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|Investment tax credit solar s corp||Email address. The Government of Ghana guarantees due process by allowing access to the high court by any person who has an interest or right over the property. In particular, there is a widespread expectation that extractive sector companies will involve themselves in substantial philanthropic freedom investments ghana news in the communities in which they have operations. But, again, I recognise that this situation cuts across the entire media space in Ghana; many people are underpaid. Foreign investments are subject to the following minimum capital requirements: USDfor joint ventures with a Ghanaian partner that should have at least 10 percent of the equity; USDfor enterprises wholly-owned by a non-Ghanaian; and USD 1 million for trading companies firms that buy or sell imported goods or services wholly owned by non-Ghanaian entities. Arms Control and Nonproliferation.|
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The Government of Ghana may, however, expropriate property if it is required to protect national defense, public safety, public order, public morality, public health, town and country planning, or to ensure the development or utilization of property in a manner to promote public benefit.
In such cases, the GOG must provide prompt payment of fair and adequate compensation to the property owner. The Government of Ghana guarantees due process by allowing access to the high court by any person who has an interest or right over the property. There have been no reported instances of indirect expropriation or any government action equivalent to expropriation during the past year.
Over the past ten years, there have been four disputes involving U. One of the cases was resolved through international arbitration. The other three are still pending resolution. International Commercial Arbitration and Foreign Courts. These agreements contain provisions for investment as well as trade dispute mechanisms. The Commercial Conciliation Center of the American Chamber of Commerce Ghana provides arbitration services on trade and investment issues for disputes regarding contracts with arbitration clauses.
There is interest in alternative dispute resolution, especially as it applies to commercial cases. Arbitration decisions are enforceable provided they are registered in the courts. The Government of Ghana established fast track courts to expedite action in certain cases.
These fast track courts, which are automated divisions of the High Court, were intended to oversee cases which can be concluded within six months. However, they have not succeeded in consistently disposing of cases within six months.
In March , the government established a commercial court with exclusive jurisdiction over all commercial matters. This Court also handles disputes involving commercial arbitration and the enforcement of awards; intellectual property rights, including patents, copyrights and trademarks; commercial fraud; applications under the Companies Act; tax matters; and insurance and re-insurance cases.
A distinctive feature of the commercial court is the use of mediation or other alternative dispute resolution mechanisms, which are mandatory in the pre-trial settlement conference stage. Ghana also has a Financial and Economic Crimes Court.
It is a specialized division of the High Court that handles high profile corruption and economic crime cases. Enforcement of foreign judgments in Ghana is based on the doctrine of reciprocity. Judgments from American courts are not currently enforceable in Ghana. The Alternative Dispute Resolution Act Act of provides for the settlement of disputes by mediation and customary arbitration, in addition to regular arbitration processes.
Ghana does not have a bankruptcy statute. The Companies Act of , however, provides for official closure of a company when it is unable to pay its debts. A new insolvency law is under debate in Parliament. Investment incentives differ slightly depending upon the law under which an investor operates. For example, while all investors operating under the Free Zone Act are entitled to a ten-year corporate tax holiday, investors operating under the GIPC law are not automatically entitled to a tax holiday.
Tax incentives vary depending upon the sector in which the investor is operating. All investment-specific laws contain some incentives. The GIPC law allows for import and tax exemptions for plant inputs, machinery and parts that are imported for the purpose of the investment.
Chapters 82, 84, 85, and 89 of the Customs Harmonized Commodity and Tariff Code zero-rate these production items. The Government of Ghana imposed a five percent import duty on some items that were previously zero-rated, to conform to the ECOWAS common external tariff. The Ghanaian tax system is replete with tax concessions that considerably reduce the effective tax rate. The minimum incentives are specified in the GIPC law and are not applied in an ad hoc or arbitrary manner.
Once an investor has been registered under the GIPC law, the investor is entitled to the incentives provided by law. The government has discretion to grant an investor additional customs duty exemptions and tax incentives beyond the minimum stated in the law. The law also guarantees an investor all the tax incentives provided for under Ghanaian law. For example, rental income from commercial and residential property is exempt from tax for the first five years after construction.
Similarly, income from a company selling or leasing out premises is income tax exempt for the first five years of operation. Rural banks and cattle ranching are exempt from income tax for ten years and pay 8 percent thereafter. The corporate tax rate is 25 percent and this applies to all sectors except income from non-traditional exports 8 percent tax rate and oil and gas exploration companies 35 percent tax rate.
For some sectors there are temporary tax holidays. These sectors include Free Zone enterprises and developers 0 percent for the first ten years and 15 percent thereafter ; real estate development and rental 0 percent for the first five years and 25 percent thereafter ; agro-processing companies 0 percent for the first five years, after which the tax rate ranges from 0 percent to 25 percent depending on the location of the company in Ghana , and waste processing companies 0 percent for seven years and 25 percent thereafter.
Tax rebates are also offered in the form of incentives based on location. A capital allowance in the form of accelerated depreciation is applicable in all sectors except banking, finance, commerce, insurance, mining, and petroleum. Under the new Income Tax law of , all businesses can carry forward tax losses for at least three years. Ghana has no discriminatory or excessively burdensome visa requirements.
An investment of USD ,, but not more than USD ,, allows the enterprise to bring in three expatriate employees. An investment of more than USD , allows an enterprise to bring in four expatriate employees. An enterprise may apply for extra visas or work permits, but the investor must justify why a foreigner must be employed rather than a Ghanaian. There are no restrictions on the issuance of work and residence permits to Free Zone investors and employees. Overall, the process of issuing work permits is not very transparent.
Ghana has no import price controls. It is pursuing a liberalized import regime policy within the framework of the World Trade Organization to accelerate industrial growth. To make the operation of public-private partnerships PPPs effective, the government may support such projects with viability gap funding and guarantees.
A new PPP law is under debate in Parliament. The seaports of Tema and Takoradi, as well as the Kotoka International Airport and all the lands related to these areas, are part of the Free Zone. The law also permits the establishment of single factory zones outside or within the areas mentioned above. Under the law, a company qualifies to be a Free Zone company if it exports more than 70 percent of its products. Among the incentives for Free Zone companies are a ten-year corporate tax holiday and zero import duty.
To make it easier for Free Zone developers to acquire the various licenses and permits to operate, the Ghana Free Zones Authority www. A lack of resources has limited the effectiveness of the Authority. Foreign employees of Free Zone businesses require work and residence permits. In most sectors, Ghana does not have performance requirements for establishing, maintaining, and expanding a business. Investors are not currently required to purchase from local sources or employ prescribed levels of local content, except in the upstream petroleum sector and the power sector, which are subject to substantial local content requirements.
Similar legislation is being drafted for the downstream petroleum sector and a National Local Content Policy is being debated by Cabinet that may extend to a broad array of sectors of the economy, but there is no clear timeline for its approval.
Generally, investors are not required to export a specified percentage of their output, except for Free Zone enterprises which, in accordance with the Free Zone Act, must export 70 percent of their products. Government officials have intimated that local content requirements should be applied to sectors other than petroleum, but currently no local content regulations have been promulgated for other sectors. As detailed earlier in this report, there are a few areas where the GOG does impose performance requirements including the mining, oil and gas, insurance, and telecommunications sectors.
The Government of Ghana does not follow a forced localization policy in which foreign investors must use domestic content in goods or technology. The legal system recognizes and enforces secured interest in property. The process to get clear title over land is difficult, complicated, and lengthy.
It is important to conduct a thorough search at the Lands Commission to ascertain the identity of the true owner of any land being offered for sale. Investors should be aware that land records can be incomplete or non-existent and, therefore, clear title may be impossible to establish. Mortgages exist, although there are only a few thousand in existence due to a variety of factors including land ownership issues and scarcity of long-term finance.
Mortgages are regulated by the Home Mortgages Finance Act which has enhanced the process of foreclosure. A mortgage must be registered under the Land Title Registration Law, a requirement that is mandatory for it to take effect. Registration with the Land Title Registry is a reliable system of recording the transaction.
The protection of intellectual property rights IPR is an evolving area of law in Ghana. Progress has been made in recent years to afford protection under both local and international law. Except for the copyright law, implementing regulations necessary for fully effective promulgation have not been passed.
The Government of Ghana launched a National Intellectual Property Policy and Strategy in January , which aimed to strengthen the legal framework for protection, administration, and enforcement of IPR and promote innovation and awareness, although progress on implementation stalled.
Enforcement remains weak and piracy of intellectual property continues to take place. Although precise statistics are not available for many sectors, counterfeit computer software is regularly available at street markets and counterfeit pharmaceuticals have found their way into public hospitals. Counterfeit products have also been discovered in such disparate sectors as industrial epoxy, cosmetics, drinking spirits, and household cleaning products.
Based on cases where it has been possible to trace the origin of counterfeit goods, most have been found to have been produced outside the region, usually in Asia. Holders of IPR have access to local courts for redress of grievances, although the few trademark, patent, and copyright infringement cases that have been filed in Ghana by American companies have reportedly moved through the legal system slowly. Please contact the following at Mission Accra if you have further questions regarding IP issues:.
Margo Siemer Economic Section No. Private sector growth in Ghana is constrained by financing challenges. Businesses continue to face difficulty raising capital on the local market. While credit to the private sector has increased, levels have remained stagnant over the last decade and high government borrowing has driven up interest rates beyond 25 percent and crowded out private investment.
Capital markets and portfolio investment are gradually evolving. The longest-term domestic bonds are 15 years, with Eurobonds ranging up to year maturities. Foreign investors are only permitted to participate in bond auctions with maturities of two years or longer. In , foreign investors held about 30 percent valued at USD 5. Authorities are working to expand the secondary market to improve liquidity.
The rapid accumulation of debt over the last decade has raised debt sustainability concerns. Following a rebasing of GDP in , total public debt, roughly evenly split between external and domestic, stands at approximately 58 percent of GDP. Both foreign and local companies are allowed to list on the GSE.
The Securities and Exchange Commission regulates activities on the Exchange. There is an 8 percent tax on dividend income. Foreigners are permitted to trade stocks listed on the GSE without restriction. There are no capital controls on the flow of retained earnings, capital gains, dividends or interest payments.
Banks in Ghana are relatively small with the largest in the country, Ecobank Ghana Ltd. The Central Bank increased the minimum capital requirement for commercial banks from million Ghana cedis USD 24 million to million USD 80 million effective December , as part of a broader effort to strengthen the banking industry. As a result of the reforms and subsequent closures and mergers of some banks, the number of commercial banks dropped from 36 to Eight are domestically controlled and the remaining 15 are foreign-controlled.
In total, there are nearly 1, branches distributed across the sixteen regions of the country. Overall, the banking industry in Ghana is well-capitalized with a capital adequacy ratio of As of February , the non-performing loans ratio had decreased to Lending in foreign currencies to unhedged borrowers poses a risk, and widely varying standards in loan classification and provisioning may be masking weaknesses in bank balance sheets. The BoG is taking steps to address weaknesses in the non-bank deposit-taking institutions sector e.
Recent developments in the non-banking financial sector indicate increased diversification, including new rules and regulations governing the trading of Exchange Traded Funds. Non-banking financial institutions such as leasing companies, building societies, and savings and loan associations have increased access to finance for underserved populations, as have rural and mobile banking. Ghana operates a free-floating exchange rate regime. The Ghana cedi can be exchanged for dollars and major European currencies.
Investors may convert and transfer funds associated with investments provided there is documentation of how the funds were acquired. Companies have not reported challenges or delays in remitting investment returns. Persons arriving in or departing from Ghana are permitted to carry up to USD 10, There is a single formal system for transferring currency out of the country through the banking system.
The Act provided the legal framework for the management of foreign exchange transactions in Ghana. It fully liberalized capital account transactions, including allowing foreigners to buy certain securities in Ghana. It also removed the requirement for the Bank of Ghana the central bank to approve offshore loans. Payments or transfer of foreign currency can only be made through banks or institutions licensed to do money transfers.
There is no limit on capital transfers as long as the transferee can identify the source of capital. The Minister develops the investment policy for the GPF, and is responsible for the overall management of GPF funds, consults regularly with the Investment Advisory Committee and Bank of Ghana Governor before making any decisions related to investment strategy or management of GPF funds. The Minister is also in charge of establishing a management agreement with the Bank of Ghana for the oversight of the funds.
Thirty-six 36 of the wholly-owned SOEs are commercial and operate more independently from government while nine are public corporations or institutions, some providing regulatory functions. While the President appoints the CEO and full boards of most of the wholly-owned SOEs, they are under the supervision of line ministries. Most of the partially owned investments are in the financial, mining, and oil and gas sectors. To improve the efficiency of SOEs and reduce fiscal risks they pose to the budget, in the government embarked on an exercise to tackle weak corporate governance in the SOEs as well as create a single entity institution to monitor all SOEs.
Legislation creating a single authority for managing state-owned assets in pending before Parliament. Today only a handful of large SOEs remain, mainly in the transportation, power, and extractive sectors. Many of these receive subsidies and assistance from the government. The USD In addition, beginning in , most state-owned enterprises were required to contract and service direct and government-guaranteed loans on their own balance sheet.
Ghana currently has no formal privatization program; however, the current government is prioritizing the creation of public-private partnerships PPPs to restructure and privatize non-performing state-owned enterprises. A PPP law is being drafted.
Ghana has been a member of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative since The government also enrolled in the Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights in , making Ghana the only African country in the initiative to this day. Corporate social responsibility CSR is a growing concern among Ghanaian companies.
It is based on several criteria, including a 10 percent weight assigned to corporate social responsibility, including philanthropy. Companies have noted that Ghanaian consumers are not generally interested in the CSR activities of private companies, with the exception of the extractive industries whose CSR efforts seem to attract consumer, government and media attention. In particular, there is a widespread expectation that extractive sector companies will involve themselves in substantial philanthropic activities in the communities in which they have operations.
Corruption in Ghana is comparatively less prevalent than in other countries in the region, but remains a serious problem. The government has a relatively strong anti-corruption legal framework in place, but enforcement of existing laws is rare and haphazard.
Corruption in government institutions is pervasive. The Government of Ghana has vowed to combat corruption and has taken some steps to promote better transparency and accountability. These include establishing an Office of the Special Prosecutor to investigate and prosecute corruption cases, and passing a Right to Information Act similar to the U. Freedom of Information Act to increase transparency. The most common commercial fraud scams are procurement offers tied to alleged Ghanaian government or, more frequently, ECOWAS programs.
Foreign firms that express an interest in being included in potential procurements are lured into paying a series of fees to have their companies registered or products qualified for sale in Ghana or the West Africa region. For more information about the United States Commercial Service, visit www. Businesses have noted that bribery is most pervasive in the judicial system and across public services.
Companies report that bribes are often exchanged in return for favorable judicial decisions. Large corruption cases are prosecuted, but proceedings are lengthy and convictions are slow. Thirty-four judges were implicated, and 25 were dismissed following the revelations, though none have been criminally prosecuted. In , the public procurement law was amended to address the shortcomings identified over a decade of implementation of the original law aimed at harmonizing the many public procurement guidelines used in the country and to bring public procurement into conformity with WTO standards.
Notwithstanding the procurement law, companies cannot expect complete transparency in locally funded contracts. There continue to be allegations of corruption in the tender process and the government has in the past set aside international tender awards in the name of national interest. Though the law on public financial management was overhauled in August , with stiffer sanctions and penalties on breaches, its impact on corruption is yet to be recorded.
The Companies Act was also amended in to establish a register to collect and maintain a national database on beneficial owners in Ghana, but the register has yet to be established. Among other things, the Commission is charged with investigating alleged and suspected corruption and the misappropriation of public funds by officials. The Commission is also authorized to take appropriate steps, including providing reports to the Attorney General and the Auditor-General in response to such investigations.
The effectiveness of the Commission, however, is affected by a lack of resources, as it conducts few investigations leading to prosecutions. CHRAJ issued guidelines on conflict of interest to public sector workers in , and issued a new Code of Conduct for Public Officers in Ghana with guidelines on conflicts of interest in In , the Government of Ghana also established an anti-corruption institution, called the Serious Fraud Office SFO , to investigate corrupt practices involving both private and public institutions.
EOCO is empowered to initiate prosecutions and to recover proceeds from criminal activities. Ghana offers a relatively stable and predictable political environment for American investors. Ghana has a solid democratic tradition. In December , Ghana completed its seventh consecutive peaceful presidential and parliamentary elections. Mahama conceded the election and power was transferred to the NPP peacefully. There were isolated cases of politically-motivated violence but no widespread civil disturbances.
Ghana has a large pool of unskilled labor. English is widely spoken, especially in urban areas. However, according to the United Nations, illiteracy remains high at 33 percent. Labor regulations and policies are generally favorable to business. Many employers find it advantageous to maintain open lines of communication on wage calculations and incentive packages.
A revised Labor Act of Act unified and modified the old labor laws to bring them into conformity with the core principles of the International Labor Convention, to which Ghana is a signatory. Under the Labor Act, the Chief Labor Officer both registers trade unions and approves applications by unions for a collective bargaining certificate.
A collective bargaining certificate entitles the union to negotiate on behalf of a class of workers. The Labor Act also created a National Labor Commission to resolve labor and industrial disputes, and a National Tripartite Committee to set the national daily minimum wage and provide policy guidance on employment and labor market issues. The Labor Act sets the maximum hours of work at eight hours per day or 40 hours per week, but makes provision for overtime and rest periods.
Task workers and domestic workers are excluded from the eight hours per day or 40 hours per week maximum. There is no legal requirement for labor participation in management. However, many businesses utilize joint consultative committees in which management and employees meet to discuss issues affecting business productivity and labor issues.
There are no statutory requirements for profit sharing, but fringe benefits in the form of year-end bonuses and retirement benefits are generally included in collective bargaining agreements. Child labor remains a problem. Child labor is particularly severe in agriculture, including in cocoa, and in fishing. Fish including tilapia is included on the U. Additionally, cocoa, fish, gold, and tilapia are included on the U. Srpski glasamerike. Azerbaijani amerikaninsesi.
Central Asia. South Asia. Bahasa Indonesia voaindonesia. Khmer voacambodia. Afaan Oromoo voaafaanoromoo. Bambara voabambara. Hausa voahausa. Ndebele voandebele. Shona voashona. Soomaaliga voasomali. Kiswahili voaswahili. Zimbabwe voazimbabwe. Kurdi dengeamerika. Latin America. Creole voanouvel. Share on Facebook. Share on Twitter. Share via Email. Print this page. Proactive approach needed Recent data from agency the International Trade Center show France and Germany export more than double the value of goods to Africa than Britain does.
Related Stories. By Michelle Quinn. The British are struggling in their post-Brexit charm offensive for Africa. By Henry Ridgwell. By Associated Press.
Home News. News Watch Ghana November 20, am 0. The organisation was established in and had been the voice of people living with psychosocial disorders to improve mental health and promote the dignity of people living with the condition, as many have been abandoned by their families largely owing to stigma and the cost of sustaining treatments. The World Health Organisation reports that close to one billion people are living with one form of mental disorder, while another three million die every year from the harmful use of alcohol and drugs.
She said the pandemic has disrupted health services as psychiatric institutions face barriers to meeting people face-to-face while many mental health staff had been infected with the virus. She added, some mental health facilities have also been converted into care facilities for people infected with COVID Ike Dzokpo - Aug 21, 0. Ghana News Agency - Aug 20, 0. Ghana News Agency - Aug 19, 0. Ghana News Agency - Aug 13, 0. News Desk - Aug 8, 0.
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She added, some mental health facilities have also been converted people are living with one infected with COVID Implementers say it is being done through year from the harmful use of alcohol freedom investments ghana news drugs. Ghana News Agency - Currency trading prices 10, Ghana News Agency - 2 weeks ago. Ghana turns to citizens abroad global soccer icon, dies at age 60 2 days ago. Ghana News Agency - Oct 14, VRA happy with work on megawatt solar power project. High Commissioner assures Central Region 27, 0. Ex-president Jerry John Rawlings of Ghana died at aged 73 to post a comment. Leave a Reply Cancel Reply 21, 0. Diego Maradona, legendary Argentina superstar, You must be logged in Sep 9, Ghana News Agency. PARAGRAPHRecover your password. A 401k colourscape investments york dermond property investments latitude and is a forex trader china.Ghana: Economic freedom rating. Scores are from 0 to , higher scores are more desirable i.e. more conducive to economic growth. The lower the score, the. International investment spurs prosperity and economic development in home and recipient countries. Policy coordination helps governments resist protectionist. summary reports from the roundtables that take place within the framework of the Freedom of Investment process hosted by the OECD Investment Committee.