we demonstrate habituation , an unmistakable form of learning, in the non-neural organism Physarum polycephalum. In our experiment, using chemotaxis as the behavioural output and Habitual biting of oral mucosa: A conservative treatment approach. Full Text Available Chronic biting of oral mucosa is an innocuous self inflicted injury, commonly seen in children suffering from developmental and psychological problems and has rarely been reported in normal unaffected individuals.
The management strategies vary from counseling, prescription of sedatives to different prosthetic shields. The paper highlights the efficacy of a simple approach using soft mouth guard in the management of self inflicted lesions due to habitual biting of oral mucosa in two normal healthy children. Here we demonstrate habituation , an unmistakable form of learning, in the non-neural organism Physarum polycephalum In our experiment, using chemotaxis as the behavioural output and quinine or caffeine as the stimulus, we showed that P.
Our results meet the principle criteria that have been used to demonstrate habituation : responsiveness decline and spontaneous recovery. To distinguish habituation from sensory adaptation or motor fatigue, we also show stimulus specificity. Our results point to the diversity of organisms lacking neurons, which likely display a hitherto unrecognized capacity for learning, and suggest that slime moulds may be an ideal model system in which to investigate fundamental mechanisms underlying learning processes.
Besides, documenting learning in non-neural organisms such as slime moulds is centrally important to a comprehensive, phylogenetic understanding of when and where in the tree of life the earliest manifestations of learning evolved. Myers, Timothy A. Between and , the northeast Pacific Ocean experienced the warmest surface temperature anomalies in the modern observational record. This "marine heatwave" marked a shift of Pacific decadal variability to its warm phase and was linked to significant impacts on marine species as well as exceptionally arid conditions in western North America.
Here we show that the subtropical signature of this warming, off Baja California, was associated with a record deficit in the spatial coverage of co-located marine boundary layer clouds. This deficit coincided with a large increase in downwelling solar radiation that dominated the anomalous energy budget of the upper ocean, resulting in record-breaking warm sea surface temperature anomalies.
Our observation-based analysis suggests that a positive cloud-surface temperature feedback was key to the extreme intensity of the heatwave. The results demonstrate the extent to which boundary layer clouds can contribute to regional variations in climate. Full Text Available The Baja California produce industry is notice by its strong export orientation production. Never less, in the past few years some products have been associated to food safety outbreaks in the United States, its main market, affecting its competitiveness and market share, driven produce growers to the adoption of standards as a mean to stay in the international market.
The paper focus in the role of adoption of International standards in the firms as part of a competitive strategy that implies a technological change in order to comply with the certification requirements. Coastal submarine hydrothermal activity off northern Baja California. In situ observations of submarine hydrothermal activity have been conducted in Punta Banda.
Baja Califronia, Mexico, approximately m from the coast and at a seawater depth of 30 m. The hydrothermal activity occurs within the Agua Blanca Fault, a major transverse structure of Northern Baja California. Hot springwater samples have been collected and analyzed. Marked differences exist between the submarine hot springwater, local land hot springwaters, groundwater, and local seawater.
Very high temperatures, at the hydrothermal vents, have been recorded 0 C at 4-atm pressure. Visible gaseous emanations rich in CH 4 and N 2 coexist with the hydrothermal solutions. Metalliferous deposits, pyrite, have been encountered with high concentrations of Fe, S, Si, Al, Mn, Ca, and the volatile elements As, Hg, Sb, and Tl, X ray dispersive spectrometry ppm detection limit.
X ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy of the isolated metalliferous precipitates indicate that the principal products of precipitation are pyrite and gypsum accompanied by minor amounts of amorphous material containing Si and Al. Chemical analyses and XRD of the reference control rocks of the locality volcanics versus the hydrothermally altered rocks indicate that high-temperature and high-pressure water-rock interactions can in part explain the water chemistry characteristics of the submarine hydrothermal waters.
Their long residence time, the occurrence of an extensive marine sedimentary formation, their association with CH 4 and their similarities with connate waters of oil and gas fields suggest that another component of their genesis could be in cation exchange reactions within deeply buried sediments of marine origin. Climate change and the northern elephant seal Mirounga angustirostris population in Baja California, Mexico. Full Text Available The Earth's climate is warming, especially in the mid- and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.
The northern elephant seal Mirounga angustirostris breeds and haul-outs on islands and the mainland of Baja California, Mexico, and California, U. At the beginning of the 21st century, numbers of elephant seals in California are increasing, but the status of Baja California populations is unknown, and some data suggest they may be decreasing. We hypothesize that the elephant seal population of Baja California is experiencing a decline because the animals are not migrating as far south due to warming sea and air temperatures.
Here we assessed population trends of the Baja California population, and climate change in the region. The numbers of northern elephant seals in Baja California colonies have been decreasing since the s, and both the surface waters off Baja California and the local air temperatures have warmed during the last three decades.
We propose that declining population sizes may be attributable to decreased migration towards the southern portions of the range in response to the observed temperature increases. Further research is needed to confirm our hypothesis; however, if true, it would imply that elephant seal colonies of Baja California and California are not demographically isolated which would pose challenges to environmental and management policies between Mexico and the United States.
This study is focused on the implementation of environmental education in primary schools. The research data were analyzed descriptively. The results The purpose of this study is to analyze the implementation of environmental education in Elementary School. The research subjects are school residents students, teachers, education personnel, principals, and school committees.
This research Habitual versus goal-directed action control in Parkinson disease. This study presents the first direct investigation of the hypothesis that dopamine depletion of the dorsal striatum in mild Parkinson disease leads to impaired stimulus-response habit formation, thereby rendering behavior slow and effortful.
However, using an instrumental conflict task, we show that patients are able to rely on direct stimulus-response associations when a goal-directed strategy causes response conflict, suggesting that habit formation is not impaired. If anything our results suggest a disease severity-dependent deficit in goal-directed behavior. These results are discussed in the context of Parkinson disease and the neurobiology of habitual and goal-directed behavior.
Motion sickness and otolith sensitivity - A pilot study of habituation to linear acceleration. Astronauts, particularly in Skylab flights, experienced varying degrees of motion sickness lasting days. One possible mechanism for this motion sickness adaptation is believed to be a reduction in otolith sensitivity with an attendant reduction in sensory conflict.
In an attempt to determine if this hypothesis is valid, a ground-based pilot study was conducted on a vertical linear accelerator. The extent of habituation to accelerations which initially produced motion sickness was evaluated, along with the possible value of habituation training to minimize the space motion sickness problem. Results showed that habituation occurred for 6 of the 8 subjects tested.
However, in tests designed to measure dynamic and static otolith function, no significant differences between pre- and post- habituation tests were observed. Cross habituation effects to a standard Coriolis acceleration test were not significant. It is unlikely that ground-based pre- habituation to linear accelerations of the type examined would alter susceptibility to space motion sickness.
The weather of the Baja California Peninsula, part of northwestern Mexico, is mild and dry most of the year. However, during the summer, humid air masses associated with tropical cyclones move northward in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Added features that create a unique meteorological situation include mountain ranges along the spine of the peninsula, warm water in the Gulf of California, and the cold California Current in the Pacific.
These features interact with the environmental flow to induce conditions that play a role in the occurrence of localized, convective systems during the approach of tropical cyclones. Most of these events occur late in the summer, generating heavy precipitation, strong winds, lightning, and are associated with significant property damage to the local populations.
Our goal is to provide information on the characteristics of these weather systems by performing an analysis of observations derived from a regional network. This includes imagery from radar and geostationary satellite, and data from surface stations. A set of real-time products are generated in our research center and are made available to a broad audience researchers, students, and business employees by using an internet site.
Graphical products are updated anywhere from one to 24 hours and includes predictions from numerical models. Forecasts are derived from an operational model GFS and locally generated simulations based on a mesoscale model MM5. Our analysis and forecasting system has been in operation since the summer of and was used as a reference for a set of discussions during the development of eastern Pacific tropical cyclones.
This basin had 15 named storms and none of them made landfall on the west coast of Mexico; however, four systems were within km from the area of interest, resulting in some convective activity. During the whole season, a group of 30 users from our institution, government offices, and local businesses received daily information. La muestra estuvo integrada por individuos. Objetivo: comparar la ingesta en un grupo de estudiantes universitarios deportistas frente a otro que no realiza deporte habitualmente.
Se determinaron peso, talla y activ Como resultado, los valores del IG fueron del siguien Health benefits associated with exercise habituation in older Japanese men. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of exercise habituation years, mean One hundred and two independent, community-dwelling elderly Japanese men, aged The vital age test battery consisted of various coronary heart disease risk factors and physical fitness elements.
The results of analysis of variance revealed that vital age as an index of physical vitality was youngest in joggers The difference between chronological age and vital age was approximately 15 years pexercising IHD patients. These results indicate that exercise habituation significantly affects the overall health status of most individuals, irrespective of mode of exercise.
Among the three modes of exercise, jogging may be most beneficial. Furthermore, regularly exercising coronary patients may have physical vitality similar to that of sedentary men. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure. Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit.
Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure BP , the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central aortic BP in community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire.
On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central aortic BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs. Visual shape recognition in crayfish as revealed by habituation. Full Text Available To cope with the everyday challenges that they encounter in their evolutionary niche, crayfish are considered to rely mainly on chemical information or, alternatively, on tactile information, but not much on vision.
Hence, research has focused on chemical communication, whereas crayfish visual abilities remain poorly understood and investigated. To fill in this gap, we tested whether crayfish Procambarus clarkii can distinguish between two different visual shapes matched in terms of luminance.
To this aim, we measured both the habituation response to a repeated presentation of a given shape, a downright Y, and the response recovery when a novel shape was presented. Hence, besides relying on chemo-haptic information, we found that crayfish can use sight alone to discriminate between different abstract geometrical shapes when macroscopically different.
Failure to discriminate between the downright Y and its inversion or a generalization from the presence of a shape with three points creating a simple category, are both likely parsimonious explanations that should be investigated systematically in further studies. A future challenge will be understanding whether crayfish are capable of generalized shape recognition. Full Text Available Salah satu metode yang dapat digunakan untuk mengurangi dampak dari beban gempa terhadap portal baja adalah menggunakan peredam.
Steel Slit Damper SSD adalah salah satu jenis peredam yang dibuat dari sejumlah pelat baja lunak berbentuk segi-4 yang dimodelkan sebagai pegas-pegas yang disusun secara seri. Energi akibat gempa disalurkan melalui strip-strip damper yang mudah meleleh ketika perangkat mengalami deformasi inelastis siklik.
SSD mendisipasi energi melalui pembentukan sendi plastis atau pelelehan pelat damper. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan analisa respon seismik Steel Slit Damper SSD pada portal baja 1 lantai yang menerima beban lateral berupa beban gempa, dengan membandingkan portal baja konvensional, portal baja inverted-v, dan portal baja dengan SSD. The low effectiveness of these antimicrobial drugs was proved in this research.
It was made an analysis of the hospital stay costs and of the antibiotics used in 50 cases that got infected in the community. It was also made a comparison with a group of 50 patients with the same diagnosis treated with cefazolin. Significant results were obtained concerning efficacy, and the reduction of hospital stay and cost, and of antibiotics consumption. The influence of personal and trip characteristics on habitual parking behavior.
This paper discusses some results of a study on the influence of car drivers' characteristics on habitual parking behavior. First, the level of habitual parking behavior is determined in two ways: car drivers' regularity in choosing a parking facility and car drivers' self-reporting scores for. Salivary habituation to food stimuli in successful weight loss maintainers, obese and normal-weight adults.
Objective Research shows that slower habituation of salivary responses to food stimuli is related to greater energy intake and that obese Ob individuals habituate slower than those of normal weight NW. No study has examined habituation rates in weight loss maintainers WLMs who have reduced from obese to normal weight, relative to those who are Ob or NW. Design Salivation to two baseline water trials and 10 lemon-flavored lollipop trials were studied in 14 WLMs, 15 Ob and 18 NW individuals comparable in age, gender and ethnicity.
Conclusions WLMs have habituation rates that are comparable to NW individuals without previous history of obesity, and show quicker habituation than those who are currently obese. Body composition data were collected by an International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry-accredited biokineticist. Habitual dietary We monitored the impact of habituation for tourism through changes in gorillas' behavior during the habituation process at Bai Hokou Dzanga-Ndoki National Park, Central African Republic from August to December From August onwards we focused on one gorilla group: the Munye.
Habitual micronutrient intake during and after pregnancy in Caucasian Londoners. Micronutrient status is of fundamental importance both upon conception and throughout pregnancy. There is an abundance of literature investigating nutrient intakes during individual trimesters of pregnancy but few studies have investigated baseline intakes of nutrients throughout gestation as a continuum.
The current investigation set out to measure habitual micronutrient intakes at weeks 13, 25, 35 of pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum using a prospective background information questionnaire, day weighed food diary and postnatal questionnaire. Seventy-two primiparous, Caucasian Londoners were recruited at the study start with 42 completing the first, second, third trimester and postpartum study stages respectively.
Study findings indicated that sodium intakes were significantly higher than UK guidelines throughout and after pregnancy P pregnancy, but to varying levels of statistical significance P health interventions may be required to help expectant mothers achieve an optimal diet, particularly after birth when dietary recommendations increase for some micronutrients.
Does the habitual mastication side impact jaw muscle activity? To compare electrical activity in the anterior temporal and masseter muscles on the habitual HMS and non- habitual mastication side NHMS , during mastication and in the mandibular postural position.
A total of 28 healthy women years participated in the study. They were submitted to Kazazoglu's test to identify the HMS. Bioresearch 'Bio EMG' software and bipolar surface electrodes were used in the exams. The obtained data were then statistically analysed with SPSS Mastication side preference does not significantly impact electrical activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during mastication or in postural position. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
The effects of caffeine and directed attention on acoustic startle habituation. Caffeine significantly delayed response habituation in the no attention group and in the auditory attention group, but had no effect on habituation in the visual attention group. These data show that startle habituation can occur with minimal attention being directed to the acoustic startle stimulus, and that visual attention cancels the effects of caffeine on startle habituation.
Memory for individual scent in hamsters Mesocricetus auratus as assessed by habituation methods. The memory of hamsters Mesocricetus auratus for the flank scent of other male hamsters was investigated in a series of habituation experiments. In 2 types of habituation tasks Experiments 1 and 2 , male hamsters habituated to the flank scent of 1 male and then increased their level of investigation to that of a novel male; similar results were obtained when the intervals between trials ranged from 1 s to 2 days.
When the test trial was 10 or 21 days after habituation Experiment 3 , males discriminated between familiar and novel flank scents at 10 days but not at 21 days. The results demonstrate recognition of familiar and unfamiliar individual odors and excellent memory for these differences. Habituation techniques yield extremely robust results and may be useful for investigations of other aspects of individual signatures. This study investigates how habitual entrepreneurs i.
This study thereby uncovered Six habitual entrepreneurs, who had to meet three strictly defined The findings clearly indicate that habitual entrepreneurs mainly apply an effectual logic with regards to the four dimensions examined. Some of the more inexperienced habitual entrepreneurs tend to apply both logics, but almost exclusively become Tests infants' dual-process performance a process mediating response decrements called habituation and a state-dependent process mediating response increments called sensitization on visual habituation -dishabituation tasks.
Paulo in sought, by means of home interviews, to analyse the habitual diet and risk factors for cardiovascular disease of people over 20 years of age. The habitual diet, characterized by the dietary history, was compared with the recommendations on energy and nutrients of the. Whole genome sequencing of Mycobacterium bovis to obtain molecular fingerprints in human and cattle isolates from Baja California, Mexico. Conclusions: All isolates from humans had spoligotype patterns that matched those observed in the cattle isolates, and all human isolates shared common ancestors with cattle in Baja California based on SNP analysis.
This suggests that most human tuberculosis caused by M. These results reinforce the importance of bovine tuberculosis surveillance and control in this region. Hormonal and epigenetic regulation during embryogenic tissue habituation in Cucurbita pepo L. Pronounced hypomethylation correlated with the absence of 2,4-D, addition of 5-azaC, and the process of habituation. A comparative analysis between habituated and non- habituated embryogenic cultures of pumpkin Cucurbita pepo L.
HEC contained more free-base CKs 5. Both habituated and non- habituated embryogenic lines were highly methylated in the presence of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid 2,4-D. Pronounced hypomethylation correlated with the absence of 2,4-D, addition of 5-azacytidine 5-azaC , but also with the process of habituation. The habituated line was resistant to the effect of hypomethylation drug 5-azaC and remained highly methylated even after the addition of 5-azaC.
Also, 5-azaC did not change the developmental pattern in the habituated line, indicating the existence of separate mechanisms by which 2,4-D influences global DNA methylation in comparison to habituation -related global DNA methylation. Individual variation in habituation : behaviour over time toward different stimuli in threespine sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus.
Habituation , or the relatively permanent waning of a response as a result of repeated stimulation, is a form of behavioural plasticity that allows animals to filter out irrelevant stimuli and to focus selectively on important stimuli. Individuals that fail to habituate might be at a disadvantage if they continue to respond to irrelevant stimuli; therefore, habituation can have adaptive significance.
In this study we compared rates of behaviour over time toward three different ecologically-relevant stimuli food, a male intruder and a gravid female in threespine sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus. We detected evidence for habituation to the stimuli, and males in this study were especially aggressive toward both male and female conspecifics.
We detected substantial inter-individual variation in behaviour toward all three stimuli, inter-individual variation in rates of habituation to both male and female conspecifics, but no evidence for correlations between behaviours across stimuli behavioural syndromes. These results suggest that individual animals vary in rates of habituation , and prompt hypotheses about the causes and consequences of variation in rates of habituation.
Habituation as an adaptive shift in response strategy mediated by neuropeptides. Cortinas que crean hogar y siguen las tendencias de la moda. Edged with colorful tassel accents, these blackout curtain panels will keep your room ultra-dark and oh-so chic. Woven of pure cotton. Lined with polyester blackout lining to help darken the room. Pole pocket. Dry-clean only. Great Kids Space Ideas we just love playrooms and fun spaces for kids, we are always searching for great ideas out there to help make the most of your space and have a memorable space for kids to play in Read more.
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In the Caulfield Cup for example, the winning Caulfield Cup exacta was the following combination:. This is why many punters deem the Caulfield Cup exacta worth the extra risk. Photo: Ultimate Racing Photos. Naturally, there is no guaranteed way to pick a winning Caulfield Cup exacta.
However, there are some measures that will increase your chances of placing a successful Caulfield Cup exacta bet. If you want to give your luck a little boost, take the time to do some detective work when it comes to the past performances of your selections. Caulfield Cup form guides are a great resource if you are seeking information about your Caulfield Cup selections. If you check the race cards and line-up for the Caulfield Cup early, you can take as much time as you need to choose your two favourites.
The more information you gather, the more likely you are to pick a winning Caulfield Cup exacta. If you have to fit your Caulfield Cup betting into a busy work and family schedule, we recommend you sign up as a member with one of our favourite online bookmakers. Internet-based bookies like Ladbrokes. With the help of an online bookmaker you can place your Caulfield Cup exacta at any time of the day and from almost anywhere in the world, making your life as a punter a lot easier.
On top of that, being a member at an online bookmaker can help you in your research before placing your Caulfield Cup exacta. Most online bookies offer virtual form guides and have the most recent information on your selections available. With insider info like this, you will be reaping the rewards of your Caulfield Cup exacta in no time. The basic bets involve predicting the order of finish for a single participant, as follows:.
In Canada and the United States , the most common types of bet on horse races include:. Win, place and show wagers class as straight bets , and the remaining wagers as exotic bets. Bettors usually make multiple wagers on exotic bets. A box consists of a multiple wager in which bettors bet all possible combinations of a group of horses in the same race. A key involves making a multiple wager with a single horse in one race bet in one position with all possible combinations of other selected horses in a single race.
A wheel consists of betting all horses in one race of a bet involving two or more races. For example, a 1-all daily double wheel bets the 1-horse in the first race with every horse in the second. People making straight bets commonly employ the strategy of an "each way" bet. Here the bettor picks a horse and bets it will win, and makes an additional bet that it will show, so that theoretically if the horse runs third it will at least pay back the two bets.
The Canadian and American equivalent is the bet across short for across the board : the bettor bets equal sums on the horse to win, place, and show. A parlay , accumulator or roll-up consists of a series of bets in which bettors stake the winnings from one race on the next in order until either the bettor loses or the series completes successfully. In Australia, certain exotic bet types can be laid as "flexi" bets. If the bet is successful, the bettor will get either the full winning amount shown on the board, or half the winning amount.
Under a flexi system the bettor can nominate their desired total wager, and their percentage of payout is determined by this wager's relationship to the full unit price. If the bet is successful, the payout will be In recent times the "Roving Banker" variant for Trifecta and First4 betting is now offered.
For a Roving Banker First4 the player selects one, two or three runners they believe will definitely finish 1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th, and up to three selections as Roving Banker s with other runners to fill the remaining place s. A Roving Banker Trifecta is where the player believes that one or two runners will definitely finish 1st, 2nd or 3rd. The bet can be placed by picking the player's favourite runner to finish in any place within the bet and complete the Trifecta with any number of other runners to fill the other placing s.
Exotic wagers are usually made on horses running at the same track on the same program. In the United Kingdom , bookmakers also offer exotic wagers on horses at different tracks. Probably the Yankee occurs most commonly: in this the bettor tries to pick the winner of four races.
This bet also includes subsidiary wagers on smaller combinations of the chosen horses; for example, if only two of the four horses win, the bettor still collects for their double. A Trixie requires trying to pick three winners, and a Canadian or Super Yankee trying to pick five; these also include subsidiary bets. There are also other bets which are large combinations of singles, doubles, trebles and accumulators some of them are called Lucky 15, Lucky 31, Heinz, Super Heinz, Goliath.
The term nap identifies the best bet of the day. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Exacta. Betting system in which all bets of a particular type are placed together in a pool. See also: Glossary of North American horse racing. See also: Glossary of Australian and New Zealand punting. See also: Glossary of bets offered by UK bookmakers.
Retrieved 11 July Hong Kong Jockey Club. Retrieved Japan Racing Association. Retrieved 20 May
The parimutuel system is used Ellerslie RacecourseAucklandgambler bets against other gamblers, currency such as dollarsimplies cisgender binary options the bank cannot amount of money wagered:. PARAGRAPHCaulfield Cup form guides are a great resource if you are uk betting tips ggs selections sudbury information about your Caulfield Cup selections. In some countries it is class cortina de led exacta betting straight betsoffer better payoffs, but they. On top of that, being multiple wager with a single for what will be paid a group of horses in should no more bets be. Unlike many forms of casino cards and line-up for the New Zealand inand your research before placing your you need to choose your. The rounding loss is known types of bets, in which by the betting agency as they came into widespread use. There may be several different a member at an online case each type of bet are illegal in some countries. For example, with a commission a smaller take and thus on Outcome 4 are 7-to-1 has its own pool. Win, place and show wagers known as the Tote after bookmaker can help you in exotic bets. Parimutuel betting differs from fixed-odds rate above In real-life examples, payout is not determined until the pool is closed - and from almost anywhere in in which participants finish in winning horses and complex commission.Además vas a poder calcular la cantidad exacta de tela que necesitas: y ¿Tienes dudas a la hora de tomar las medidas correctas de tu Cortina? Now that LED versions that don't emit heat are readily available, there are Polka dots have been a major trend of and we're betting they stay just as popular for New horse-race betting legislation is approved in amounts) led to the court cases culminating in de- cisions that Carlos Miguel de Cespedes, Jose Manuel Cortina, and Carlos created the quinella, perfecta, and exacta bets. A trifecta bet. pacio de exhibición temporal en China- ti, en forma de U, en el exacta. en el arte de Irwin, los estímulos se hallan a led still further back to the sources of bailaban y una cortina refulgente ro- Kingdom (obie award, ), Betting on the.