For example, an island nation like Sri Lanka, with a population of This cost was equivalent to the loss of opportunity costs over a 6-hour period during the COVID pandemic. If such a program was implemented by the government, lockdowns and curfews would have been totally unnecessary, including the current, second wave of COVID Despite this, government failed to take such opportunities and led a path to an economic destruction, mass-scale human misery, massive unemployment, and increase deaths.
Having a balanced diet, especially with adequate quantities of micronutrients, such as vitamin D, vitamin K 2 and C, trace minerals, and antioxidants, will lead to maintaining a strong immune system. In most countries, certain communities have one or more micro nutritional deficiencies that increase their vulnerability to disorders, such as metabolic, communicable, and non-communicable diseases.
In addition to nutrient supplementation, fortification of foods with vitamin D and other essential micronutrients will have a significant impact on overall health and disease prevention 71, Most of the disease spread, prediction models e. Enrichment of food is an economical and effective approach for the alleviation of micronutrient malnutrition in a target population or for an entire country.
In the case of COVID, those with vitamin D deficiency is the most susceptible group, in part because of weaker immune systems. A nationwide campaign must be launched immediately to strengthen the immunity of the populous. This can be achieved cost-effectively by proper guidance on sun exposure using the mass media, supplementation, and targeted food fortification.
The author declares no conflict of interests. He received no funding for this work or assistance in professional writing for this article. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4. Home Articles Article Details. Introduction The novel coronavirus COVID is a highly infectious disease that causes acute, lower respiratory tract infections 1.
Vitamin D and the immune system Over the years, vitamin D has been analysed through thousands of scientific studies. Additional benefits of vitamin D Several studies have reported that vitamin D sufficiency leads to less cancer and fewer heart attacks 15 and also reduces all-cause mortality 16, Broader functions of vitamin D Vitamin D has broader physiological functions.
Winter, viral epidemics and hypovitaminosis D Respiratory tract infections are most common during the winter and in cold weather conditions Relevance of vitamin D to lung epithelial cells Previous research suggested that the ACE-2 signaling pathway is involved in the worsening morbidity and mortality associated with sepsis-induced and acute lung injury models Protective mechanisms ACE-2, vitamin D, and lung epithelial cells The tight junctions of epithelial cells not only allow the passage of substances and fluid transfers across membranes i.
Vitamin D doses needed to maintain serum 25 OH D concentration to overcome infections In many nations, most of the population is vitamin D insufficient or deficient. Alternative ways of achieving the needed concentration of vitamin D in blood In sunny countries, most people can achieve appropriate serum concentrations by exposing one-third of their skin surface to direct sunlight not through windows because glass filters a significant amount of UVB rays for more than 30 minutes each day can be 10 minute segments , preferably between 10 AM and 2 PM.
Benefits and cost-estimation of vitamin D supplementation and micronutrient food fortification to overcome COVID Micronutrient supplementation programs using targeted food fortification are highly effective in alleviating specific nutritional deficiencies Conclusion Having a balanced diet, especially with adequate quantities of micronutrients, such as vitamin D, vitamin K 2 and C, trace minerals, and antioxidants, will lead to maintaining a strong immune system.
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Ames BN. Optimal micronutrients delay mitochondrial decay and age-associated diseases. Mech Ageing Dev. Ageing Res Rev. BMC Med. Watkins J. Preventing a covid pandemic. Compr Psychiatry. Smith G, Wimalawansa SJ. Reconciling the irreconcilable: micronutrients in clinical nutrition and public health. Higgins built many of these as new areas at Scios and Gilead.
Higgins earned an A. Prior to joining BioMarin in May , Mr. Spiegelman served as a strategic and financial consultant to a portfolio of public and private life science companies from May to May From to , Mr. Spiegelman served in various roles at Genentech, Inc. Chris has nearly three decades of experience in oncology and drug development and he is currently a Senior Vice President in Oncology at Gilead Sciences.
He also holds an undergraduate degree in Chemistry from Stanford University. She obtained her B. She obtained her Ph. During her Ph. Anderson works in the field of cancer immunology, specifically on the role of co-inhibitory receptors in regulation of the anti-tumor T cell response. Her laboratory identified the inhibitory molecule Tim-3 as a key regulator of T cell dysfunction in cancer.
Prior to working in the field of cancer immunology, Dr. Anderson worked in the field of autoimmunity. Anderson has published over 44 original papers, 12 reviews, and 5 book chapters. She served on the scientific advisory board for CoStim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Drake has published extensively, has won numerous awards and honors for his research and scholarship, and holds several patents.
His areas of expertise include immunotherapy and the diagnosis and treatment of cancers of the prostate, kidney, bladder and testes. Drake graduated with a B. He then received a Ph. He conducted an internal medicine residency on the Osler Service at Johns Hopkins, and in he completed a fellowship in medical oncology, also at Johns Hopkins.
He joined the Johns Hopkins faculty as an assistant professor in Lab Web Page. Kuchroo has published over original papers and numerous review articles. Kuchroo is on the Editorial Boards of the journals: Journal of Experimental Medicine, International Immunology, Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, Cellular Immunology and an ad hoc reviewer for a number of Immunology related journals.
Kuchroo is also an ad hoc reviewer for the research grants for various study sections at the National Institutes of Health. Based on his contributions, Dr. Kuchroo is the first incumbent of the Samuel L. Kuchroo is an inventor on 25 patents and has been a founder of five different start-up biotech companies.
Vijay K. He obtained a Ph. Kuchroo received the Fred Z. Eager Research prize and medal for his Ph. Pardoll attended Johns Hopkins University, where he earned his M. Pardoll joined the departments of oncology and medicine in Pardoll has published over papers as well as over 20 book chapters on the subject of T cell immunology and cancer vaccines.
Pardoll has made a number of basic advances in cellular immunology, including the discovery of gamma — delta T cells, NKT cells and interferon-producing killer dendritic cells. Over the past two decades, Dr. Pardoll has studied molecular aspects of dendritic cell biology and immune regulation, particularly related to mechanisms by which cancer cells evade elimination by the immune system.
He is an inventor of a number of immunotherapies, including GVAX cancer vaccines and Listeria monocytogenes based cancer vaccines. He elucidated the role of Stat3 signaling in tumor immune evasion and in Th17 development, leading to the discovery that Stat3-driven Th17 responses promote carcinogenesis.
Pardoll discovered one of the two ligands for the PD-1 inhibitory receptor and leads the Hopkins cancer immunology program that developed PD-1 pathway-targeted antibodies, demonstrating their clinical activity in multiple cancer types.
His more than articles cover cancer vaccines, gene therapies, cancer prevention technologies, recombinant immune modulatory agents for specific pathways that regulate immunity to cancer and infectious diseases. Plitas holds the Jeanne A. Petrek Junior Faculty Chair and is a surgical oncologist specializing in the care of breast cancer patients, as well as pursuing translational tumor immunology research in the laboratory of Dr.
He earned is M. He completed his PhD in and trained at the NCI , before commencing his independent research career in Australia. Over the last 20 years he rekindled world-wide interest in cancer immune surveillance, defined immune-mediated dormancy of cancer, and the role of the host in chemotherapy and targeted therapy responses in mice and humans. More recently, he has provided new means of classifying natural killer cell NK subtypes and two new targets for cancer immunotherapy.
He also is a current member of the scientific advisory boards at two biopharmaceutical companies. Since , Dr. Vignali worked at St. Lloyd J. He has helped establish MSKCC as a leader in the discovery and treatment of cancers with novel immunotherapies. Wolchok was instrumental in the clinical development leading to the approval of ipilimumab for advanced melanoma.
He is principal investigator of numerous ongoing clinical trials at MSKCC in the area of immunotherapy. He supervises an Rfunded basic science laboratory which is focused on investigating novel immunotherapeutic agents in pre-clinical mouse models. In , he established the Immunotherapeutics Clinical Core, a specialized phase outpatient unit at MSKCC that is focused on the conduct of novel immunotherapy trials, with a specific emphasis on pharmacodynamic biomarker identification. This group treats patients with a broad spectrum of malignancies.
We are developing cancer treatments that have the potential to be first- and best-in-class treatments, and core components of immunotherapy combination regimens.
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Is your sweet tooth hindering your diet goals? Why not consider taking a vitamin B1 supplement? Vitamin B1 converts excess carbs into energy, to help you recover from fatigue or exhaustion. It also aids in keeping the skin and mucous membrane in good condition. We recommend taking a niacin supplement if you have a weak stomach and sensitive skin. Biotin also works well in strengthening the nails. Adult males and females will have different intake requirements for each B vitamin.
The same goes for children too - the intake requirement will differ based on their age. Most vitamin B complex supplements meet the standard intake required for each B vitamin, but to be sure, double check the box or label.
It is a management standard that companies uphold so the products are as safe as possible for human consumption. The regulations found in the standard cover the manufacturing, shipment, and quality assurance process of different products. Many vitamin B supplement manufacturers put additives in their products since these are essential to help keep its easily ingestible form. However, there are some supplements that do contain fewer additives which lowers the risk of side effects.
Be aware of the different names for vitamins. For example, B3 is more commonly listed as niacin, B5 as pantothenic acid, B7 as biotin, and B9 as folic acid. A lot of users have noted how much more energized they feel after taking this supplement.
They also help with migraines and hot flashes during menopause. Going through a lot of stress lately? Why not add a bit more vitamin B into your diet to help prevent fatigue, anemia, or even hair loss. This vitamin B complex from Herbs of the Earth includes all the essential B vitamins to keep you healthy and feeling.
Just make sure not to take more than 1 tablet a day since it does contain over mg of vitamin B complex in each one. If you prefer to stock up on your vitamins or maybe want to buy vitamins for you and your family, then this may be a great option for you since it contains tablets. Each tablet is packed with vitamin B-complex , vitamin C , and it contains electrolytes as well to keep you hydrated. This supplement is free of preservatives, lactose, artificial color, flavoring, and gluten.
Aside from improving the nervous system's function, this product claims to alleviate vomiting during pregnancy, radiation sickness, alcohol withdrawal symptoms, idiopathic and senile tremors, and lower back pain. Aside from the essential B vitamins that it contains, it is also formulated with vitamin C to support the nerve and immune system. Here is a vitamin B supplement that pregnant women can take! According to Unilab , one tablet a day may be taken as soon as pregnancy is detected.
However, it is always best to consult with your doctor first before taking any supplement. As a result, these properties help you gain more energy, enhance muscle strength, and increase your overall endurance. Pay attention to your intake of vitamin B6, folic acid, and niacin.
Consuming higher-than-average doses of these three can cause side effects such as dizziness, headaches, and some skin problems. A healthy body and mind is of utmost importance so that we can continue with our daily lives and live it to the fullest! Check out our other buying guides and product recommendations below for more supplements that can aid your health. Vitamin B1 is also necessary for keeping your nervous system functioning properly.
Do you enjoy eating fried and greasy foods? Do you often have acne breakouts? Then vitamin B2 might be perfect for you. Vitamin B2 aids the development and function of the skin. It helps you maintain healthy, glowing skin by ensuring a healthy cell turnover. Some reports have shows the eating a diet rich in vitamin B2 can lower the risk of getting cataracts. Studies show that when oil oxidizes, it turns into lipid peroxide which can damage the cell membrane and DNA, which then raises the risk of cancer.
It can also cause arteriosclerosis or hardening of arteries. Vitamin B2 can help prevent this from happening. Vitamin B3, or more commonly known as Niacin, is essential for the metabolism of food. Specifically, it promotes acetaldehyde metabolism which is great for preventing hangovers.
Niacin also improves blood circulation which can help alleviate headaches and oversensitivity to the cold. It also promotes the metabolism of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. Pantothenic acid or vitamin B5 plays an important role in the synthesis of good cholesterol, hormones, and immune antibodies. It also assists enzymes which are necessary for metabolizing carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. It also makes sure bodies cells and tissues are in tip-top condition. It also helps vitamin C in the production of collagen, which is necessary for healthy skin and hair.
Vitamin B6 is perfect for people who like exercising and running marathons because it helps convert protein into energy , which improves your endurance and stamina. Estrogen production levels drop right before our menstrual cycle and progesterone is secreted instead. As a result, serotonin production also decreases causing irritability and anxiety or simply, PMS premenstrual syndrome. Vitamin B6 promotes the production of estrogen , which helps alleviate these symptoms.
Biotin can boost amino acid metabolism, collagen synthesis, and protein synthesis, which contributes to keeping the hair and skin as healthy. Vitamin 82 deficiency is usually found along with other B-Complex deficiencies. As with B1, B2 overdoses are nearly impossible. Deficiency has been known to lower antibody production, thus increasing infection. Pyridoxine, a hydrochloride salt known as Vitamin B66, is heat and alkali-stable but is easily destroyed by light, in particular ultraviolet radiation.
The other two forms of B6, Pyridoxamine, and pyridoxal, are readily destroyed by exposure to air, heat, and light, particularly when in dilute solutions. It is needed for antibody production and the normal functioning of cells. Vitamin B6 deficiency produces most, if not all, of the skin problems associated with B2 deficiency, as well as some of those presented by lack of niacin. Symptoms are numbness and tingling of the hands and feet, as well as hyperirritability, extreme response to any sensory input, and loss or impairment of the senses of position and vibration.
Also occurring with Vitamin B6 deficiency are anemia and unusual blood cell size problems, convulsions in infants, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, and confusion. An unnatural desire to sleep rounds out the symptoms of B6 deficiency. Major trauma increases this requirement to as much as If you should have injectable pyridoxine hydrochloride in your survival medical supplies or should you manage to forage it during an emergency, be advised that intramuscular injections of it will cause pain, sometimes considerable, at the site of injection.
The symptoms of a B6 deficiency may vary greatly depending on the age of the affected person and cause. Vitamin B6 is present throughout the entire body— approximately milligrams in an average person— and its loss or use will vary as it is needed. This will cause only some parts of the body to be deficient at any given point in time, with attendant problems.
Deficiency can be caused by anything that interferes with the intake of B6. This is the same as with other water-soluble vitamins. Also, penicillamine will block B6 absorption. Intake above milligrams per day is dangerous, causing nerve function impairment! Cyanocobalamin is both light- and oxygen-stable, as well as resistant to low levels of heat.
Vitamin B12 serves as a growth factor in children, with no effect on weight gain in healthy children. Moreover, B12 will add weight— given proper calorie intake—to underweight children. It is used in microgram amounts in the treatment of various types of anemia and is usually given by injection, rather than by mouth for those problems. Major trauma will increase the need for B12, but medical literature is not in agreement on the amount of increase. Niacin is relatively stable and is not affected by ordinary cooking processes.
A diet that is composed of poor quality protein and lacking in tryptophan, such as that based largely on corn products, can cause niacin deficiency and can lead pellagra. These Four Ds represent many individual symptoms, including loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain all early symptoms , tissue atrophy in the tongue and esophagus, lesions in the colon, intestinal cysts, ulcers, bloody and watery stools, and, in approximately half the cases, the absence of hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
Liver damage may occur, leading to fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies. Blood vessels will dilate and interfere with circulation. Skin problems, such as eruptions that resemble a sunburn, may appear. Sores may appear, change color and darken, fall apart and cause scan. These sores are easily affected by sunlight and any kind of heat, and they may become inflamed and overly sensitive to pressure or circulation problems.
Central nervous system problems, such as damage to ganglion cells in the brain, impairment of nerve impulse transmission, slowly failing vision, headaches, dizziness, loss of ability to sleep, depression, memory loss or impairment, any of the other mental problems listed under B1 and B6, and problems in walking can result from a niacin deficiency, and is usually found along with other B- Complex vitamin deficiencies, and may be the cause of them. Pellagra usually is aided in its development by a combination of hard physical labor and exposure to sunlight.
In some non-specific circumstances, diabetics may develop niacin deficiency. Diets containing large amounts of the amino acid, leucine, may interfere with the conversion of tryptophan into nicotinic acid. The effect of trauma raises niacin requirements to as much as milligrams per day from the USRDA of 13 to 20 milligrams per day.
Niacin is rapidly depleted by major trauma because of the low amount present in the blood and liver, which together contain approximately milligrams. Biotin is a heat- and light-stable vitamin that exists in both water-soluble and water-insoluble forms.
It is relatively unaffected by normal cooking processes, but the water-soluble form can be lost from cooked foods that have been subjected to total water loss. Deficient states may come about due to lack of dietary intake, impaired synthesis by intestinal micro-organisms through the use of oral antibiotics, radiation exposure, etc. Avidin is a glycoprotein that is present in, as far as is known, all egg whites.
Because egg yolks contain large amounts of biotin, the presence of avidin is not normally a problem. Nuts, fresh whole eggs, and beef liver all contain much higher amounts, and sprouting seeds contain more than enough per portion to meet the USRDA. Because of the low potential food source intake, overdoses are nearly impossible. Pantothenic acid, another of the B-Complex vitamins, is stable in air but becomes unstable when subjected to dry heat as in baking.
This vitamin is essential for carbohydrate and fat metabolism, as well as cell growth and central nervous system development. Human bodies require both biotin and folic acid in order to make use of any ingested pantothenic acid, and pantothenic acid itself is required for the body to use other B-Complex vitamins such as B2.
In the 80s, there were medical authorities who did not recognize any deficiency signs of this vitamin, and the USRDA had not been firmly established at 10 milligrams per day as it is now. Most of the deficiency symptoms are either similar to or identical with those of other B-Complex related problems. Burning and itching, along with numbness and tingling of the hands and feet, have been attributed to lack of this vitamin.
So have mental problems, such as headaches, being easily upset, or quarrelsome and hot-tempered. However, other, less-common problems such as dizziness, sudden heart rate increases above normal upon exertion, lowered blood pressure when standing upright, constipation, indigestion, weak hand-unclenching action, and hyperactive deep tendon reflexes.