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Alpha-decay half-life for ground-state transitions of even-even alpha emitters has been calculated from a simple, Gamow-like model in which the quadrupole deformation of the product nucleus assumed to have an ellipsoidal shape is taken into account. It is shown that the experimental half-life data are much better reproduced by the present description than in the spherical-shaped approximation for the daughter nucleus.
A fractional calculus approach to investigate the alpha decay processes. In this study, the nuclear decay equation is taken under consideration by making use of fractional calculus. In this context, the first-order time derivative is changed to a Caputo fractional derivative hence, the resulting equation is the time fractional nuclear decay equation. The solution of this equation is obtained in terms of Mittag—Leffler function which plays an important role to study the non-Markovian feature of physical processes.
As an application of this time fractional formalism, alpha decay half-life values have been calculated for Pb, Po, Rn, Ra, Th and U isotopes. Consequently, the theoretical half-life values have been obtained in consistent with the experimental data. Santhosh, K. The proton emission half-lives, the alpha decay half-lives, the spontaneous fission half-lives and the cluster decay half-lives of all the isotopes are evaluated. The one-proton emission half-lives and the alpha decay half-lives are predicted using the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei CPPMDN.
The calculated alpha half-lives are compared with the available experimental results as well as with the predictions of other theoretical models. The predicted half-lives matches well with the experimental results. The one-proton half-lives are also compared with the predictions using other formalisms. The shell-effect-dependent formula of Santhosh et al. A theoretical comparison of spontaneous fission half-lives with four different formalisms is performed.
By comparing the one-proton emission half-lives, the alpha decay half-lives and the spontaneous fission half-lives decay modes are predicted for all the isotopes of Ds. Cluster decay half-lives are calculated using different models including the Coulomb and proximity potential CPPM , for determining the magicities in the superheavy region.
Identification of the parent state is made possible via isomer selection based on narrow-band laser frequency scanning. Alpha-decay fine structure versus electromagnetic transitions. Alpha decay of even-even Rn isotopes is studied microscopically along the lines of Phys.
C 64, The results are compared against experimental fine-structure hindrance factors HFs. Correlation between the electromagnetic E2-strength and HFs is observed, depending both on the isotope and the excitation energy. The choice of the single particle basis appears to affect strongly the theoretical HFs. Further and even more systematical studies are required in order explain this behaviour.
Spectroscopic factors of the alpha decay of isoscalar giant resonances. This method permits to consider initial nucleus GR decay with a transition to the residual nucleus-GR. It is necessary to know only SF for GR decay to the daughter nucleus ground state with the emission of an excited cluster in the common case.
Aerosol properties of indoor radon decay products. Lung cancer risks attributable to indoor radon are highly dependent on the properties of radon progeny aerosols which, in turn, are dependent on the nature and concentration of small particles in indoor air.
In clean filtered air, radon progeny are attached to small hygroscopic particles of high mobility which are rapidly deposited on surfaces. By contrast, radon progeny attached to cigarette smoke are on large particles of low mobility which persist in air. Radon progeny ingaled by smokers are largely associated with smoke particles from 0. Such particles are selectively deposited at bronchial bifurcations and are highly resistant to dissolution. The attached radon progeny undergo a substantial degree of radioactive decay at deposition sites before clearance which gives rise to large alpha radiation doses in small volumes of bronchial epithelium.
These processes provide new insights on mechanisms of bronchial cancer induction and on relative risks of lung cancer in smokers, passive smokers, and other non-smokers. Decay property of Timoshenko system in thermoelasticity. We investigate the decay property of a Timoshenko system of thermoelasticity in the whole space for both Fourier and Cattaneo laws of heat conduction. We point out that although the paradox of infinite propagation speed inherent in the Fourier law.
Here the half-life is in seconds, Q-value is in MeV and Z is the atomic number of the. We point out that although the paradox of infinite propagation speed inherent in the Fourier law is removed by changing to the Cattaneo law, the latter always leads to a solution with the decay property of the regularity-loss type.
The main tool used to prove our results is the energy method in the Fourier space together with some integral estimates. We derive L 2 decay estimates of solutions and observe that for the Fourier law the decay structure of solutions is of the regularity-loss type if the wave speeds of the first and the second equations in the system are different. For the Cattaneo law, decay property of the regularity-loss type occurs no matter what the wave speeds are.
The GAMCAT database is a compilation of data describing the alpha particles and gamma rays that occur in the radioactive decay of all known nuclides, adapted for IBM Personal Computers and compatible systems. These compiled data have been previously published, and are now available as a compact database. Entries can be retrieved by defining the properties of the parent nuclei as well as alpha -particle and gamma-ray energies or any combination of these parameters.
The system provides fast access to the data and has been completely written in C to run on an AT-compatible computer, with a hard disk and K of memory under DOS 2. Contributions to the study of heavy and superheavy nuclei stability in alpha-decay. Alpha-decay is treated in this work on the complete analogy of transfer reactions by means of nuclear shell models with continuous spectrum nucleons.
Certain phenomenologically obtained or microscope evaluated data on low energy interactions between alpha -particles and nuclei, when related to nuclear structure data within the unified theory of nuclear reactions, allow of an improved accuracy in determining the alpha -particle wave function as well as of an estimation of alpha -probabilities in good keeping with experimental ones. The problem of alpha lifetimes thus narrows to the resolution of some homogeneous and inhomogeneous differential equations systems including the optic potential and the alpha formfactors.
Decay properties of heavier nuclei and mass formula. The stabilities of heavy nuclei, including super-heavy elements, are governed by alpha decay and fission. Some exotic types of decay , such as heavy cluster decay , which does not occur so frequently as to govern stability, have been also reported. The half-time estimations of various types of decay are reviewed.
And the possibility of decay , mainly in case of heavy cluster decay , is discussed with Q-value obtained from mass formulae as well. Some topics concerning other types of exotic decay are presented. Recent trends in the research on mass formula are reviewed from the historical point of view, to get perspectives of future development. Yamamoto, A. There are indications that the previously measured branching ratio is in error by an amount significantly larger than the quoted uncertainty.
Alpha decay studies on Po isotopes using different versions of nuclear potentials. Among other versions of nuclear potentials other than proximity potentials , Bass is suggested to be a significant form of nuclear potential because of its good predictive power. However, while the other forms of potentials are able to reproduce the experimental data to some extent, these potentials cannot be considered as apposite potentials for alpha decay studies in their present form.
Since the experimental correlation of the models is noticed to be satisfying, the alpha decay half-lives of certain Po isotopes that are not detected experimentally yet have been predicted. Cluster aspects of alpha decay of heavy spherical nuclei. Decay properties of the Pygmy dipole resonance. Isaak, J. The so-called Pygmy Dipole Resonance PDR has been investigated in stable and in a few unstable nuclei in the past decades. So far, decay properties have been determined only in an indirect or model-dependent way.
Effects of alpha-decay on spent fuel corrosion behaviour. An overview of results in the area of spent fuel characterization as nuclear waste is presented. These studies are focused on primary aspects of spent fuel corrosion, by considering different fuel compositions and burn ups, as well as a wide set of environmental conditions. The key parameter is the storage time of the fuel e. To extrapolate data obtainable from a laboratory-acceptable timescale to those expected after storage periods of interest have elapsed amounting in the extreme case to geological ages is a tough challenge.
Emphasis is put on key aspects of fuel corrosion related to fuel properties at a given age and environmental conditions expected in the repository: e. The results confirm the safety of European underground repository concepts. A new half-life of 9. Rudolph, D. Mainz, Mainz Germany ; Dullmann, Ch. Mainz, Mainz Germany ; Gates, J. Mainz, Mainz Germany ; Rykaczewski, K. Mainz, Mainz Germany ; Eberhardt, K. Mainz, Mainz Germany ; Even, J. Mainz, Mainz Germany ; Nitsche, H.
Mainz, Mainz Germany ; Torres, T. Mainz, Mainz Germany ; Trautmann, N. Mainz, Mainz Germany ; Turler, A. Mainz, Mainz Germany. The decay chains are basically consistent with previous findings and are considered to originate from isotopes of element with mass numbers , , and A set-up aiming specifically for high-resolution charged particle and photon coincidence spectroscopy was placed behind the gas-filled separator TASCA.
Three-body decays : structure, decay mechanism and fragment properties. We discuss the three-body decay mechanisms of many-body resonances. R-matrix sequential description is compared with full Faddeev computation. The role of the angular momentum and boson symmetries is also studied. As an illustration we show the computed? This article is based on the presentation by R.
Study of the excited levels of Pa by the Np alpha decay. The excited levels in P a following the N p alpha decay have been studied, by performing different experiences to complete available data and supply new information. Thus, two direct alpha spectrum measurement, one alpha -gamma bidimensional coincidence experiment, three gamma-gamma and gamma-X ray coincidences and some other measurements of the gamma spectrum, direct and coincident with alpha -particles have been made.
These last experiences have allowed to obviate usual radiochemical separation methods, the P a radioactive descendent interferences being eliminated by means of the coincidence technic. As a result, a primary decay scheme has been elaborated, including 15 new gamma transitions and two new levels, not observed in the most recent works. Author 60 refs. The synthesis and the study of radioactive properties of new elements is considered with respect to the existence of the "islands of stability" of hypothetical superheavy elements predicted by the theory more than 35 years ago.
In these reactions the decay chains of heavy atoms consisting of sequential alpha-decays interrupted by spontaneous fission have been observed. The decay energies and probabilities are compared with predictions of different theoretical models describing the structure of heavy nuclei. The obtained results are considered as the first exper The properties of the peak suggest it is inconsistent with being a strongly decaying state. The major influence of the pairing, deformed shell closures and screening corrections is evidenced in the systematics of half-lives and provides a convenient basis for the interpretation of observed trends of the data and for prediction of new results.
Alpha -gamma decay studies of No. Hessberger, F. Plutonium alpha-decay damage study of the ceramic waste form. Frank, S. An accelerated alpha-decay damage study of a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form has recently been completed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical and chemical durability of the waste form after significant exposure to alpha decay. This accelerated alpha-decay study was performed by doping the ceramic waste form with Pu which has a much greater specific activity than Pu that is normally present in the waste form.
An equivalent time period for a similar dose of Pu would require approximately years. After four years of exposure to Pu alpha decay , the investigation observed little change to the physical or chemical durability of the ceramic waste form CWF. Specifically, the Pu-loaded CWF maintained it's physical integrity, namely that the density remained constant and no cracking or phase de-bonding was observed.
The materials chemical durability and phase stability also did not change significantly over the duration of the study. The only significant measured change was an increase of the unit-cell lattice parameters of the plutonium oxide and sodalite phases of the material and an increase in the release of salt components and plutonium of the waste form during leaching tests, but, as mentioned, these did not lead to any overall loss of waste form durability.
The principal findings from this study are: 1 Pu-loaded CWF is similar in microstructure and phase composition to referenced waste form. With the experimentally derived angular correlation the measured energydifferential bremsstrahlung emission probabilities show excellent agreement with the fully quantum mechanical calculation. Alpha decay and cluster decay of some neutron-rich actinide nuclei. Feb 9, Nuclei in the actinide region are good in exhibiting cluster radioactivity.
Our model has a cubic potential for the Alpha decay of neutron-deficient isotopes with The observed alpha - decay properties are discussed within the systematics of energy and reduced width. Revisiting alpha decay -based near-light-speed particle propulsion.
Interplanet and interstellar travels require long-term propulsion of spacecrafts, whereas the conventional schemes of propulsion are limited by the velocity of the ejected mass. In this study, alpha particles released by nuclear decay are considered as a potential solution for long-time acceleration. The principle of near-light-speed particle propulsion NcPP was elucidated and the stopping and range of ions in matter SRIM was used to predict theoretical accelerations. The results show that NcPP by means of alpha decay is feasible for long-term spacecraft propulsion and posture adjustment in space.
Finally, to significantly improve the NcPP sail, the hypothesis of stimulated acceleration of nuclear decay SAND was proposed, which may shorten the travel time to Mars to within 20 days. The spectral functions of the vector current and the axial-vector current have been measured in hadronic tau decays using the OPAL detector at LEP.
Different perturbative descriptions have been compared to the data. The program is aimed at understanding the long-term decay heat removal and aerosol questions for the next generation of Passive Light Water Reactors. The ALPHA project currently includes four major items: the large-scale, integral system behaviour test facility PANDA, which will be used to examine multidimensional effects of the SBWR decay heat removal system; an investigation of the thermal hydraulics of natural convection and mixing in pools and large volumes LINX ; a separate-effects study of aerosols transport and deposition in plenum and tubes AIDA ; while finally, data from the PANDA facility and supporting separate effects tests will be used to develop and qualify models and provide validation of relevant system codes.
The paper briefly reviews the above four topics and current status of the experimental facilities. Simulation of alpha decay of actinides in iron phosphate glasses by ion irradiation. Bismuth and helium ions of different energies have been selected for simulating glass matrix modification owing to radiolysis and ballistic damage due to recoil atoms.
Structural modification and change in coordination number of network former were probed by employing Reflectance Fourier-Transform Infrared FT-IR , and Raman spectroscopies as a consequence of ion irradiation. Depolymerisation is observed in glass sample irradiated at intermediate energy of 2 MeV. Helium blisters of micron size are seen in glass sample irradiated at low helium ion energy of 30 keV. Decay properties of high-lying single-particles modes.
The neutron decay of high-lying single-particle states in Ni, Zr, Sn and pb excited by means of the alpha ,He-3 reaction has been investigated at MeV incident energy using the multidetector EDEN. The characteristics of this reaction are studied using inclusive spectra and angular.
Specific outcomes of the research on the radiation stability of the French nuclear glass towards alpha decay accumulation. This paper presents an overview of the main results of the French research on the long-term behavior of SON68 nuclear glass towards alpha decay accumulation. The effect of the radiation damage induced by alpha decay and also helium build-up were investigated by examining glass specimens, doped with a short-lived actinide Cm, irradiated by light and heavy ions.
Additionally, atomistic simulations by molecular dynamics have provided further information on the atomic-scale effects of the macroscopic phenomena observed. For example, the glass density diminishes by about 0. No phase separation, crystallization or bubbles formation was noticed up to an alpha decay dose corresponding to several thousand years of disposal of nuclear glass canister.
Moreover the initial alteration rate of the glass is not significantly affected by the glass damage induced by alpha decays or heavy ions irradiations. The comparison of the macroscopic evolutions of the Cm doped glass with those obtained for glasses irradiated with light or heavy ions from either experimental and molecular dynamic studies suggests that the macroscopic evolutions are induced by the nuclear interactions induced by the recoil nuclei of alpha decay.
The analysis of the behavior of the glass structure subjected to ballistic effects with various spectroscopic studies, together with the results of atomistic modeling by molecular dynamics, have identified some slight changes in the local order around some cations. Moreover a modification of the medium-range order has also been demonstrated through changes in the bond angles between network. Moreover a modification of the medium-range order has also been demonstrated through changes in the bond angles.
More importantly, it may be concluded that the expected neutron or proton shell effect gradually fades away along with the increasing valence proton or neutron number. Reduced widths of alpha - decay of near-magic even-even nuclei. Precision on-line investigations on the linear heavy-ion Berkeley accelerator, and on the CERN synchrophasotron were carried out recently on new alpha -emitters.
The results obtained are analysed with a view to finding the degree of correspondence, or disagreement, with the authors' own ideas about alpha - decay processes. We make a quantitative study of the practical implications of this ambiguity. We then study a number of improved approximants for the perturbative series, based on a change of variable in the Borel representation, such as to displace the leading UV renormalon singularity at a larger distance from the origin than the first IR renormalon.
Finally, on the basis of mathematical models, we disc Implications of alpha-decay for long term storage of advanced heavy water reactor fuels. The extent of the damage depends on storage time and spent fuel composition and has implications for the integrity of the fuels. Some advanced nuclear fuels intended for use in pressurized heavy water pressure tube reactors have high initial plutonium content and are anticipated to exhibit swelling and embrittlement, and to accumulate helium bubbles over storage times as short as hundreds of years.
Calculations are performed to provide estimates of helium production and fuel swelling associated with alpha decay as a function of storage time. Significant differences are observed between predicted aging characteristics of natural uranium and the advanced fuels, including increased helium concentrations and accelerated fuel swelling in the latter.
Implications of these observations for long term storage of advanced fuels are discussed. Decay properties of linear thermoelastic plates: Cattaneo versus Fourier law. In this article, we investigate the decay properties of the linear thermoelastic plate equations in the whole space for both Fourier and Cattaneo's laws of heat conduction. We point out that while the paradox of infinite propagation speed inherent.
A comparative analysis of alpha-decay half-lives for even-even Pb to U isotopes. The feasibility for the alpha decay from the even-even transitions of Pb to U isotopes has been studied within the Coulomb and proximity potential model CPPM. The alpha decay half-lives are considered from different theoretical approaches using Semi-empirical formula of Poenaru et al. The numerical results obtained by the CPPM and compared with other method as well the experimental data.
Charmed meson production and decay properties at the psi The properties of the resonance are used to deduce branching fractions of charmed mesons into hadronic final states. Several previously unseen decay modes are reported. Decays into Cabibbo suppressed final states are observed.
The inclusive properties of D meson decays are studied, including strangeness and charged particle multiplicity. A brief review of ultra-rare alpha decay detection technique. Three approaches to the measurement of rare alpha decaying products produced in heavy-ion induced nuclear reactions are described.
One is based on a chemical extraction and following deposition of the nuclides under investigation onto the surface of the detector, whereas the second one is associated with long-lived products implanted into silicon detectors by using the electromagnetic separation technique. The third approach relates with an application of real-time mode detection of correlated energy-time-position recoil- alpha sequences from 48 Ca-induced nuclear reactions with actinide targets, like , Pu, , Cm, Am, and Cf.
Baecklin, A [Inst. Deschanels, X. Zirconolite and monazite matrices are potential ceramics for the containment of actinides Np, Cm, Am, Pu which are produced over the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. In order to study the effects of alpha decays on the above mentioned ceramics two parallel approaches were set up. The first involved the use of an external irradiation source, Au, which allowed the deposited recoil energy to be simulated.
The second was based on short-lived actinide doping with Pu, i. In both types of irradiation experiments, the zirconolite samples became amorphous at room temperature with damage close to 0. In the case of the monazite however, the macroscopic swelling and amorphization were dependent on the nature of the irradiation. Also, unlike the externally Au irradiated monazite these Pu doped samples remained crystalline up to 7. The low swelling and the conservation of the crystalline state of Pu doped monazite samples indicates that alpha annealing took place within this material.
ATLAS has a wide programme to study the production cross section and decay properties of particles with beauty, as well as charmonium and bottomonium states. A new scanning system for alpha decay events as calibration sources for range-energy relation in nuclear emulsion. A new scanning system named "Vertex picker" has been developed to rapid collect alpha decay events, which are calibration sources for the range-energy relation in nuclear emulsion.
A computer-controlled optical microscope scans emulsion layers exhaustively, and a high-speed and high-resolution camera takes their micrographs. A dedicated image processing picks out vertex-like shapes. Alpha decays of nearly 28 events were detected in eye-check work on a PC monitor per hour. This yield is nearly 20 times more effective than that by the conventional eye-scan method. Rather, Asloob A. We also investigate the phenomenon of shape coexistence by performing the calculations for prolate, oblate and spherical configurations.
For clear presentation of nucleon distributions, the two-dimensional contour representation of individual nucleon density and total matter density has been made. Beaumel, D. The characteristics of this reaction are studied using inclusive spectra and angular correlation analysis. The corresponding non-statistical branching ratios are compared with the results of two theoretical calculations. Excited states of 12C above the alpha-decay threshold.
The excitation energy spectrum of 12 C is important for both structural and astrophysical reasons; here we present evidence for a new state in 12 C. Excited states in 12 C were reconstructed filtered by the condition that the alpha-decay proceeded via the 8 Be ground-state. In both measurements evidence was found for a new state at Then the potential as a function of r which is the centre of mass distance A , B 32, Production and decay properties of the delta meson.
Gay, J. Using an 80 events per microbarn sample of K - p interactions at 4. Contribution to study of effects consecutive to alpha decay of uranium in some uranium compounds and uranium ores. The consequences of alpha decay of U in uranium compounds and in uranium bearing ores have been examined in two ways: leaching of Th and determination of the activity ratio of U and U.
The results have been interpreted mainly in terms of the ''hot'' character of the nascent Th atoms [fr. A test of the saturation of QCD sum rules at the tau-mass scale has been The alpha-decay half-life in a nuclear reaction is mainly affected by the penetration probability, which itself depends on the choice of the barrier potential.
The obtained results are motivating. Fission decay properties of nuclear giant multipole resonances. The statistical fission decay properties of the giant dipole, quadrupole and monopole resonances in U are investigated with the aid of the Hauser-Feshbach model. It is found, contrary to several recent claims, that the GQR fission decay probability is as large as that of the GDR, at energies higher than the fission barrier.
At energies close to the f. Author [pt. Studies of hypothetical and fundamental decay properties of positronium. For the solution of the CP problem in the standard theory of the strong interaction the existence of a neutral pseudoscalar boson was postulated which couples to quarks and leptons. If the mass of this so-called axion is smaller than two electron masses for orthopositronium 'o-Ps' the decay into one photon and axion is expected in concurrence to the standard decay into three photons.
The detection of a monoenergetic photon would be an indication for this decay channel because the axion would only very weakly interact with matter. In the spectrum no lineshape of a monoenergetic photon is observed. Applied to the axion model an upper limit for the mass of the standard axion of keV results. This measurement is done with an isospin analysis, in which a triangle is constructed from the isospin amplitudes of these three decay modes. Half-lives for proton emission, alpha decay , cluster radioactivity, and cold fission processes calculated in a unified theoretical framework.
The calculated half-lives of ground-state to ground-state transitions for the proton emission, alpha decay , cluster radioactivity, and cold fission processes are compared with experimental data. Results have shown that the ELDM is a very efficient model to describe these different decay processes in a same, unified theoretical framework.
New evaluation of alpha decay half-life of Pt isotope for the Pt-Os dating system. A semiempirical model based on the quantum mechanical tunnelling mechanism of alpha emission from nuclei has been used to evaluate the half-life of the Pt isotopes. This is comparable to 3. A literature survey of available alpha decay half-life values for Pt isotope is also reported.
The significant discrepancies found between data obtained by direct counting, indirect geological methods and different calculation models are analysed and discussed. The synthesis and decay properties of the heaviest elements.
The synthesis and the study of radioactive properties of new elements is considered with respect to the existence of the 'islands of stability' of hypothetical superheavy elements predicted by the theory more than 35 years ago. The author presents the results of experiments on the synthesis of isotopes of elements and in the fusion reactions with 48 Ca. The obtained results are considered as the first experimental evidence of the existence of domains of stability of superheavy nuclei which substantially extends the boundaries of existence of chemical elements.
Measurement of the inclusive decay properties of charmed mesons. We investigate the decay properties of smooth axially symmetric D-solutions to the steady Navier-Stokes equations. The achievements of this paper are two folds. The accelerated insertion of titanium alloys in component application requires the development of predictive capabilities for various aspects of their behavior, for example, phase stability, microstructural evolution and property -microstructure relationships over a wide range of length and time scales.
The development of such rules-based model requires the population of extensive databases, which in the present case are microstructurally-based. The steps involved in database development include producing controlled variations of the microstructure using novel approaches to heat-treatments, the use of standardized stereology protocols to characterize and quantify microstructural features rapidly, and mechanical testing of the heat-treated specimens.
These databases have been used to train and test NN Models for prediction of mechanical properties. In addition, these models have been used to identify the influence of individual microstructural features on the mechanical properties , consequently guiding the efforts towards development of more robust mechanistically based models. In order to understand the property -microstructure relationships, a detailed understanding of microstructure evolution is imperative.
The influence of variant selection on the evolution of microstructure will be specifically addressed. The paper discusses experiments with a pulsed source and Rossi- Alpha experiments. In the first case, the effects of higher harmonies and detector position are investigated.
In the Rossi- Alpha method, the interest was centered on the correlation between reactivity source strength and method of measurement. Shestermanov, K. Monte Carlo simulations to obtain the BTeV reconstruction efficiency and to estimate the signal to background ratio for these decays were performed. Finally the time-dependent Dalitz plot analysis, using the isospin amplitude formalism for tre and penguin contributions, was carried out. The calculations of the half-life are carried out in the framework of the preformed cluster model, with the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin penetration probability and assault frequency.
This increases the penetration probability but decreases the assault frequency. The overall impact of the proton-skin thickness appears as a decrease in the decay half-life. The proton-skin thickness decreases the stability of the nucleus. Decay properties of nuclei in the neighbourhood of Sn. This thesis concentrates on nuclear properties of very neutron deficient nuclei near the proton dripline in the neighbourhood of doubly-magic Sn.
In an experiment performed in March at the GSI in Darmstadt, the exotic nuclei were produced in a projectile fragmentation reaction using a Xe primary beam with an energy of AMeV impinging on a Beryllium target, separated and identified in the FRS and eventually stopped for decay spectroscopy in a complex implantation detector developed at the institute E Production cross sections and half lives were determined along the proton dripline.
The isotopes 99 Sn, 97 In and 95 Cd were identified for the first time. Pre-equilibrium decay process in alpha particle induced reactions on thulium and tantalum. Mohan, Rao, A. Inter Univ. Consortium for Dept. Alpha particle induced reactions on the target elements Thulium and Tantalum were investigated upto 60 MeV using stacked foil activation technique and Ge Li gamma ray spectroscopy method.
A general agreement was found for all the reactions with this option. Kirsebom, O. Bernabei, R. The experimental data show an excess of double coincidences of events with energy around keV in faced pairs of detectors, which are not explained by known side reactions. Duarte, S. During the last few years new and elaborate technique for the quantitative determination of alpha emitting particles in biological samples have been developed using the highly sensitive solid state nuclear track detector CR which allows activities as low as 10 Ci.
Blood samples 10 ml were taken from volunteers. Three pieces of CR were inserted in each blood container and stored at 20 degree for 15 weeks. SU 3 properties of semileptonic and nonleptonic decays of mesons.
The recent discovery of charmed D and F mesons led to an accumulation of a lot of information on the weak decays of these particles. The facts known at present are generally consistent with the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Maiami scheme for the weak currents, which are predicted the fourth flavour of quarks, the charm. The weak decays of the charmed mesons are governed by SU 3 rules analogous to the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule for strong decays.
Such Su 3 rules are given for semileptonic and nonleptonic decays of strange and charmed mesons. These relations depend on the colour structure of currents in the nonleptonic case. Structure effects in the region of superheavy elements via the alpha-decay chain of sup 2 sup 9 sup 3 The alpha-decay chain of sup 2 sup 9 sup 3 , first proposed in the Berkeley cold fusion experiment sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb sup 8 sup 6 Kr, 1n and now retracted, is calculated by using the preformed cluster model PCM of one of the authors RKG.
Also, the possible branchings of alpha-decays to heavier cluster decays of all the parents in this chain are calculated for the first time. Fluorescence quenching spectrometry was applied to study the interactions between gold colloidal nanoparticles and alpha -fetoprotein AFP. Experimental results show that the gold nanoparticles can quench the fluorescence emission of adsorbed AFP effectively. Furthermore, the intensity of fluorescence emission peak decreases monotonously with the increasing gold nanoparticles content.
A mechanism based on surface plasmon resonance-induced non-radiative decay was investigated to illuminate the effect of a dielectric shell on the fluorescence quenching ability of gold nanoparticles. The calculation results show that the increasing dielectric shell thickness may improve the monochromaticity of fluorescence quenching.
However, high energy transfer efficiency can be obtained within a wide wavelength band by coating a thinner dielectric shell. New CMS measurements of Higgs boson production and decay properties. Combined measurements of the Higgs boson production and decay rates, as well its couplings to vector bosons and fermions, are presented. Dedicated searches for invisible Higgs boson decays are also considered. Decay properties of heavy leptons in the supersymmetric model of weak and electromagnetic interactions.
Decay properties of heavy leptons in the SU 2 xSU 2 xU 1 supersymmetric model of weak and electromagnetic interactions are studied. The partial and total decay rates and the production in p anti p collision of one of them are estimated for various values of its mass. Alpha -particle emission probabilities in the decay of Pu. The predicted Yakushev, E. The interaction between coexisting shapes in nuclei near closed shells was of great interest in the past decade. Coexistence of different shapes in Pb nuclei was predicted by Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations, in which both the oblate and prolate minima were predicted to have excitation energies near 1 MeV.
In this work, optical properties of alpha irradiated Cr were measured as a function of optical photon wavelength from nm. Optical energy gap and optical absorption at finite wavelength was also calculated and correlated to alpha fluence and dose equivalent. Alpha doses were calculated from the corresponding irradiation fluence and specific energy loss using TRIM computer program.
It was found that, the optical absorption of unattached Cr was varied with alpha fluence and corresponding equivalent doses. Also the optical energy gab was varied with fluence and dose equivalent of alpha particles. This work introduces a reasonably simple method for the Rn dose equivalent calculation by Cr track.
The structure located between 11 and 15 MeV in 91Zr, and between 8 and 12 MeV excitation energy in Pb display large departures from a pure statistical decay. Accelerated detection of brown-rot decay : comparison of soil block test, chemical analysis, mechanical properties , and immunodetection.
Early detection of wood decay is critical because decay fungi can cause rapid structural failure. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity of different methods purported to detect brown-rot decay in the early stages of development. Lindner, M. California Univ. Lawrence Livermore National Lab.
Similarly, essentially all the.. If a very week.. Fission decay properties of ultra neutron-rich uranium isotopes. The neutron For U with a fission barrier of 4. Photon conversion, fake photon and backlash are studied and rejected in the analysis. The decay channels are identified using a set of neural networks.
The limits of the nuclear chart set by fission and alpha decay. Full Text Available I will review how our picture of heavy-element nuclear structure has evolved through remarkably simple ideas and related models. A remarkable aspect is that this model could immediately after the discovery of fission be generalized to explain this phenomenon through the consideration of deformation of a charged liquid drop.
Bethe and Bacher already raised the possibility that shell structure by them calculated in terms of a single-particle oscillator potential could give rise to noticeable deviations between results of the macroscopic mass model and experiment but limited data prevented firm conclusions.
In the s the single-particle models took a realistic form and also included deformation. But it was not until the work by Strutinsky in the mid s that a quantitative model for the nuclear potential-energy emerged in the form of the macroscopic-microscopic model. Choice of the density-dependent effective interaction and alpha decay of heavy spherical nuclei. The parameters of density-dependent effective interaction are studied for some nuclei in the vicinity of a Pb double-magic nucleus.
Both nuclei having two nucleons holes over magic core and some superfluid nuclei are considered. It is found that the magnitudes of the matrix elements for the zero-range forces delta forces are more than three times larger in comparison with the case of the finite-range forces f forces.
Sets of parameters for the effective interaction, which does not lead to the superfluidity of nuclear matter are obtained. Besides, these parameters depend weakly on mass number. It is shown that the attractive part of interaction is substantially larger for the case of f forces than for the delta forces.
For the case of f forces a tendency to saturation of the enhancement coefficients with the increase of the shell-model basis is found. As for the isospin analysis and the CKM angle alpha it is shown that the use of uniform priors for the observed quantities in the Explicit Solution parametrization is equivalent to a frequentist construction resulting from a change of variables, and thus relies neither on prior PDFs nor on Bayes' theorem.
This procedure provides in this particular case results that are similar to the Confidence Level approach, but the treatment of mirror solutions remains incorrect and it is far from being general. In pa From beta-relaxation to alpha-decay : Atomistic picture from molecular dynamics simulations for glass-forming Ni0. In glass-forming melts the decay of structural fluctuation shows the well known transition from beta-relaxation von-Schweidler law with exponent b to alpha-decay KWW law with exponent beta.
Here we present results from molecular dynamics simulations for a metallic glass forming Ni0. At the considered temperature below mode coupling Tc, the dynamics of the system can be interpreted by residence of the particles in their neighbour cages and escape from the cages as rare processes. Our analysis yields that the fraction of residing particles is characterized by a hierarchical law in time, with von-Schweidler b explicitly related to the exponent of this law. In the alpha-decay regime the stretching exponent reflects, in addition, floating of the cages due to strain effects of escaped particles.
Accordingly, the change from beta-relaxation to alpha-decay indicates the transition from low to large fraction of escaped particles. Relatively low energy and very enhanced alpha -particle groups have been observed in various actinide fractions produced via secondary reactions in a CERN W target which had been irradiated with GeV protons. In particular, 5. The measured energies are a few MeV lower than the known g. The half-lives are 4 to 7 orders of magnitude shorter than expected from the systematics of alpha -particle decay in this region of nuclei.
The deduced evaporation residue cross sections are in the mb region, about 4 orders of magnitude higher than expected. A consistent interpretation of the data is given in terms of production of long-lived isomeric states in the second and third wells of the potential-energy surfaces of the parent nuclei, which decay to the corresponding w Decay properties of some neutron-rich praseodymium isotopes. Skarnemark, G. The nuclides have been separated from the fission product mixture, using the fast chemical separation system SISAK in connection with a gas jet recoil transport system.
Effects of alpha decays on nuclear waste glasses, simulation through atomistic models. The methodology employed to construct and validate the used Molecular Dynamics model representing the basis matrix of the 'light-water' French nuclear glass R77 and the manner which are simulated atomic displacements are described.
Notably we have: - identified the main mechanisms responsible for the depolymerization of the network; - observed, at the atomic level, the kinetic of the structure evolution; - detailed the behavior and displacement mechanisms of every atomic species during the cascade sequences; - made a link with the experimentation through the calculation of some physical properties. Late time properties of a decaying false vacuum. The false vacuum states are unstable and they decay by tunneling.
Some of them may survive up to times when their survival probability has a non-exponential form. At times much latter than the transition time, when contributions to the survival probability of its exponential and non-exponential parts are comparable, the survival probability as a function of time t has an inverse power-like form. We also present the results of searches for the Xb, the bottomonium counterpart to the X exotic charmonium state.
The optical properties of a double focusing bending magnet measured with a thin alpha source. The focusing properties of the 90 0 inflector magnet for the Nuclear Structure Facility NSF tandem at Daresbury Laboratory have been measured in the 2rho configuration using very thin alpha sources and a position-sensitive detector.
Miller, R. Technology Development Div. Summaries of all the located references are provided and numerical data contained in them are compiled in EXFOR format where applicable. During the past years a considerable experimental effort has been devoted to the production and study of nuclei close to the neutron and proton drip-lines.
The most spectacular phenomenon encountered is the occurrence of neutron halos in the loosely bound neutron rich nuclei. The influence of the surprising decay properties of element on search experiments for new elements. Hofmann, S. Results of experiments to synthesize the heaviest elements are reported. Surprising is the high stability against fission not only of the odd and odd-odd nuclei but also of even isotopes of even elements. Alpha decay data gave an increasing stability of nuclei by shell effects up to , the heaviest known element.
Future experiments will be planned to prove the island character of these heavy nuclei. The hypernuclei will decay into normal nuclei by mesonic or non-mesonic decay modes. Hydration tests were carried out to determine the inhibitory index in order to characterise wood-cement compatibility. The results revealed that the mixture of hornbeam-cement can be classified as moderate inhibition. It was found that an increase of cement-wood ratio resulted in an improvement in all properties examined, except MOR.
Boards were exposed to brown and white rot fungi, Coniophora puteana, and Trametes versicolor, respectively. Overall, both fungi failed to attack the cement-bonded boards. Human leukocytes treated with Sendai virus yield interferon predominantly of the alpha -type HuIFN- alpha. Successful attempts to purify these "native" species have been performed and the final analysis, which included an SDS-PAGE disclosed 13 stained and separated IFN-proteins in the molecular Protolytic properties and complexation of DL- alpha -alanine and DL- alpha -valine and their dipeptides in aqueous and micellar solutions of surfactants.
In this work we investigated the effect of the micellar media of anionic sodium dodecylsulfate, SDS , cationic cetylpiridinium chloride, CPC and non-ionic Brij surfactants on the protolytic properties of amino acids DL- alpha -alanine, DL- alpha -valine and dipeptides. Alpha and beta detection and spectrometry.
The theory of alpha and beta radioactive decay , the interaction of alpha and beta particles with matter, and their detection and spectrometry are dealt with in seven chapters: 1. Alpha transformation of atomic nuclei; 2. Basic properties of detectors and statistics of detection; 3. Alpha detectors and spectrometers; 4. Applications of alpha detection and spectrometry; 5.
Beta transformation of atomic nuclei; 6. Beta particle detectors and spectrometers; 7. Detection of low energy beta particles. Chapter 8 is devoted to sampling and preparation of samples for radiometry. Though the existence of neutrino oscillations proves that neutrinos must have non-zero mass, Beyond-the-Standard-Model physics is needed to explain the origins of that mass. One intriguing possibility is that neutrinos are Majorana particles, i.
Such a mechanism could naturally explain the observed smallness of the neutrino masses, and would have consequences that go far beyond neutrino physics, with implications for Grand Unification and leptogenesis. If neutrinos are Majorana particles, they could undergo neutrinoless double-beta decay 0nBB , a hypothesized rare decay in which two antineutrinos annihilate one another.
This process, if it exists, would be exceedingly rare, with a half-life over 1E25 years. Therefore, searching for it requires experiments with extremely low background rates. A problematic background in such large granular detector arrays is posed by alpha particles incident on the surfaces of the detectors, often caused by Rn contamination of parts or of the detectors themselves. However, it is also observed that when energy deposition occurs very close to the passivated surface, high charge trapping occurs along with subsequent slow charge re-release.
This leads to both a reduced prompt signal and a measurable change in slope of the tail of a recorded pulse. Here we discuss the characteristics of these events and the development of a filter that can identify the. Volume 1: the natural uranium fuel cycle. The two books of Volume 1 comprise the first in a three-volume series of compilations on the radioactive decay propertis of CANDU fuel and deal with the natural uranium fuel cycle.
Succeeding volumes will deal with fuel cycles based on plutonium recycle and thorium. Data are also presented on gamma spectra and neutron emissions. Part 3 contains the data relating to the plutonium product and the high level wastes produced during fuel reprocessing. A double folding DF type real potential was used with a phenomenological Woods-Saxon-squared WS2 type imaginary potential.
Good agreement between the calculations and experimental data was obtained. These calculations showed strong sensitivity of the widths and excitation energies to the orientation. Fire resistance properties of ceramic wool fiber reinforced intumescent coatings. This research studied the effects of varied weight percentage and length of ceramic wool fiber CWF reinforcement to fire retardant performance of epoxy-based intumescent coating.
The mixing was conducted in two stages; powdered materials were grinded in Rocklabs mortar grinder and epoxy-mixed using Caframo mixer at low speed mixing. The char expansion and its physical properties were observed. Scanning electron microscopy SEM analyses were conducted to inspect the fiber dispersion, fiber condition and the cell structure of both coatings and chars produced. Thermogravimetric analyses TGA were conducted to study the thermal properties of the coating such as degradation temperature and residual weight.
The results showed that intumescent coating reinforced with CWF produced better fire resistance performance. When compared to unreinforced coating, formulation S significantly reduced steel temperature at approximately However, higher fiber weight percentage had slightly decreased fire retardant performance of the coating. Spectroscopy, decay properties and Regge trajectories of the B and Bs mesons. The predicted excited states for the B and Bs mesons are in very good agreement with results obtained by experiment.
We investigate the Regge trajectories in the J,M2 and nr,M2 planes with their corresponding parameters. The branching ratios for leptonic and radiative-leptonic decays are estimated for the B and BS mesons. Our results are in good agreement with experimental observations as well as outcomes of other theoretical models.
Method and apparatus for measuring properties of particle beams using thermo- resistive material properties. A beam position detector for measuring the properties of a charged particle beam, including the beam's position, size, shape, and intensity. One or more absorbers are constructed of thermo- resistive material and positioned to intercept and absorb a portion of the incoming beam power, thereby causing local heating of each absorber.
The local temperature increase distribution across the absorber, or the distribution between different absorbers, will depend on the intensity, size, and position of the beam. The absorbers are constructed of a material having a strong dependence of electrical resistivity on temperature. The beam position detector has no moving parts in the vicinity of the beam and is especially suited to beam areas having high ionizing radiation dose rates or poor beam quality, including beams dispersed in the transverse direction and in their time radio frequency structure.
To identify pharmacodynamic PD and pharmacokinetic PK metrics that aid in mechanistic understanding of dosage considerations for prolonged corneal anesthesia. A rabbit model using 0. Metrics were derived describing PD-PK parameters of the time-dependent domain of recovery in corneal sensitivity.
Curve fitting used a 1-phase exponential dissociation paradigm assuming a 1-compartment PK model. Bioavailability was determined by area under the curve of the dose-response relationship with varying drop volumes. Maximal corneal anesthesia maintained a plateau with a recovery inflection at the approximate time of predicted corneal drug half-life. PDs of recovery of corneal anesthesia were consistent with a first-order drug elimination rate.
The mean estimated corneal elimination rate constant ke was 0. Duration of corneal anesthesia ranged from 55 to 58 minutes. There was no difference in time domain PD area under the curve between drop volumes. Prolongation of corneal anesthesia may therefore be best achieved with administration of small drop volumes at time intervals corresponding to the half-life of drug decay from the corneal compartment.
Vary, James P. We survey recent progress in calculating properties of the electron and hadrons within the basis light front quantization BLFQ approach. We include applications to electromagnetic and strong scattering processes in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We present an initial investigation into the glueball states by applying BLFQ with multigluon sectors, introducing future research possibilities on multi-quark and multi-gluon systems. Synthesis of ethylene maleic anhydride copolymer containing fungicides and evaluation of their effect for wood decay resistance.
The aim of the present study was to combat wood decay based on the approach controlled-release biocides from polymers. The possibility of introducing polymer-bonded fungicides into the cell lumens was investigated. The synthesis of ethylene maleic anhydride copolymer containing pentachlorophenol penta and 8-hydroxy quinoline 8HQ in N, N dimethyl formamide is Identification of soybean accessions with resistance to Phomopsis seed decay : joint effort from USDA and university scientists.
This disease causes poor seed quality and suppresses yield in most soybean-growing states in the United States. In , PSD caused yield loss of over 12 million bushels in Effect of resistivity profile on current decay time of initial phase of current quench in neon-gas-puff inducing disruptions of JTU.
According to an early work [Y. Shibata et al. Fusion 50, ] on the behavior of the plasma current decay in the JTU disruptive discharges caused by the radiative collapse with a massive neon-gas-puff, the increase of the internal inductance mainly determined the current decay time of plasma current during the initial phase of current quench. To investigate what determines the increase of the internal inductance, we focus attention on the relationship between the electron temperature or the resistivity profile and the time evolution of the current density profile and carry out numerical calculations.
The current density profile evolves into peaked one and the internal inductance is increasing. Decaying wood is related to nutrient cycling through its role as either a sink or source of nutrients. However, at micro scales, what is the effect of decaying logs on the physical, chemical,and biotic characteristics of the soil underneath? We took samples from a 0 to 5 cm depth under and a 50 cm distance away from decaying logs Dacryodes excelsa and Swietenia Our recent research effort has been focused on new top coating-free nm immersion resists with regard to leaching of the resist components and lithographic performance.
We have examined methacrylate-based resins that control the surface properties of ArF resists thin films by surface segregation behavior. For a better understanding of the surface properties of thin films, we prepared the six resins Resin that have three types fluorine containing monomers, a new monomer Monomer A , Monomer B and Monomer C, respectively.
We blended the base polymer Resin 0 with Resin , respectively. We evaluated contact angles, surface properties and lithographic performances of the polymer blend resists. The static and receding contact angles of the resist that contains Resin are greater than that of the base polymer Resin 0 resist.
The chemical composition of the surface of blend polymers was investigated with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS. It was shown that there was significant segregation of the fluorine containing resins to the surface of the blend films. We analyzed Quantitative Structure- Property Relationships QSPR between the surface properties and the chemical composition of the surface of polymer blend resists.
Consequently, the surface properties of resist thin films can be tailored by the appropriate choice of fluorine containing polymer blends. We evaluated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise training on ventricular morphometry and function, physical capacity, autonomic function, as well as on ventricular inflammatory status in trained rats prior to myocardial infarction.
Sham and myocardial infarction were performed after training periods. In the days following the surgeries, evaluations were performed. Aerobic training prevents aerobic to a greater extent and resistance capacity impairments, ventricular dysfunction, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic disorders vagal tonus decrease and sympathetic tonus increase triggered by myocardial infarction.
Resistance training was able to prevent negative changes to aerobic and resistance capacity to a greater extent but not to ventricular dysfunction, and it prevented cardiovascular sympathetic increments. Additionally, both types of training reduced left ventricle inflammatory cytokine concentration. Our results suggest that aerobic and, for the first time, dynamic resistance training were able to reduce sympathetic tonus to the heart and vessels, as well as preventing the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in the left ventricle of trained groups.
These data emphasizes the positive effects of aerobic and dynamic resistance training on the prevention of the negative changes triggered by myocardial infarction. Radioactive Decay. Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.
Biological degradation of wood-plastic composites WPC and strategies for improving the resistance of WPC against biological decay. Much of the research on wood-plastic composites WPC has focused on formulation development and processing while high biological durability of the material was assumed.
The gap between assumption and knowledge in biodeterioration of WPC needs to be reduced. Although some information on the short-term resistance of WPC against biological degradation is available, long Decay detection in red oak trees using a combination of visual inspection, acoustic testing, and resistance microdrilling.
Arborists are often challenged to identify internal structural defects hidden from view within tree trunks. This article reports the results of a study using a trunk inspection protocol combining visual observation, single-path stress wave testing, acoustic tomography, and resistance microdrilling to detect internal defects. Two century-old red oak Quercus rubra Trunk decays. Trunk decays are major causes of low quality wood-wood with little or no economic value.
As a forest practitioner you should be able to recognize trees at high risk for decay and remove them if timber production is your primary objective. Remember, however, that decayed trees often develop into den trees or nesting sites and provide essential habitat for wildlife Of No.
Simultaneous chlorine decay and disinfection byproduct DBP formation has long been discussed because of its regulatory and operational significance. This study further examines the water quality changes under hydrodynamic settings during drinking water distribution. Resistance to mate guarding scale in women: psychometric properties. One individual's actions may affect the evolutionary fitness of another individual.
Sexually antagonistic coevolution occurs when one partner's behavior decreases the fitness of the other partner Rice, This conflict pressures the other partner to counter these disadvantageous actions. Mate guarding is a mate retention tactic aimed at keeping a partner from cheating. Mate guarding may reduce mate choice, especially for extra pair mates. Therefore, some individuals may resist their partner's mate guarding tactics. Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed strong support for the six original subscales as well as for the overall scale.
The subscales had high reliability. The validity of the Resistance to Mate Guarding Scale was also excellent. Women who stated they used more resistance to mate guarding strategies also indicated that they had partners who mate guarded more, were less invested in their relationships, felt their partners were more controlling, had a more avoidant attachment style, and had a more unrestricted sociosexual orientation. Effect of resistant starch and aging conditions on the physicochemical properties of frozen soy yogurt.
The results showed that resistant starch increased viscosity because of its water binding properties. Resistant starch also increased foam stability, fat destabilization, and hardness, but it decreased overrun and meltdown rate. Viscosity, hardness and fat destabilization increased as aging time increased. An increase in aging temperature decreased viscosity, overrun, hardness and fat destabilization of frozen yoghurt, but increased the meltdown rate. Studies of electrical properties of low- resistivity sandstones based on digital rock technology.
Electrical properties are important parameters to quantitatively calculate water saturation in oil and gas reservoirs by well logging interpretation. It is usual that oil layers show high resistivity responses, while water layers show low- resistivity responses. However, there are low- resistivity oil zones that exist in many oilfields around the world, leading to difficulties for reservoir evaluation.
In our research, we used digital rock technology to study different internal and external factors to account for low rock resistivity responses in oil layers. We first constructed three-dimensional digital rock models with five components based on micro-computed tomography technology and x-ray diffraction experimental results, and then oil and water distributions in pores were determined by the pore morphology method.
When the resistivity of each component was assigned, rock resistivities were calculated by using the finite element method. We collected 20 sandstone samples to prove the effectiveness of our numerical simulation methods. Based on the control variate method, we studied the effects of different factors on the resistivity indexes and rock resistivities.
After sensitivity analyses, we found the main factors which caused low rock resistivities in oil layers. For unfractured rocks, influential factors arranged in descending order of importance were porosity, clay content, temperature, water salinity, heavy mineral, clay type and wettability. In addition, we found that the resistivity index could not provide enough information to identify a low- resistivity oil zone by using laboratory rock-electric experimental results.
These results can not only expand our understandings of the electrical properties of low- resistivity rocks from oil layers, but also help identify low- resistivity oil zones better. Hypernuclear Weak Decays. The recent theoretical studies of Lambda-hypernuclear weak decaysof the nonmesonic and pi-mesonic ones are developed with the aim to disclose the link between the experimental decay observables and the underlying basic weak decay interactions and the weak decay mechanisms.
The features of meson exchange potentials and their roles on the nonmesonic decays are discussed. Future extensions of the model and the remaining problems are also mentioned. The pi-mesonic weak processes are briefly surveyed, and the calculations and predictions are compared and confirmed by the recent high precision FINUDA pi-mesonic decay data. This shows that the theoretical basis seems to be firmly grounded.
Corrosion resistant iron aluminides exhibiting improved mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. The alloy exhibits considerably improved room temperature ductility for enhanced usefulness in structural applications. The high temperature strength and fabricability is improved by alloying with molybdenum, carbon, chromium and vanadium.
Resistance of virus to extinction on bottleneck passages: study of a decaying and fluctuating pattern of fitness loss. RNA viruses display high mutation rates and their populations replicate as dynamic and complex mutant distributions, termed viral quasispecies. Repeated genetic bottlenecks, which experimentally are carried out through serial plaque-to-plaque transfers of the virus, lead to fitness decrease measured here as diminished capacity to produce infectious progeny.
Here we report an analysis of fitness evolution of several low fitness foot-and-mouth disease virus clones subjected to 50 plaque-to-plaque transfers. Unexpectedly, fitness decrease, rather than being continuous and monotonic, displayed a fluctuating pattern, which was influenced by both the virus and the state of the host cell as shown by effects of recent cell passage history.
The amplitude of the fluctuations increased as fitness decreased, resulting in a remarkable resistance of virus to extinction. Whereas the frequency distribution of fitness in control independent experiments follows a log-normal distribution, the probability of fitness values in the evolving bottlenecked populations fitted a Weibull distribution.
We suggest that multiple functions of viral genomic RNA and its encoded proteins, subjected to high mutational pressure, interact with cellular components to produce this nontrivial, fluctuating pattern. Corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of titanium nitride plating on orthodontic wires. Titanium nitride TiN coating by ion plating has properties such as high hardness, wear resistance , corrosion resistance , and surface lubricity, therefore TiN coating is often used in various dental appliances and materials.
In this study, we evaluated the corrosion behaviors and mechanical properties of TiN coated stainless steel SS and nickel titanium Ni-Ti orthodontic wires prepared by ion plating. TiN coating by ion plating improves the corrosion resistance of orthodontic wires. The corrosion pitting of the TiN coated wire surface become small. The tensile strength and stiffness of SS wire were increased after TiN coating. In contrast, its elastic force, which is a property for Ni-Ti wire, was decreased.
In addition, TiN coating provided small friction forces. The low level of friction may increase tooth movement efficiently. Therefore, TiN coated SS wire could be useful for orthodontics treatment. Thermal-electrical properties and resistance stability of silver coated yarns.
Thermal-electrical properties and resistance stability of silver yarns was researched to evaluate the performance be a heating element. Three samples of silver coated yarns with different linear density and electrical resistivity , which obtained by market. Silver coated yarns were placed at the high temperature condition for ageing.
The electrical resistances of yarns were increased with the ageing process. The infrared photography instrument was used to measurement the temperature variation of silver coated yarns by applied different current on. The result shows that the temperature rise with the power increases.
States populated in radioactive decay as well as in nuclear reactions have been considered. For these nuclei, level and decay schemes have been built, as well as tables of nuclear properties. This work supersedes the evaluation by J. Tuli Tu Manuscripts published before December have been included in this work. Regolith properties under trees and the biomechanical effects caused by tree root systems as recognized by electrical resistivity tomography ERT.
Following previous findings regarding the influence of vascular plants mainly trees on weathering, soil production and hillslope stability, in this study, we attempted to test a hypothesis regarding significant impacts of tree root systems on soil and regolith properties. Different types of impacts from tree root system direct and indirect are commonly gathered under the key term of "biomechanical effects". To add to the discussion of the biomechanical effects of trees, we used a non-invasive geophysical method, electrical resistivity tomography ERT , to investigate the profiles of four different configurations at three study sites within the Polish section of the Outer Western Carpathians.
At each site, one long profile up to m of a large section of a hillslope and three short profiles up to Short profiles included the tree root zone of a healthy large tree, the tree stump of a decaying tree and the pit-and-mound topography formed after a tree uprooting.
Trees change soil and regolith properties directly through root channels and moisture migration and indirectly through the uprooting of trees and the formation of pit-and-mound topography. Within tree stump microsites, the impact of tree root systems, evaluated by a resistivity model, was smaller compared to microsites with living trees or those with pit-and-mound topography but was still visible even several decades after the trees were windbroken or cut down.
The ERT method is highly useful for quick evaluation of the impact of tree root systems on soils and regolith. This method, in contrast to traditional soil analyses, offers a continuous dataset for the entire. Acetal-based three-component CARs: a versatile concept to tailor optical properties of resists.
Cost and yield effective IC fabrication requires the use of a large variety of substrates with distinct reflectivity, which may cause problems during the lithographic process either due to reflective notching and standing wave formation on highly reflective substrates, or trapezoidal resist patterns and deterioration of resolution, when a substrate with low reflectivity is employed.
Reflectivity problems become more evident, when i-line radiation is replaced by DUV illumination tools. In addition, the non-bleaching nature of state-of-the-art chemically amplified resists further aggravates the reflectivity issues. It is therefore generally accepted that substrate reflectivity and resist transparency have to be closely matched to gain maximized lithographic performance, i.
Alkylsubstituted poly benzaldehyde-N,O-acetal s are basically transparent in the nm wavelength region, and therefore do not contribute to resist absorption. On the other hand, poly naphthaldehyde-N,O-acetal s are quite strong absorbants in the deep UV region. It was found that certain benz- and naphthaldehyde poly-N,O-acetal derivatives exhibit essentially identical inhibition and dissolution properties combined with similar cleavage kinetics.
By both, physical mixing or co-condensation, of these materials, it is possible to adjust the optical resist absorption to precalculated values between approx. Basic chemistry, physico-chemical and optical properties of the resists are discussed in detail. Lithographic results including SEMs prove the versatility and efficiency of this approach. Evaluation of the effect of different stretching patterns on force decay and tensile properties of elastomeric ligatures.
Background: There have been numerous researches on elastomeric ligatures, but clinical conditions in different stages of treatment are not exactly similar to laboratory conditions. The aim of this in vitro study was to simulate clinical conditions and evaluate the effect of three stretching patterns on the amount of force, tensile strength TS and extension to TS of the elastomers during 8 weeks. Materials and Methods: Forces, TS and extension to TS of two different brands of elastomers were measured at initial, 24 h and 2, 4, and 8-week intervals using a testing machine.
During the study period, the elastomers were stored in three different types of jig uniform stretching, 1 and 3 mm point stretching designed by the computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing technique in order to simulate the different stages of orthodontic treatment. Results: The elastomeric ligatures under study exhibited a similar force decay pattern.
The maximum force decay occurred during the first 24 h In general, the TS decreased during the study period, and the amount of extension to TS increased. Conclusion: Although the elastic behavior of all ligatures under study was similar, the amount of residual force, TS and extension to TS increased in elastomers under point stretching pattern.
There have been numerous researches on elastomeric ligatures, but clinical conditions in different stages of treatment are not exactly similar to laboratory conditions. Forces, TS and extension to TS of two different brands of elastomers were measured at initial, 24 h and 2, 4, and 8-week intervals using a testing machine. The elastomeric ligatures under study exhibited a similar force decay pattern.
Although the elastic behavior of all ligatures under study was similar, the amount of residual force, TS and extension to TS increased in elastomers under point stretching pattern. Properties of resistant cells generated from lung cancer cell lines treated with EGFR inhibitors.
However, the cancer eventually progresses during treatment with EGFR inhibitors, even in the patients who respond to these drugs initially. Cancer stem cell like traits including expression of stem cell markers, enhanced ability to self-renew and differentiate, and increased tumorigenicity in vitro were assessed in erlotinib resistant HER1 cells.
The erlotinib resistant subline contained a population of cells with properties similar to cancer stem cells. These cells were found to be less sensitive towards erlotinib treatment as measured by cell proliferation and generation of tumor spheres in the presence of erlotinib. The influence of Reynolds numbers on resistance properties of jet pumps. Jet pumps are widely used in thermoacoustic Stirling heat engines and pulse tube cryocoolers to eliminate the effect of Gedeon streaming.
The resistance properties of jet pumps are principally influenced by their structures and flow regimes which are always characterized by Reynolds numbers. In this paper, the jet pump of which cross section contracts abruptly is selected as our research subject.
Based on linear thermoacoustic theory, a CFD model is built and the oscillating flow of the working gas is simulated and analyzed with different Reynolds numbers in the jet pump. The results show that Reynolds numbers have a great influence on the resistance properties of jet pumps and some empirical formulas which are widely used are unsuitable for oscillating flow with small Reynolds numbers.
This paper provides a more comprehensive understanding on resistance properties of jet pumps with oscillating flow and is significant for the design of jet pumps in practical thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. According to the calculations, the influence of different structures and Reynolds numbers on the resistance properties of the jet pump are analyzed and presented. Tooth Decay. Your dentist calls it tooth decay or dental caries. They're all names for a hole To help prevent cavities Brush your teeth every day with a fluoride toothpaste Clean between The mechanical properties and thermal shock resistance of the composites were investigated.
The addition of 1. The analysis of the results indicates that BNNT brings many thermal transport channels in the microstructure, increasing the efficiency of thermal transport, therefore results in increase of thermal shock resistance. In addition, BNNT improves the residual flexural strength of composites by crack deflection, bridging, branching and pinning, which increase the crack propagation resistance. An experimental study of resistant properties of the small intestine for an active capsule endoscope.
Use of the capsule endoscope CE in clinical examinations is limited by its passive movement resulting from the natural peristalsis of the gastrointestinal GI tract. Therefore, a locomotion mechanism is desirable for the next generation of capsule endoscope. Understanding the resistant properties of the small intestine is essential for designing a wireless magnetic actuation mechanism. In this paper, in vitro experiments were carried out to investigate the resistant force of the small intestine using 15 specially designed capsule prototypes and analysed the effect of the capsule dimension and moving speed.
Segments of porcine small intestine were employed as a conservative model for the human intestine. When the capsules under experiment were moving at a speed of 0. The force increased with moving speed. The intrinsic cause of the resistant force of the small intestine is discussed based on an analysis of the experimental data.
It is believed that the viscoelastic properties of the tissue play an important role in the resistant characteristics of the small intestine. The wear resistance and stable mechanical properties affect the service life of the underwater functional materials to a certain extent. Unfortunately, the current study of underwater functional materials is rarely related to these aspects. The mechanical properties of the composite films were determined by tensile test, and the wear resistance was evaluated by comparing the surface morphology before and after grind.
Moreover, this composite film showed an outstanding stability when expose to water. Ti doped nickel oxide thin films have been fabricated by sol-gel dip-coating process using nickel acetate and tetrabutyl titanate as source materials. The effect of the amount of Ti dopant on the surface roughness, optical, chemical state and electrical properties of NiO: Ti thin films was observed by atomic force microscopy AFM , Uv-vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy XPS and I-V measurement, respectively.
Results show that the Ti doping is an effective ways to improve the resistive switching behaviors and it is a convenient way to understand the mechanism of the resistive switching behaviors. Evaluation of physico-mechanical properties of clayey soils using electrical resistivity imaging technique. Resistivity imaging RI is a promising approach to obtaining continuous profile of soil subsurface. This method offers simple technique to identify moisture variation and heterogeneity of the investigated area.
However, at present, only qualitative information of subsurface can be obtained using RI. A study on the quantification of geotechnical properties has become important for rigorous use of this method in the evaluation of geohazard potential and construction quality control of landfill liner system. Several studies have been performed to describe electrical resistivity of soil as a function of pore fluid conductivity and surface conductance.
However, characterization tests on pore water and surface charge are not typically performed in a conventional geotechnical investigation. The overall objective of this study is to develop correlations between geotechnical parameters and electrical resistivity of soil, which would provide a mean to estimate geotechnical properties from RI.
As a part of the study, multiple regression analyses were conducted to develop practically applicable models correlating resistivity with influential geotechnical parameters. Based on the physical tests, scanning electron microscope SEM , and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy EDS analysis, kaolinite was identified as the dominant mineral with some traces of magnesium, calcium, potassium, and iron. Electrical resistivity tests were conducted on compacted clays and undisturbed samples under varied geotechnical conditions.
The experimental results indicated that the degree of saturation substantially influenced electrical resistivity. In case of. Correlation between electrical direct current resistivity and plasmonic properties of CMOS compatible titanium nitride thin films.
Damping distances of surface plasmon polariton modes sustained by different thin titanium nitride TiN films are measured at the telecom wavelength of 1. The damping distances are correlated to the electrical direct current resistivity of the films sustaining the surface plasmon modes. The relevance of the direct current dc electrical resistivity for the characterization of TiN plasmonic properties is investigated in the framework of the Drude model, on the basis of parameters extracted from spectroscopic ellipsometry experiments.
By probing a parametric space of realistic values for parameters of the Drude model, we obtain a nearly univocal dependence of the surface plasmon damping distance on the dc resistivity demonstrating the relevance of dc resistivity for the evaluation of the plasmonic performances of TiN at telecom frequencies. Finally, we show that better plasmonic performances are obtained for TiN films featuring a low content of oxygen.
For low oxygen content and corresponding low resistivity , we attribute the increase of the surface plasmon damping distances to a lower confinement of the plasmon field into the metal and not to a decrease of the absorption of TiN.
The low-lying Gamow-Teller strengths of even-even nuclei are considerably larger than those of the neighboring odd-A and odd-odd nuclei, strongly affecting the half-lives and neutron emission probabilities. We derive a formula to represent the positions of the Gamow-Teller giant resonances from the calculated strength distributions. During metastasis, cancer cells enter the circulation in order to gain access to distant tissues, but how this fluid microenvironment influences cancer cell biology is poorly understood.
A longstanding view is that circulating cancer cells derived from solid tissues may be susceptible to damage from hemodynamic shear forces, contributing to metastatic inefficiency. Here we report that compared to non-transformed epithelial cells, transformed cells are remarkably resistant to fluid shear stress FSS in a microfluidic protocol, exhibiting a biphasic decrease in viability when subjected to a series of millisecond pulses of high FSS.
We show that magnitude of FSS resistance is influenced by several oncogenes, is an adaptive and transient response triggered by plasma membrane damage and requires extracellular calcium and actin cytoskeletal dynamics. This novel property of malignant cancer cells may facilitate hematogenous metastasis and indicates, contrary to expectations, that cancer cells are quite resistant to destruction by hemodynamic shear forces. Mechanical properties and oxidation and corrosion resistance of reduced-chromium stainless steel alloys.
An experimental program was undertaken to identify effective substitutes for part of the Cr in stainless steel as a method of conserving the strategic element Cr. Although special emphasis was placed on tensile properties , oxidation and corrosion resistance were also examined.
Results indicate that over the temperature range of C to C the yield stress of experimental austenitic alloys with only 12 percent Cr compare favorably with the 18 percent Cr in stainless steel. Oxidation resistance and in most cases corrosion resistance for the experimental alloys were comparable to the commercial alloy. Double Beta Decay. Double beta decay is a key process to reveal a fundamental property of neutrinos.
The process is beyond the standard model and would lead to a scenario which can explain the extremely small masses of neutrinos and provide a solution to the current matter dominance of the world. Allowing the Higgs mass to float, the measurement yields a signal strength relative to the standard model prediction of 1.
Signal strengths associated with the different Higgs boson production mechanisms, couplings to bosons and fermions, and effective couplings to photons and gluons are also measured. Effect of oxide insertion layer on resistance switching properties of copper phthalocyanine. Organic memory device showing resistance switching properties is a next-generation of the electrical memory unit. We have investigated the bistable resistance switching in current-voltage I-V characteristics of organic diode based on copper phthalocyanine CuPc film sandwiched between aluminum Al electrodes.
The traps in the organic layer and charge blocking by oxide insertion layer have been used to explain the absence of resistance switching in the oxide buffer layered memory device cell. Present study offer potential applications for CuPc organic semiconductor in low power non volatile resistive switching memory and logic circuits. Structure and properties of corrosion and wear resistant Cr-Mn-N steels.
Steels containing about 12 pct Cr, 10 pct Mn, and 0. A series of alloys containing 9. Microstructures ranged from martensite to unstable austenite. Fracture strengths similar to high carbon martensitic stainless steels were obtained while ductility and toughness values were high, similar to austenitic stainless steels.
Resistance to abrasive wear exceeded that of commercial abrasion resistant steels and other stainless steels. Corrosion resistance was similar to that of other 12 pct Cr steels. Properties were not much affected by minor compositional variations or rolled-in nitrogen porosity. In 12 pct Cr pct Mn alloys, ingot porosity was avoided when nitrogen levels were below 0.
Standing trees decay often causes vast loss of timber resources. To investigate the correlations between the standing trees decay and the site conditions is of importance to scientifically and reasonably manage forests and to decrease wood resources loss. By using Resistograph and meter ruler, a measurement was made on the decay degree of the trunk near root and the diameter at breast height DBH of 15 mature Korean pine standing trees in a Korean pine-broadleaved mixed forest in Xiao Xing' an Mountains in May, In the meantime, soil samples were collected from the root zones of standing trees and the upslope and downslope 5 meters away from the trunks, respectively.
Five physical-chemical properties including moisture content, bulk density, total porosity, pH value, and organic matter content of the soil samples were tested. The regression equations concerning the trunk decay degree of the standing trees, their DBH, and the 5 soil properties were established. The trunk decay degree was decreased when the soil moisture content was below No significant correlation was observed between the trunk decay degree of mature Korean pine standing trees and the tree age.
Assessing the thermoelectric properties of single InSb nanowires: the role of thermal contact resistance. Yazji, S. The peculiar shape and dimensions of nanowires NWs have opened the way to their exploitation in thermoelectric applications. In general, the parameters entering into the thermoelectric figure of merit are strongly interdependent, which makes it difficult to realize an optimal thermoelectric material.
In NWs, instead, the power factor can be increased and the thermal conductivity reduced, thus boosting the thermoelectric efficiency compared to bulk materials. However, the assessment of all the thermoelectric properties of a NW is experimentally very challenging. Here, we focus on InSb NWs, which have proved to be promising thermoelectric materials.
The figure of merit is accurately determined by using a novel method based on a combination of Raman spectroscopy and electrical measurements. Remarkably, this type of experiment provides a powerful approach allowing us to neglect the role played by thermal contact resistance. Furthermore, we compare the thermal conductivity determined by this novel method to the one determined on the same sample by the thermal bridge method. In this latter approach, the thermal contact resistance is a non-negligible parameter, especially in NWs with large diameters.
We provide experimental evidence of the crucial role played by thermal contact resistance in the assessment of the thermal properties of nanostructures, using two different measurement methods of the thermal conductivity. Enhanced antibacterial properties , biocompatibility, and corrosion resistance of degradable Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy. Magnesium Mg , a potential biodegradable material, has recently received increasing attention due to its unique antibacterial property.
However, rapid corrosion in the physiological environment and potential toxicity limit clinical applications. In addition, the significantly improved cytocompatibility is observed from JDBM. The results suggest that JDBM effectively enhances the corrosion resistance , biocompatibility and antimicrobial properties of Mg by alloying with the proper amount of Zn, Zr and Nd.
Antibacterial properties of Chinese herbal medicines against nosocomial antibiotic resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Taiwan. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is well-recognized as a nosocomial pathogen, which exhibits inherent drug resistance. In this study, the antibacterial activity of ethanol extracts of 58 Chinese herbal medicines used in Taiwan were tested against 89 nosocomial antibiotic resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
The results gathered by the disc diffusion method showed that 26 out of the 58 herbal extracts exhibited antibacterial activity. Among the 26 herbal extracts, 10 extracts showed broad-spectrum antibacterial activities and were selected for further antibacterial property assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations MIC of the active partition fractions ranged from 0. The presence of flavonoid compounds in the active fractions of test herbal extracts was observed by the TLC-bioautography.
The results from the time-kill assay revealed that most of the herbal extracts completely killed the test organisms within 4 hours. Exposure of the test strains to a sub-MIC level of the herbal extracts for 10 consecutive subcultures did not induce resistance to the active components. A combination of the active herbal fractions with antibiotics showed that one of the herbal medicines, the hexane fraction of Ramulus Cinnamomi, possessed a synergistic effect with tetracycline, gentamycin, and streptomycin.
In conclusion, the tested Chinese medical herbs have the potential to be developed into natural antibiotics. This is the first evaluation for screening large amounts of medical plants against nosocomial antibiotic resistant bacteria in Taiwan. The signal strength modifiers for the individual Higgs boson production modes are also measured.
The cross section in the fiducial phase space defined by the requirements on lepton kinematics and event topology is measured to be 2. Differential cross sections are reported as a function of the transverse momentum of the Higgs boson, the number of associated jets, and the transverse momentum of the leading associated jet.
Sirunyan, A. Gryzunov, Yu. Yu; Uzbekov, M. The properties of serum albumin obtained from donors and from paranoid schizophrenia patients were studied with the fluorescent probe K N-carboxyphenylimide of dimethylaminonaphthalic acid and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy on the SR beam station of the S synchrotron of the Lebedev Physical Institute.
The results obtained suggest that the properties of binding region in serum albumin molecules of acute paranoid schizophrenia patients change significantly. Influence of processing history on the mechanical properties and electrical resistivity of polycarbonate - multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were melt compounded in an industrial setting at a range of temperatures, and subsequently injection moulded or compression moulded.
The surface hardness, uniaxial tensile properties and electrical resistivity were measured. Secondary melt processing is found to be the dominant process in determining the final mechanical properties and resistivity of these materials. The effects of oxygen plasma treatment power on Aramid Fiber III chemical structure and its reinforced bismaleimides BMI composite humidity resistance properties were investigated in this work.
The composite bending strength and interlinear shear strength with different plasma treatment power before and after absorption water were tested respectively. The composite rupture morphology was observed by SEM. The FTIR results showed that oxygen plasma treatment do not change the fiber bulk chemical structure. The composite humidity resistance of bending strength and interlinear shear strength are similar for untreated and plasma treated samples.
The composite rupture mode turns to be the fiber failure after water absorption. Small specimens of sheathing-grade oriented strandboard OSB and sheathing-grade plywood were evaluated for retention of mechanical properties in exterior exposure over a series of exposure times. In contrast to previous studies of this nature, specimens at prolonged exposure times were also evaluated in something more than a cursory manner for presence of decay The effects of nanofillers on the properties of neat epoxy matrix were well studied.
The thermal properties of nanocomposites were studied using DSC, TGA and flame retardant, and also the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, compressive strength, impact strength, determination of hardness and chemical resistance were studied extensively. Improvements in tensile strength, glass transition temperature and decomposition temperature were observed by the addition of MWCNTs.
The mechanical properties of the epoxy nanocomposites were improved due to the interfacial bonding between the MWCNTs and epoxy resin. The investigation of thermal and mechanical properties reveals that the incorporation of MWCNTs into the epoxy nanocomposites increases its thermal stability to a great extent. Discrete increase of glass transition temperature of nanocomposites is linearly dependent on MWCNTs content. Wood of Giant Sequoia: properties and unique characteristics.
Wood properties of giant sequoia Sequoia gigantea [Lindl. Wood properties such as specific gravity, various mechanical properties , extractive content, and decay resistance of young-growth giant sequoia are comparable to or more favorable than those of coast redwood Airflow resistance and CO2 rebreathing properties of anti-asphyxia pillows designed for epilepsy. Seizure related unconscious face-down positioning could contribute to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy via asphyxia.
Low airflow resistance lattice foam pillows have been advocated for this group. However, data to support this approach remain lacking, and low airflow resistance per se may not negate asphyxia risk from expired gas rebreathing. This study was designed to compare the airflow resistance and CO2 rebreathing properties of lattice vs conventional pillows. Airflow resistance and inspired CO2 levels during replicate 10 min periods of simulated adult ventilation and CO2 rebreathing were compared between cotton, latex and two lattice pillows designed for use in epilepsy one commercially available, one prototype.
Conventional pillows can rapidly accumulate potentially life-threatening CO2 levels during simulated rebreathing. Lattice pillows appear to reduce asphyxia risk but accumulated CO2 may still reach levels threatening to health and survival. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Amorphous diamond-like carbon DLC films were deposited using both single and dual ion beam techniques utilizing filament and hollow cathode ion sources.
Continuous DLC films up to A thick were deposited on fused quartz plates. Ion beam process parameters were varied in an effort to create hard, clear films. Total DLC film absorption over visible wavelengths was obtained using a Perkin-Elmer spectrophotometer. Scratch resistance , frictional, and adherence properties were determined for select films.
Applications for these films range from military to the ophthalmic industries. Optical and scratch resistant properties of diamondlike carbon films deposited with single and dual ion beams. Amorphous diamondlike carbon DLC films were deposited using both single and dual ion beam techniques utilizing filament and hollow cathode ion sources.
Scratch resistance and frictional and adherence properties were determined for select films. Wood decay fungi of subalpine conifer forests. One of the fundamental skills needed for hazard tree assessment is the evaluation of decay. Pelletizing properties of torrefied spruce. Holm; Anand R. Torrefaction is a thermo-chemical conversion process improving the handling, storage and combustion properties of wood.
To save storage space and transportation costs, it can be compressed into fuel pellets of high physical and energetic density. The resulting pellets are relatively resistant to moisture uptake, microbiological decay and easy to comminute into small Key concepts behind forming-free resistive switching incorporated with rectifying transport properties. The resistive switching needs no electroforming process, and is incorporated with rectifying properties which is potentially useful to suppress the sneak current in a crossbar architecture.
Those specific features open a promising alternative concept for nonvolatile memory devices as well as for other memristive devices like synapses in neuromorphic circuits. Effect of surface treatments on physicomechanical, stain- resist , and UV protection properties of wool fabrics.
The surface of wool fabrics is frequently modified to make them shrink- resistant , water repellent and also to improve their handle properties. In this work, we investigated the effect of common surface modification treatments on fabric stain- resistance , hydrophilicity and UV absorption performance.
The surface of wool fabrics was modified by chlorination and also by reacting the chlorinated wool fabrics with a polyamide, a fibre-reactive amino-functional siloxane and a fluorocarbon polymer. The effect of surface modification on the tensile strength, surface hydrophilicity, stain- resistance , and UV absorption capacity of the fabric was investigated.
It was found that all the treatments except the treatment with the amino-functional siloxane polymer slightly improved the tensile strength of the fabric. The chlorination treatment and the treatment with the polyamide resin made the fabric hydrophilic, and fluorocarbon and silicone resin treatment made the fabric hydrophobic. An articulated ankle-foot orthosis with adjustable plantarflexion resistance , dorsiflexion resistance and alignment: A pilot study on mechanical properties and effects on stroke hemiparetic gait.
Kobayashi, Toshiki; Orendurff, Michael S. Mechanical properties of an articulated ankle-foot orthosis AFO are closely related to gait performance in individuals post-stroke. This paper presents a pilot study on the mechanical properties of a novel articulated AFO with adjustable plantarflexion resistance , dorsiflexion resistance and alignment, and its effect on ankle and knee joint kinematics and kinetics in an individual post-stroke during gait.
The mechanical properties of the AFO were quantified. Gait analysis was performed using a 3D motion capture system with a split-belt instrumented treadmill under 12 different settings of the mechanical properties of the AFO [i. Piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites with connectivity were fabricated using lead zirconium titanate PZT powder dispersed in an ionomer Zn ionomer and its reference ethylene methacrylic acid copolymer EMAA polymer matrix.
The effects of poling conditions such as temperature, time and electric field on the piezoelectric properties of the composites were investigated. The experimentally observed piezoelectric charge coefficient and dielectric constant of the composites were compared with theoretical models. The static and fatigue properties of the composites were investigated. Due to the self-healing capabilities of the ionomer matrix, the loss of piezoelectric properties after high strain tensile cyclic loading could be partially recovered by thermal healing.
Correlation between cavitation erosion resistance and cyclic mechanical properties of different metallic materials. Machine components in contact with flowing fluids are especially prone to cavitation erosion, where plastic deformation and material loss occur due to the repeated implosion of cavitation bubbles in the vicinity of a solid surface.
Identifying a correlation between experimentally derivable material properties and resistance against cavitation erosion could help improve the lifetime of cavitation-affected components.
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But you can see them dying inside, because it's bullshit. It is ridiculous on football coverage to pretend to have a conversation, to say "what do you like in the fifth at Randwick? Channel 9's decision to put the bookie on its sports panel to spruik the betting odds tested the NRL's own guidelines.
And Channel 9, to their credit, have responded to both the concerns we've raised and to the concerns the public's raised. Ridiculous, thank you very much. His competitors are watching in amazement. I'm not sure how he could be getting a return on his money at the moment but as I said he may have a, a five, ten year plan um, and good luck to him if he has but he's, he's really, you need deep pockets to do what he's doing. He's going about it in a way that we didn't go about it but that's not to suggest that it won't work for him.
So we went into a commercial negotiation and we did talk to a number of parties, and towards the end of that negotiation Tom Waterhouse emerged as the preferred partner. Ah, so we're simply at this stage we're holding, ah the Commission is in discussions now assessing the current position, and we'll make a decision on how we move forward in relation to the sports betting space.
We failed to reach agreement around terms with Tom Waterhouse. And they're looking for a new betting sponsor. Um, we'll be moving forward and considering that position. Of course there's a range of controls and ah, restrictions that we place on the partners that we have, ah and particularly in the sports betting space, and they're something that has applied in the past and something that would've applied to any partner that we reach terms with in Official betting sponsors buy in ground advertising at stadiums.
Clubs take money for naming rights on jerseys. This is on top of the television broadcasters selling advertising to gambling companies. The networks, Channel 9, Channel 7, Channel whatever, the commercial networks, they're business organisations, they're business organisms, they will move in a manner and they will put to air what they can get away with to get the big cheques.
Global players are buying up local betting agencies and tackling Tabcorp head on for their punters. The numbers being spent on gambling promotion are alarming the public. One hundred and twenty two million, last year. And a 20 per cent jump so far this year, thanks in part to local boy Tom Waterhouse joining the competition. So I think he has to go harder than anyone's had to go previously to try and address that that disadvantage that he has from starting late.
That's the consequence of his strategy. Everyone knows who he is, but he is beginning to annoy people. So we were confident that we could compete for share within that market. The bikini, one of man's greatest inventions but will it help you bet on your mobile, cryo blah blah genics Now in terms of who these actually appeal to we would say the audience is much younger A lot of young men talking to us about the fact that if they didn't gamble they felt isolated from their peer groups.
So those sorts of new patterns, those new cultural norms, they're associating gambling with sport, are really starting to make us concerned. And I think that is a terrible message for community to be sending out. I'm not opposed to gaming, I'm not opposed to betting, at all. But I think adults can make their choices, wherever appropriate, but to be actually forcing this promotion down the throats of children from very early ages is self destructive.
But he's not backing down. I gamble myself. What I'm arguing against is a community allowing sports betting agencies to advertise so openly and direct their advertising not at you and me but at young people from the earliest ages possible. Young families go to the football, three, four, five and six, they're seeing all these signs.
They're seeing their father, betting on their phones. That's what I'm so opposed to. And the fans are psyching themselves up for the St Kilda Collingwood clash. Betting on sport is only around three per cent of the gambling market. Far below pokies and horse racing. And it's easy to see why. Gambling advertising is right in the fans' face. It gets a little tiring, I mean a lot of families have lost you know, dad's and parents and brothers to gambling and if they go to the footy and see that it's just that, you know nasty reminder.
Then if you go to your mobile phone you'll get email alerts, text alerts, pop ups Corporate bookmakers are lobbying hard to take online betting in Australia to new levels of excitement. In the UK you can bet online on a sports game during the game. It's called betting 'in play. But in Australia you can only bet 'in play' over the phone or at a TAB outlet. It's banned online.
I think there's very little difference between the two types of bets. A betting man, I think it's very difficult in the current political environment, um. We would be hopeful there'll be change during the term of the next Government. And Australia's lucrative online sports betting market will really take off. So that means that you can act instantaneously on the messages that are given within a football match about gambling or backing your favourite player.
They're lining up for the fashion stakes. And the great celebrity race of the Autumn Carnival. But its growth has been static. And the old oncourse bookmakers are disappearing. I was down in Melbourne a few weeks ago for a major meeting and it was really quite you know sparse in the betting ring and I you know, I think that um it's all about price and there's a limit to what the on course bookmaker can offer and you know he struggling to compete Join me tomwaterhouse.
It doesn't surprise me though that um, it's been a desire of Tom to grow rapidly. He has spent many, many years looking over looking over his grandfather's shoulder watching everything that his grandfather did and when he started his grandfather used to guide Tom with his book. They've always been a very, very dominant force in bookmaking. A winning galloper substituted for a knackered loser called, Fine Cotton, by a crooked trainer. But racing stewards did find they had prior knowledge something was up.
And it was decided that - and again by the courts, the courts of the land actually, that Mr Waterhouse had lied under oath ah during the course of that, that appeal. A penalty the former chief steward still insists was right. JOHN SCHRECK: Most people think that horseracing is crook anyway, which I don't think it is, but most people do and those sort of things just reinforce that view and so you've got to, you've got to stop it and when you do, if someone does that sort of thing and pop their head up well, then you have to chop it off.
When she secured her horse trainer's licence, she restored the family to racing royalty. So that's the furlong, More Joyous If your horse runs second to one of Gai's at Randwick this Saturday, I'll give you your money back. Bet with me on your mobile at tomwaterhouse. History'll say it's happened a few times. Not as high profile as this.
But is Gai Waterhouse entitled to a trainer's license? Yes, she is. Is Tom Waterhouse entitled to have a, a, a bookmaker's licence? Does he have the necessary skills, the financial backing? Of course he does. You know, maybe Racing NSW will need to sit down and just see whether there's further checks and balances can be put in place. But it'd be a brave person to say we're going to take the license off him, him or her, simply because we got some unfavourable publicity.
The claim not only scandalised racing. It put the new face of the sports betting under intense national scrutiny. Did you say that publicly? Mum would never had started it if it had problems It got worse when its star commentator, Rugby League legend, Andrew 'Joey' Johns, was named as the source for Singleton's allegations. I just asked his thoughts, if it was off, you know that's all he said. But he strongly denied Tom Waterhouse told him about the horse's health problems.
More stunning was Johns' revelation he'd discussed More Joyous with his mate, the brothel owner, Eddie Hayson. He was betting in hundreds of thousands of dollars. It's well known that he has a certain type of club and it became known to me that some of our jockeys were frequenting there and it was a meeting place. Now, I didn't think that was a very healthy look for racing and i didn't think it was very healthy for integrity and I, I said it.
It infamously hosted footballers and jockeys while Hayson was a racehorse owner and betting big on racing and sport back in Hayson was never charged by the stewards. But Hayson told the steward's inquiry last week this debt is settled and he had no grudge against the Waterhouse family. Tom Waterhouse was cleared by the stewards' inquiry last week, although warned against using his mother to promote his business. Public concerns over the industry are boiling over.
I tell you what, I'll score, you score, you do the penalty, I'll, I'll kick the, you beauty. I mean it's, it's gotta happen. It has got to happen. RAY MURRIHY: We were able to get CCTV footage of the um, of the cash bets and of course we're able to track right around Australia and even in New Zealand betting, unusual betting on the first goal penalty was very cleverly done in that it was placed in multiple bets and hidden away from someone just looking at you know, win-loss records.
The revelations during the case, including Tandy's own gambling problems, prompted all the codes to beef up their integrity units. As I said, we've put in a range of measures, not just our integrity unit, but the codes of conduct that exist, the education programs that we've got running across the board.
So those measures are all aimed to eliminate that risk and we're doing our very best to do that, and we're confident we're being successful. Well regulated online sports betting is the best front line defence against match fixing, says Sportsbet's CEO.
We know who our customers are. We have integrity agreements with the sporting bodies. We report any suspicious activity to those sporting bodies. The main risk to integrity is through anonymous, anonymous cash betting or offshore betting. We've seen SP bookmakers operating on the waterfront and we've seen um offshore bookmakers trying to influence matches. There's absolutely no incidents to date of an online bookmaker being involved in an integrity issue.
RAY MURRIHY: The real concern is that if there's infiltration by criminal elements ah where people are given favours or are trapped because of debts ah whether it's gambling or other, to involve themselves in manipulation of the exotics, I think that is something we've got to be very, very alive to.
I think there needs to be a reigning in of those bet types. I've said that publicly time and time again and ah, because that's encouragement to eh corruption. Elite sport is really sexy, I found myself getting swept up. I, my judge of character was terrible. I trusted everybody. Um if I had play - if I had a young man, if my son was going into the game now, I'd be making sure that he had the most competent manager that I could find, someone that is respected, someone that is that is trusted.
I'd be ensuring that my son kept his friends very close, um and didn't allow people into that inner circle until they were absolutely proven trustworthy. RICHARD DI NATALE: We've got this crazy loophole that says you're not allowed to advertise to young kids ah during children's viewing times if it's a gambling product, and yet we allow um this constant bombardment of betting ads during sports broadcasts during children's viewing times, so it makes no sense and we've got to close that loophole.
In the absence of any concrete evidence of that basis I would not support that as I believe we have a legitimate right to advertise what is a legal product in Australia that a huge amount, amount of people enjoy. Warum, wissen wir nicht. Andere geben auf, sobald die Garantie abgelaufen ist. Ganz schuldlos an der Leere ist die Elektronik nun auch wieder nicht. Lukas Weber. Zur Autorenseite.
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