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Boiler manufacturers agree that the problem can be minimized by using more soot blowers in the convective gas passes than normal, by utilizing greater transverse spacing of convection heating surface, by increasing the size of the furnace to reduce the heat release rate, and at the same time by controlling the furnace temperature profile to limit the temperature of thejas entering the superheater.

Geographic Pi stri buti ort ,. The development of the lignite-fired electric-power genera- ting industry of the U. This localized use relates to two specific characteristics of the fuel:. High moisture content, making storage and transportation less feasible. Lower heating value than other coals, making it uneconomical to transport long distances about miles. The 15 large lignite-burning plants presently in operation domestically are located in Montana, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Texas.

Cost When available, the price of lignite in the marketplace is still comparatively cheap per Btu, in keeping with its characteristic disadvantage of low heat value per unit weight and high moisture content. Further background and support information, including profiles of the major utilities which use lignite, may be found in Appendix A.

Installed Capacity Steam-electric generating units fired by lignite are found in both the electric utility and private industrial sectors. Current practice among utilities employing lignite-fired steam-electric generating plants is to use these plants as the base load for the utility networks. This is due to the quality of the fuel discussed previously and its cost. For instance, Texas Utilities, Inc. The lignite-fired plants are used for the base load and natural gas stations are used for peak loading.

Because of this practice, lignite-fired steam generating plants are generally utilized at 70 to 90 percent of their designed capacity. Based on Table II-2, the installed generating capacity of utility-owned lignite-fired units was 2, MW as of , and represented a net power generation of 9, million kWh.

For each plant, the tables show the year service was initiated, heating value of the fuel, installed generating capacity and net generation in In addition, boiler manufacturers, firing mechanisms, and bottom types are noted. Comparing lignite capacity to the Installed generating capacity from all fuels in , Table II-4 shows that lignite capacity accounted for slightly less than one percent of U.

As expected, the size of the lignite-fired power "industry" is, by any criteria, an extremely small fraction of the total U. However, lignite fired capacity is a significant percentage of installed power plant capacity within certain areas, particularly North Dakota and Texas. Summary totals and resultant average annual growth rates for lignite-fired capacity are also shown. S- S- i. Similar effects are shown for compara- tive growths in net power generation. Table II-5 also shows that the growth in lignite consumption exceeds twice the growth rate experienced by coal consumption for power generation.

Thirteen new installations are being built, and at least one other is currently being planned. All of these units will be owned by utility companies. Summing the capacities shown in Table II-6, it is shown that 7, MW will be added by , representing an average annual growth rate of This is comparable to the industry's present growth rate.

In essence, it is anticipated that : the capacity of the industry will increase by a factor of 4. There are two principal restraints on future development of. Lignite-fired steam generators and any other fossil fuel-fired steam generators require a constant source of water in order to operate; and water is scarce in most areas where there are known lignite reserves. The high moisture content and low energy content of lignite. Financial Resources The financial resources, borrowing power, and ability to sustain capital expansion of a utility company are dependent both upon the individual company and the type of utility.

The lignite-fired electric generating "industry" can be characterized by six of the eight utilities previously listed in Table II For the purposes of discussion, we have divided the utilities into two distinct classes from which financial data and future construction plans have been assembled through a review of their annual reports and discussions with their corporate management and various state regulatory authorities. Three such utilities Companies A, B, and C have major building programs for -.

Two very small, municipally-owned utilities that use lignite fuel were excluded. One of these Company C controls nearly half the lignite-firing capacity of the United States. Class II; Rural Cooperatives : Class II utilities differ from Class I utilities in that they may either borrow directly from the REA at significantly lower rates than investor-owned utilities to finance construction or may ask for REA guarantees on loans from other sources.

Class II utilities are typically smaller in terms of their generating capacity and invested capital. Three such cooperatives Companies D, E, and F herein discussed, have lignite-fired generating stations and are adding addi- tional lignite-fired capacity. Both the investor-owned and rural electric cooperative utilities are making a significant investment to expand lignite-fueled capacity.

Companies A, B, and C whose total installed capacity is over 12, megawatts, of which 1, Note that Class I's total installed capacity will increase only 1. Thus Class I companies have significantly : more capitalization and are readily able to obtain rate structure adjustments to cover increased costs. The l! These two regions of heavy lignite utilization have a potential for growth either as population centers or more likely as energy producers. The fact that the North Dakota area is becoming an exporter of energy and the fact that lignite V A financial brief for each of the six utilities, including planned pollution control expenditures, is found in Appendix A.

We suggest that the reader consult the prospectuses for bond issues, bond counsellor others, if more detailed information is needed. Other pollutants from lignite firing include:. Carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, soot. Particulates , :. Sulfur Oxides SOx These pollutants are common to all fossil fuel stationary combustion sources and particulate and SOX standards of performance are already applicable to lignite firing.

The expected levels of these emissions for lignite firing are not significantly different from those expected from bituminous coal firing. Such plants are designed for high reliability, operating days per year or more. A sketch of a typical steam boiler is shown in Figure II The radiant section of the boiler is lined with boiler tubes on the walls, floor and roof of the furnace enclosure. The boiler feed water is i ' ' converted to saturated steam within these tubes through the radiant transfer of heat from the hot combustion gases within the furnace.

Finally, most boilers have an air preheater to transfer heat from the boiler exhaust to incoming combustion air. The three areas where steam-generating equipment differ in'. These variables are summarized in Table II The boilers have been classified according to the three commonly used methods of fuel firing:. Pulverized fuel firing. Cyclone firing. Stoker firing These three categories are discussed further below. Partial 2 in. No Ash removal Dry typically Wet Dry 1.

Pulverized Firing In a. From the bunkers , the fuel is metered into several pulverizers which grind it to approximately mesh particle size. A stream of hot air from the air preheater par- tially dries the fuel and conveys it pneumatically to the burner nozzle where it is injected into the burner zone of the boiler.

The tangential method of firing pulverized coal into the burner zone has been developed by Combustion Engineerings Inc. Such a firing mechanism produces a vortexing flame pattern which CE describes as "using the entire furnace enclosure as a burner. In these firing mechanisms, the pulverized coal is introduced into the burner zone through a horizontal row of burners.

For furnaces less than about MW the burners are Usually located on only one wall. Pulverized coal units have been designed for both wet and dry bottoms, but the current practice is to design only dry bottom furnaces. Cyclone Firing The cyclone burner, manufactured by Babcock and Wilcox, is a slag-lined high-temperature vortex burner.

Crushed lignite is partially dryed in the crusher and is then fired in a tangential or vortex pattern into the cyclone burner. The burner itself is shown schematically in Figure II The temperature within the burner is hot enough to melt the ash to form a slag. Centrifugal force from the vortex flow forces the melted slag to the outside of the burner where it coats the burner walls with a thin layer of slag.

As the solid coal particles are fed into the burner, they are forced to the outside of the burner and are imbedded in the slag layer. The solid coal particles are trapped there until complete burnout is attained. The ash from the burner is continuously removed through a slag tap flush with the furnace floor. Such a system insures that the burner has a sufficient thickness of slag coating on the burner walls at all times. One of the disadvantages of cyclone firing is that in order to maintain the ash in a slagging liquid state, the burner temperature must be maintained at a relatively high level.

The higher temperature promotes NOX fixation. Unfortunately, this cannot be. Tests on cyclone burners firing lignite alone have shown that the burner cannot be satisfactorily operated at a sub-stoichiometric air condition because of flame stability problems, i. Stoker Firing In a stoker-firing furnace, shown schematically in Figure II-4, the coal is spread across a grate to form a bed which burns until 'the coal is completely burned out. In such a mechanism the coal is broken up into approximately 2-in.

The type of feed mechanism used has very little effect on NOX emissions. The physical size of stoker-fired boilers is limited because of the structural requirements and extreme difficulties in obtaining uniform fuel and air distribution to the grate. Most manufacturers of stoker-fired equipment limit their design to 30 MW. It is unlikely that plants any larger than this would ever be built in the United States. In most stoker units the grate on which the coal is burned gradually moves from one end of the furnace to the other.

The coal is spread on the grate in such a fashion that at the end of the grate only ash remains, i. Hence stoker-fired units typically have lower NOX emission rates than other coal-burning equipment used for generating steam. These are shown in Table II Preliminary emission factors were published in by the Public Health Service. These numbers have been recently revised through an extensive field testing program carried out by Exxon Research and Engineering for 78 EPA.

The variables which affect NOX emissions can be segregated into two classes: fuel variables and burner design parameters. The significant parameters in each of these two classes are listed below along with a brief discussion of the reasons for their importance. Fuel moisture'content - the flame temperature in the , combustion zone is inversely proportional to the moisture content of the fuel being fired.

The lower temperature results in lower NOX emissions. Volatility content - the rate of devolatilization of fuel particles alters the local combustion conditions surrouriding each individual particle. Experimental data suggest that high volatile fuels burn at a lower heat release rate than less volatile fuels.

Hence, the anticipated temperature profile within a boiler is expected to be lower for a high volatile fuel than it is for a low volatile fuel, resulting in a correspondingly lower NOX emission. Fuel-nitrogen - although the mechanism by which NOX originates from the fuel-nitrogen is not clearly defined, it has been demonstrated that fuel nitrogen oxidation can account for as much as percent of the total NOX emissions in pulverized firing.

Lignite has a fuel nitrogen content larger than gas or oil and comparable on a Btu basis with that of bituminous coal. Sodium content of the ash - although the sodium content of the lignitic ash does not affect NOX emissions, it has an indirect effect on the emissions level in that lignite boilers are designed with low heat release rates to avoid ash fouling problems accompanying the high sodium ash. The lower heat release rate results in lower NOX emissions.

Firing mechanism - the method of firing fuel into the boiler affects the local heat release rate and temperature within the burner zone, and thus the thermal NOX. Of the three boiler designs discussed above, the cyclone burner has the highest local heat release rate. The lowest heat release rate of all is obtained by stoker-fired units. However, stoker units are limited in physical size and will not be of significant importance in future lignite-fired steam-generating equipment.

Temperature profile - the temperature profile throughout the boiler is directly related to local levels of available oxygen, heat transfer and heat release rates. Although the designer has little control over the burning,rate of the coal particle i. The local temperatures can then be controlled through, the addition of excess air or provision for greater heat transfer surface. Above the burner zone, the temperature profile for pulverized coal firing and cyclone firing are similar.

Ash handling - ash can be removed from the boiler either as a molten slag wet bottom or as a dry-bottom ash dry bottom. The wet-bottom furnaces require much higher temperatures in the burner zone in order to maintain the ash in the molten state. This high temperature results in a higher NOX emission rate.

The cyclone is the only wet- bottom design being proposed for lignite firing. Since lignite is relatively low in sulfur, the ash resistivity is lower than needed for standard precipitators. Hence, some companies have selected the "hot side" ' ' precipitator design.

The combustion of lignite does not affect the possible level of control attainable using these high efficiency air pollution control devices nor does the firing of lignite alter any of the general design features of tjftis equipment. All of the large ; existing sources currently meet the State implementation plan regulations for particulate matter.

New lignite-fired steam generators using properly designed control systems can easily comply with new source performance standards for particulate matter. Unlike bituminous coal combustion, in which over 90 percent of the fuel sulfur content is emitted as S02, a significant fraction of the sulfur in the lignite is retained in the boiler ash deposits and flyash. Thus, most lignite-fired units may not require application of S02 control systems and flyash.

Pilot scale demonstrations of this technology have been developed using Montana subbituminous C coal at the Montana Power Company's Corette Station in Billings, Montana. A second system will be installed on Colstrip 2, scheduled for start-up in March The provisions of 40 CFR Section Routine maintenance, repair, and replacement of equipment, 2. An increase in production rate if the increase can be accomplished without a capital expenditure, 3.

An increase in the hours of operation, 4. Use of an alternative fuel or raw material if the facility was designed to accommodate use of that fuel. Conversion of facilities to coal firing required for energy considera- tions as specified in section d 5 of the Act is not considered a modification. The changes indicated above would result in higher NOX emissions due to firing design changes which inherently produce higher NOX emissions.

A change in burner arrangement or number which created a more intense flame pattern would result in higher NOX emissions. For this reason, provisions were established in 40 CFR This notification shall be postmarked within 60 days or as soon as practicable prior to commencement of the change. The notification shall include the precise nature of the change, present and proposed emission control systems, productive capacity of the facility before and after the change, and the expected completion date of the change.

The population of lignite-fired steam generators currently being operated by utility and industrial concerns was identified and sorted by state, furnace type, and size. Nationwide emissions of NOX were estimated from th. Steam generators with "best systems" of NOX emission reduction were identified. The available methods for sample collection and analysis of NOX emissions from lignite-fired steam generators were documented.

Presurvey inspections were conducted on 8 plants to select candidates for source testing by EPA and its contractors. Source tests were conducted to gather information on the emissions, the processes, and the emission control systems. Alternative emission limitations for new lignite-fired steam generators were formulated.

National Coal Association, Washington, D. These documents indicated that no industrial installations were supplied with new '-. The ABMA records previous to January do not separate lignite-fired ;; generators from the general classification of coal-fired generators: Conversations with the four major boiler manufacturers confirmed our assumption that the number of industrial facilities burning lignite would be very small.

Two of these manufacturers have significantly contributed to lignite-fired steam generation. These are Combustion Engineering and Babcock and Nil cox. Riley Stoker, Inc. Information on two industrial units of sufficient size to be studied was also obtained. Individual utility and industrial companies were then canvassed. Information on boiler configurations was gathered from them directly. A detailed discussion of these is given in Chapter IX of this report. Instrumental methods were also used to provide a check for the PDS method and also to provide data while the tests were in progress.

The summary of the text matrix for each of the boilers and the data obtained as a result of that testing program are presented in Chapter V of this report. The method determines the ratio of NOX to heat input based upon an Orsat analysis of the stack gas, instead of using data obtained from EPA Methods 1 and 2 i.

For all coals including lignite',. We have also included the NOX emissions ' calculated using the methods 1 and 2 data whenever the data have been. Some fuels such as natural gas and distillate 2 oil contain negligible organic nitrogen; control methods for combustion of these fuels are based solely on preventing nitrogen from being taken from the air. Other fuels such as residual 6 oil, coal and lignite contain 0. An approximately constant fuel-nitrogen content for the various U.

Among planned units or units under construction cyclone burner lignite furnaces are more prevalent for high-fouling North , ' Dakota lignite; whereas, pulverized firing is used with little , difficulty for the low-foul ing Texas lignite. Due to the variability of the ash fusion temperature of Texas lignites, pulverized firing is preferred to cyclone firing. Cyclone burners are believed by some in , the industry to be better able to handle the slagging problems of high ', sodium lignite than pulverized fired units.

The reliability of cyclone-; firing of lignite in the U. The impact of the ash-depositing tendency of lignite on NOX emission controls is as follows: :. Cyclones must have percent of the total stoichiometric air directed into the burner and cannot ; be staged when firing lignite alone without compromising the high heat release per unit volume required for slag control.

Initial testing indicates that cyclone combustion air can be staged if an auxiliary oil gun is employed to provide sufficient heat for slag control. If pulverized firing is adopted, utilization of percent of the total stoichiometric air in the fuel. Thus, staged combustion with pulverized firing is not unduly restricted by fouling considerations.

Two methods of air redistribution are shown schematically in Figure IV The extent of staged air can be conveniently indexed by the fraction of stoichiometrically-required air remaining at the burner flame baskets. For example, suppose a boiler operating with 15 percent excess air has five operating burner levels with air supplied to six levels. Since these values are similar to lignite, this data is useful for assessing NO control effectiveness for lignite firing.

Subject to these operating constraints, if excess air can be minimized then NOX is reduced for two reasons: t Fuel NOX is reduced because less oxygen is available ; during volatilization. It should be noted that well mixed, adiabatic combustion systems respond ' adversely to lower excess air, giving higher NO because of higher adiabatic flame temperature.

But real utility boiler systems usually show NO reduction '. Low excess air has been tested on lignite fired boilers, as shown in Figure IV About 20 percent reduction in NO can be expected X ,. For this reason, the following description of the low NOX emission burner is given even though it is not presently a wel1-demonstrated NOX control technology for lignite-fired steam generators.

Due to slagging and fouling problems, combining lower peak flame temperatures with controlled. Burners have been spaced to increase the water- cooled surface area around the burners, thereby lowering the burner zone heat release rate, and the burners and windbox have been designed to provide for optimum air distribution to the burners and within.

This arrangement permits the burners to operate with minimum total air for NOX control, while providing sufficient air for combustion and slagging control. During the last two months of , the EPA performed NOX emissions tests on a MW, barner, horizontally opposed, bituminous coal fired utility boiler equipped with dual register low NOx emission burners.

These tests were run on a boiler firing bituminous coal, not lignite. IV A in design, but not equipped with the low NO emission burners had an X emission factor of approximately 0. NOV emissions were further reduced to approximately 0. The results of this test program are summarized in Table V-8 and Figure :V Details of the testmethodology are contained in Sections B, C and D, and a complete listing of individual data points may be found in Section E directly preceding the results summary.

All three types. The boiler, desigrieel by Babcdck arid Wilcox, burns pulverized lignite which Is fired through horizontally-opposed burners, as shown in Figure. The lig- nite is pulverized in one of ten pulverizers, each pulverizer feeding two burners.

The burners are arranged in three rows of four burners each on the front wall, and two rows of four burners each on the rear wall. The plant was first put into operation in The bo 11 er 1 s dep 1 cted in F i gure V-2". The ash is continuously tapped from the burner and is drained out through the bottom of the furnace.

In order to maintain high temperatures within the cyclone, relatively low excess air is used. Additional air is added to the hot gases after they leave the burners, creating a form of staged combustion. This plant was put into operation in and, as of , is the only operating cyclone design firing lignite.

It is interesting to note that normal operating practice at these units calls for the top burner level to be out of service, which means that one-eighth of the secondary air about 8 to 10 percent of the total air is staged. The remaining seven burner levels operate at about percent stoichiometric air. This interchangeability is justified because 1 combustion is essentially complete and 2 boiler efficiency is nearly constant.

The air flow to active burners as percent of stoichiometric was controlled and estimated differently f,or each bojl. For each ca's'e'i the air flow was measured by calibrated pi tot tubes. Plant IV, ho overfire was attempted and total air was assumed equally distributed over the burners. For Plant III, about 15 percent of the total air flow bypasses the cyclone combustion chambers and is injected above the chamber outlets. The amount of overfire air as a fraction of total air Is fixed for all tests.

It was not unusual for excess oxygen to fluctuate between 2. The reason for this drift is as follows: electrical output and steam flow typically are main- tained constant with about to. This drift contributes to the scatter in? Therefore I the averaged NOX data corresponds to an average cohdition representative j, of the range over which the boiler conditions drifted. Stack 02 values expected to be larger be- cause of preheater leaks.

For Plant IV, burner air was taken equal to total air no staging. Sum of rates measured for each operating pul- verizer using the RPM of conveyor belts. A scraper adjusts to maintain Ib on each belt. Secondary air to each burner is measured with Venturis. Total air determined from sum of primary and secondary air. Pitot-tubes in windbox and furnace. Thermocouples in windbox secondary , and at pulverizer outlet primary.

Continuous dew-point monitor. Changes due to temperature not water content. The primary analysis technique for NOx was the phenoldl-. A continuous NOx monitor was used to obtain on site information about the emission behavior of the boiler, and vto provide back-up data in support of the PDS samples.

Lignite samples were taken every half hour and the moisture, volatiles and ash content qf the lignite Samples were determined by using ASTM Method D Both methods i and 11 were used in calculation of dry gas volumes, but emissions were calculated using gas volumes as idetermined by the F factor method method ii.

Consequently, the emission rates in the lignite tesb were calculated using the F factor method. A subsequent study on a lignite f ired- steam generator'showed excellent agreement between: dry gas volumes as calculated by the F factor method and as determined by : direct measurements.

A simpler F-factor method, which results in comparable values, was published in the federal- Register on October 6, , 40 FR Based on an analysis. See Appendix B. We denote this average. The 02 data was also averaged for each test interval and dilution , corrections applied to reduce NOX values to common dilution condition 3 percent From this average data, a. SpeGifie values are presented, and calculated averages ;for the test condition are given in brackets:.

Questionable data discarded are given in parentheses. Data listed for a given tinie day was taken usually within ten minutes and always during the half hour following that time of day. Ml F-factorb Mtthod Method Cj[tCO Chcollwlnescent. Stetieo IV Appendix B aid Reference Comparison with Prior Data Table V-9 compares the results of this program with previous data.

For tangential units, the overall air flow cannot be lowered more than 5 percent. The only viable way to lower burner air is by in- creasing the overfire air. The X , cyclone-fired boiler proved responsive to either LEA or staging. However, the horizontally opposed fired and cyclone boilers appear more responsive to NOX control! Effect of Fuel Type " " :. The test program did not permit firing two substantially distinct lignites in the same boiler in order to discern fuel effects.

There are two expected effects, however: a. Moisture - The hiqh moisture content of lignite relative to bituminous coal might be expected to control both thermal NO and fuel x NOX to the extent that water evaporation occurs in the volatilization V-. Plant III.. Indeed, restricting our attention to the tangential furnace, the mean uncontrolled NOV emission level of 16 coal-fired units " The current emissions results for lignite-fired cyclone furnaces are well below the results of early studies on NOX emissions from coal-fired cyclones.

The lignites tested contained 0. Derive baseline capital:investment and annual production costs for three selected model lignite-fired steam-. Compare the cost of cpntrol for the alternative NOx limitations, and develop a cost-effectiveness curve '"'. Also evaluate the possible indirect effects on related industries such as the lignite mining industry and the conventional bitumindus- fired utility industry Section E. The model plant sizes thought to be most indicative of future lignite-fired units, and selected for analysis here, were as follows: megawatts megawatts , megawatts Based on discussions with various utilities and the selective use of plant financial data as reported by the Federal Power Commission, it was determined that actual'baseline investment and operating costs for field-erected central station steam-boiler units are largely a function of the plant size and fuel characteristics, and are independent pf burner configuration.

Actually, the weighted average unit size for planned lignite-fired plants is about MJ. It was felt justified to estimate capital investment and annual produc- tion costs for lignite-fired units based upon those costs typically used for,. The expected installed cost of a new uncori- ic. Figures are in dollars and include interest during construction.

Some of the older lignite plants have historically shown lower load factors. This estimate is supported by the intended use of large lignite-fired plants as base-load plants, many of which are cooperative ' projects which will be producing large demand wholesale electricity. This is consistent with unit price estimates made elsewhere in this Chapter. In view of this, our basis for costing NOX control schemes is based upon direct communications with the two major boiler manufacturers.

These costs are not applicable to cyclones. The incremental investment shown is expressed as a percentage " , of "boiler island" cost, not as a percentage of total cost. The "bpiler. Based on discussions with manufacturers, we assumed the..

In regard to low emission burners, it should be noted that one manufacturer was constrained in the level of NO emissions which could. No additional operating costs. Negligible, if any, loss in efficiency. Assumes boiler rating remains constant.

Little, Inc. Given the data in Table,VI-2, investment and annual control costs by model plant size can be estimated, and are shown in Table VI Again, the upper range of the estimates are believed to be conserva- tive so as to allow for potential error and to permit an analysis of. The mean cost estimates of"table VI-3 -r were used and rounded upward to the nearest dollar or nearest hundredth of a mill.

These costs are applicable only for pulverized-fired units and exclude cyclones. This manufacturer plans to furnish the dual register burner on new units, and would offer staged combustion very seldomly and only for well defined fuels.

Source: Arthur D. Tangential units will be. Horizontally-opposed units will also be able to meet a level of 0. The applicability of control technique for horizontally- opposed units at 6'. First, it is more appro- priately considered a sub-industry of the steam-electric utility industry, and second', the behavior and general economic health of the utility industry is strongly determined by regulatory authority pressures rather than, by the more conventional market-oriented pressures of other nonregu- lated industries.

These differences suggest that the economic impacts brought about by the setting of NO emission limits be presented. Each will be discussed separately, in addition to a brief discussion of secondary impacts on related industries. Effect Upon Cost of Power Production. A ' ' ' Figures Vl-2 and VI-3 summarize the comparative capital investment. Reflecting upon the way in which costs are passed on to consumers, the cost of power is generany a weighted average of the cost of pro- duction for the"ut1.

Effect Upon Boiler Manufacturers. The market for large steam-electric furnaces within the U. In both cases, lignite units have accounted for a minor percentage of their annual revenues. It is extremely doubtful that foreign manufacturers will enter the U. Both companies have a positive attitude towards being able to meet a limit of 0. Likewise, both companies are willing to guarantee to their customers the ability of their furnaces to meet such, a limit.

Thus, there are no foreseeable marketing disadvantages which might affect the balance between Company AA and BB and thus act as a restraint of competition. The adoption of an NOX emission limit of 0. However, this would not necessarily impair Company BB's position, since cyclone units represent a small proportion of coal-fired utility boiler Sales due to their lack of fuel versatility or cost advantage.

Finally, the adoption of a limit of 0. At this level of. Consequently Company BB may not offer performance guarantees to purchasing utilities; leaving only one major established supplier. We do not believe it is in the best interests of purchasing utilities to remove their option to obtain competitive bids for industry expansion.

Further, at an emission limit of 0. Indirect Effects V In addition to the above three sectors, there is a possibility of some indirect effects due to NOX emissions abatement on lignite- fired plants. In general, most such secondary effects will be comparatively minor; however,' those dealing with the following should be noted anyway: '.

Lignite's position as an energy resource, ,'. Lignite mining industry, and. Cost of lignite. The effect on lignite in relation to bituminous-coal due to the inclusion of NOX emission abatement on new sources appears to be negligible. Regarding lignite mining, the unit consumption of lignite per kWh is not expected to be affected by NOX emission limitations. Finally, concerning the cost of lignite, we note that the relative isolation of large lignite reserves plus the fact that most utilities operate captive mines or have established long-term contracts will probably constrain the f.

Of those utilities of concern to us, all have long-term purchasing agree- ments or own and operate captive mines. Their activity in was as follows! We are of the opinion that lignite prices peaked in , and. In addition, the method of firing and boiler design parameters can affect the quantity of nitrogen oxides.

Thus in development of a proposed NOX standard for lignite-fired steam generators, consideration. EPA discussed the need for cyclone furnaces to fire high-sodium lignite with the lignite electric utilities and with manufacturers of utility steam boilers. Some of the lignite electric utilities maintained that cyclone furnaces are better able to handle the slagging problem of high-sodium lignite than are pulverized-fired units. These utilities believe that the cyclone burner retains a large proportion of the ash in the burner, thus reducing fouling of the boiler tubes.

However, due to the higher temperatures more volatilization of the sodium in the ash will occur in a cyclone burner than in a pulverized coal-fired boiler. Depending on the gas temperature profile in the furnace, these sodium compounds can condense on the boiler tubes or the air heater and cause fouling. Presently, the experience of the utility industry in firing high-sodium lignite is very limited for either pulverized or cyclone- fired units.

The Young-Center station has a good record of operating availability. However, as of the - unit has not used the high-sodium lignite for which it was designed. In addition, the operating reliabi1ity may be attributed to other boiler design features such as increased number of soot blowers, increased furnace surface area, and increased spacing between boiler tubes.

These design features help minimize the ash fouling problems associated with firing high-sodium lignite. Since startup of the Young-Center station, three additional cyclone-fired units have been purchased by power cooperatives and companies in the area. Two of these three units were started up in, and have been operating for less than one year. One of the units has been firing lignite With sodium content of about four percent; while the other unit has fired lignites of about six percent sodium for short periods.

Since numerous operating problems typically occur in the first year of operation of a,boiler, the performance of these units on high- sodium lignite cannot be accurately evaluated at this time. Bids were received for both cyclone and pulverized-fired units.

UPA purchased two CE tangentially pulverized-fired units guaranteed to reliably fire lignite with a maximum sodium content of 4. This selection. Presently, experience with pulverized firing of lignite is limited to two units: a frontwall-fired MW unit and a horizontally-opposed fired MW unit at Stanton, North Dakota. The horizontally-opposed fired MW boiler at Leland-Olds station of Basin Electric Power Is 7 a good example of early experience with pulverized firing of lignite. The horizontally-opposed fired unit at Leland-Olds is susceptible to extensive slagging and ash fouling problems when firing high-sodium lignite.

Short term derating of the unit has been prevented by selective mining of the lignite to maintain the sodium content below five percent. For the past year, this boiler has been firing 8 percent sodium lignite at about 86 percent boiler capacity and has not been shutdown to deslag the unit. Based on this experience, new lignite pulverized-fired units would be designed with greater surface area, increased superheater tube spacing, and increased number of sootblowers, than is conventional for bituminous-fired units..

Combustion Engineering, which is installing the units for UFA, is confident that pulverized- fired units can be properly designed to handle the slagging and ash fouling problems of high-sodium lignite. In addition to the experience of boilers operating on high-sodium lignite, ERDA has conducted a short term study on the relative ash fouling rates on pulverized fuel and cyclone-fired boilers.

The test was conducted while the two units were firing lignite with 3. The preliminary results of the study show that coupons located in the pulverized-fired boiler had deposition rates approximately twice those of the coupons in the cyclone-fired boiler.

Possible interpretations of these results are 1 that cyclone-fired units can operate more reliably and possibly at a lower cost on high sodium lignite than pulverized-fired units or 2 that cyclone-fired units do not require as conservatively designed convection section as do pulverized-fired units. Until verified by further testing possible differences in design and operation of pulverized or cyclone-fired units for high-sodium lignite are speculation only. At this time, design of pulverized-fired units for high-sodium lignite is proven and a retrofitted unit has been operating reliably on eight percent sodium lignite for the past year.

Therefore, the standard was not established at a level which would allow use of cyclone-fired boilers. EPA recognizes that this decision is based on limited information on the slagging and ash fouling problems of firing of high-sodium lignite and is requesting all interested persons to submit factual information on this issue during the public comment period of the proposed standard.

EPA also considered proposing the same standard for lignite-fired steam generators as the present standard for coal-fired steam generators, nanograms per joule heat input 0. Application of staged combustion and low excess air firing techniques to lignite boilers was observed in this study to result in emission levels sufficiently lower than nanograms per joule 0. The measured levels of 0. Also, recent studies on combustion modifications to utility boilers have reported control of nitrogen oxides emissions from coal-fired units to levels of approximately 0.

Since ,. Consequently, EPA recognizes that assessment of recent information and data for nitrogen oxides control techniques on coal-fired units could indicate a need for revision of the standard for coal-fired units. Since tangentially-ffred boilers have been demonstrated to achieve emission levels of less than 0.

On the basis of available data it appears that the other pulverized-fired boiler designs, horizontally opposed or frontwall, probably cannot consistently achieve ' an emission level of less than 0. EPA has concluded that it is not in the best interest of purchasing utilities to remove their option to obtain a competitive bid for expansions.

On the basis of the test data and the above considerations, EPA is proposing a standard of nanograms per joule 0. The alternative standards considered are summarized in Table VII The cost to the utilities as a result of compliance with the proposed standard has been analyzed and appears to be negligible in comparison to capital costs. Conservative estimates show that nitrogen oxides control costs will increase capital investment cost 0.

Since power costs are 'a weighted'average of production costs for the entire utility, the costs for NOX control will result in only a negligible increase in costs to the consumer. EPA discussed this issue with the four major boiler manu- facturers and found that derating does not result from NOX control techniques.

Derating of a boiler occurs due to inadequate design of the furnace gas temperature profile and inadequate soot blowing for VII For high fouling fuels, proper design of the boiler requires a larger furnace and more liberal tube spacing. These design practices for high-fouling lignites have been developed from experience with units designed in the late Q's.

To maintain equivalent slagging and fouling conditions when firing a high-sodium fuel, a cyclone-fired boiler should be the same size as a pulverized coal-fired boiler. So, there are no cost advantages associated with cyclone-fired units. The increased costs referred to by the industry result from firing of high slagging and fouling fuel and not from NOX control procedures.

The economic analysis does not reflect the costs of construction of the larger lignite boiler, or derating of the model units. EPA also considered whether or not the fuel-nitrogen content of lignite varies enough between geographical areas to warrant separate standards of performance. A comprehensive literature search revealed that Texas lignite contains a slightly higher fuel-nitrogen content than North Dakota lignite, 1. However, this apparent difference in fuel- nitrogen content may only be the result of a larger data base for North Dakota lignite.

A statistical analysis of. However, NOX emission tests of lignite-fired boilers equipped with low NOX emission burners have not yet been performed. Ai r Impacts Lignite-fired steam generators are not uniformly distributed, ;', throughout the country but are concentrated in the North Dakota and v; Texas areas. Both of these areas currently enjoy relatively low ambient air concentrations of N It is expected that one primary beneficial impact of an NOX emission limit for lignite-fired boilers , would be reduction of the atmospheric burden of nitrogen oxides.

The potential for high ambient concentrations of oxidant exists if appropriate concentrations of precursors are present. Investiga- tions of rural oxidant levels relative to urban hydrocarbon emissions; ' have found that rural emissions combine with transported urban pollutants to generate appreciable quantities of oxidant over wide 48 areas.

In addition, irradiation of bag samples of rural air, ,. VIII-1 '. Since a number of investigators48'52 have reported measuring high non-methane hydrocarbon to NOX ratios in rural air samples, control of NOX emissions in rural areas may be expected to help prevent an increase in rural oxidant levels. The primary impact of an NOX emission limitation on air quality-, ' can be assessed in two ways: the reduction in total mass emissions of NOX to the atmosphere and the reduction in the maximum predicted ambient NOg concentration in the vicinity of a source.

Mass Emissions ; The reduction in mass emission levels was calculated assuming an emission limitation of 0. The standards of performance for nitrogen oxides would not affect any of the existing or planned lignite-fired steam generators scheduled to come on-line.

The lignite-fired utility boilers planned and under construction will increase the capacity by a factor of 4. Although it is safe to say that growth of the lignite-fired : utility boiler industry will continue after , it is impossible '. For this reason, an example of the mass emission reduction that would result from adoption of a 0.

By it is estimated that installed lignite generating capeity will have increased by an additional 16, MW if the recent Control of NOX emissions from these boilers to 0. The standard of performance limiting NOx emissions from bituminous-fired steam generators requires a comparable degree of control. Ambient NOg Levels Another method of evaluating the impact of emissions is to calculate the maximum ambient concentrations of N02 at ground level from model facilities.

These estimates are made using atmospheric dispersion modeling assuming that all nitrogen oxides were emitted from the source as nitrogen dioxide N For the dispersion analysis, ground level concentrations of N02 were estimated for a MW lignite-' fired steam generator. Because emissions vary with the furnace design,; the dispersion analysis considered emission rates for cyclone, tangential, and horizontally opposed fired boilers.

Ground level concentrations of N02 associated with building downwash were not estimated in this analysis because it is expected that stacks will be designed to avoid downwash problems. This model assumes that:. The model integrates the plant parameters with hour-by-hour actual meteorological conditions recorded over a one-year period.

Omaha, Nebraska fits this description fairly well, and data for this. The above estimate is valid, then, for the Omaha area. Winds in North Dakota are generally less persistent in direction than. The results of the dispersion analysis indicate that emissions from the model lignite-fired steam generators would have a nominal impact on ambient NOg levels on,an annual average basis. The maxima would occur at distances of Rro from the plant.

Water Pollution Impact. Solid Waste Disposal Impact The alternative NOX emission limitations would have no jeffeet on the amount of sol id waste produced, but, would have an effect on the 'form The solid waste generated by lignite-fired steam: generators depends upon the type of equipment being used, If the furnace is a dry bottom furnace pulverized-fuel or stoker then the.

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CORSI DI FOREX ROMA

To implement this policy, therefore, a separate section is included in this document which is devoted solely to an analysis of the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed standards. Both adverse and beneficial impacts in such areas as air and water pollution, increased solid waste disposal, and increased energy consumption are identified and '.. Section of the Act defines a new source as "any stationary source, the construction or modification of which is commenced after the regulations are proposed.

Accordingly, section of the Act provides that the Administrator may revise,such standards from time to time. Although standards proposed and promulgated by EPA under section are designed to require installation of the ". Revisions will be proposed and promulgated as necessary to assure that the standards continue to reflect the best systems that become available in the future. Portland Cement Association vs. Ruckelshaus, F. Essex Chemical Corp. Summary and Introduction Summary of Proposed Amendment.

Economic and Environmental Impacts. II-l A. Characteristics of Lignite Industry Characterization II-5 C. Emissions Requiring Control. Steam Generation Processes. H F. Control of Parti cul ate Matter Emissions Control of Sulfur Oxides Emissions H III. Procedures for Defining Best Control Technology. Development of Data Base III-1 B.

Sources of Plant Data Selection of Plants for Emission Testing HI-2 D. Sampling and Analytical Techniques Recommended. III-2 E. Emission Measurement Program Units of the Emission Limit. IV-1 A. IV-1 B. IV-2 C. Staged Combustion. Low Excess Air. IV F. IV V. Emission Data to Substantiate Standards V-l A. Description of Boilers Tested. V-l C. Description of Operating Conditions Measured. V-8 D. Test Methods. V-ll E. Data Reduction Procedures V-l3 F.

V 6. V VI. Summary of Economic Information. VI-1 A. Purpose and Approach VI-1 B. Baseline Investment and Annual Production Costs. VI-1 C. VI-6 D. Economic Impact Analysis VI VII. Rationale for the Proposed Standard of Performance. VIII-1 B. VIII-8 C. Socio-Economic Impacts. Enforcement Aspects of the Proposed Standard.

Performance Testing. IX-T B. Continuous Monitoring Fuel Analysis. IX-2 X. Estimates for the Year By Boiler Category. When standards of performance were promulgated for large steam generators under. Subpart D of. Data gathered since are sufficient to propose amendments to Subpart D to limit atmospheric emissions of nitrogen oxides to nanograms per,joule heat input. The proposed standard reflects the degree of emission limitation achievable through the application of the best system of emission reduction whfcfi Ctakfng into account the cost of achieving such:reduction!

The best ,. Standards of performance are proposed and promulgated under the authority of section of the Clean Air Act. Conservative estimates show that the nitrogen oxides standard could, for some boiler designs, v require an increase of 0. There would be no increase in the cost of power to the consumer. Since lignite is an important energy resource in certain geographic areas and lignite is presently underutilized, extrapolation of historical growth rates indicates a generating capacity of 16, MW subject to the NOx standard by The environmental impact of the proposed standard Is beneficial.

The proposed standard would be beneficial in reducing the atmospheric burden of nitrogen oxides and help prevent increased ambient oxidant concentrations in areas where ". There are no adverse environmental impacts associated with the proposed standard. Control techniques required to comply with the proposed standard do not cause boiler efficiency losses, and thus there are no incremental energy demands associated with the proposed standard.

Chemical Analysis The differences between lignite and bituminous coal are petrographic differences derived from their geological history. Lignite has more moisture, an ash of lower fusion point, and a lower carbon-hydrogen ratio. The significant difference"! Grindability The grindability of lignite varies over a wide range, just as with other coals.

Lignite is not necessarily more difficult to grind or pulverize than bituminous coal. Combustion and Ash Fouling Characteristics Since lignite has a higher moisture content and a lower carbon- hydrogen ratio than coal, the adiabatic flame temperature for lignite combustion is expected to be lower than for bituminous coal. Lignite ash may contain from 0. Bureau of Mines2 has shown that this contributes greatly to ash fouling of boiler superheaters. Almost all of the larger North Dakota area plants have experienced severe operational difficulties as a result of ash fouling.

Lignitic ash with from weight percent Na20 is considered to have a high fouling potential, and a Na20 ash content of greater than 6 weight percent implies a severe fouling potential. Boiler manufacturers agree that the problem can be minimized by using more soot blowers in the convective gas passes than normal, by utilizing greater transverse spacing of convection heating surface, by increasing the size of the furnace to reduce the heat release rate, and at the same time by controlling the furnace temperature profile to limit the temperature of thejas entering the superheater.

Geographic Pi stri buti ort ,. The development of the lignite-fired electric-power genera- ting industry of the U. This localized use relates to two specific characteristics of the fuel:. High moisture content, making storage and transportation less feasible.

Lower heating value than other coals, making it uneconomical to transport long distances about miles. The 15 large lignite-burning plants presently in operation domestically are located in Montana, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Texas.

Cost When available, the price of lignite in the marketplace is still comparatively cheap per Btu, in keeping with its characteristic disadvantage of low heat value per unit weight and high moisture content. Further background and support information, including profiles of the major utilities which use lignite, may be found in Appendix A. Installed Capacity Steam-electric generating units fired by lignite are found in both the electric utility and private industrial sectors.

Current practice among utilities employing lignite-fired steam-electric generating plants is to use these plants as the base load for the utility networks. This is due to the quality of the fuel discussed previously and its cost. For instance, Texas Utilities, Inc. The lignite-fired plants are used for the base load and natural gas stations are used for peak loading. Because of this practice, lignite-fired steam generating plants are generally utilized at 70 to 90 percent of their designed capacity.

Based on Table II-2, the installed generating capacity of utility-owned lignite-fired units was 2, MW as of , and represented a net power generation of 9, million kWh. For each plant, the tables show the year service was initiated, heating value of the fuel, installed generating capacity and net generation in In addition, boiler manufacturers, firing mechanisms, and bottom types are noted.

Comparing lignite capacity to the Installed generating capacity from all fuels in , Table II-4 shows that lignite capacity accounted for slightly less than one percent of U. As expected, the size of the lignite-fired power "industry" is, by any criteria, an extremely small fraction of the total U. However, lignite fired capacity is a significant percentage of installed power plant capacity within certain areas, particularly North Dakota and Texas. Summary totals and resultant average annual growth rates for lignite-fired capacity are also shown.

S- S- i. Similar effects are shown for compara- tive growths in net power generation. Table II-5 also shows that the growth in lignite consumption exceeds twice the growth rate experienced by coal consumption for power generation. Thirteen new installations are being built, and at least one other is currently being planned.

All of these units will be owned by utility companies. Summing the capacities shown in Table II-6, it is shown that 7, MW will be added by , representing an average annual growth rate of This is comparable to the industry's present growth rate. In essence, it is anticipated that : the capacity of the industry will increase by a factor of 4. There are two principal restraints on future development of. Lignite-fired steam generators and any other fossil fuel-fired steam generators require a constant source of water in order to operate; and water is scarce in most areas where there are known lignite reserves.

The high moisture content and low energy content of lignite. Financial Resources The financial resources, borrowing power, and ability to sustain capital expansion of a utility company are dependent both upon the individual company and the type of utility. The lignite-fired electric generating "industry" can be characterized by six of the eight utilities previously listed in Table II For the purposes of discussion, we have divided the utilities into two distinct classes from which financial data and future construction plans have been assembled through a review of their annual reports and discussions with their corporate management and various state regulatory authorities.

Three such utilities Companies A, B, and C have major building programs for -. Two very small, municipally-owned utilities that use lignite fuel were excluded. One of these Company C controls nearly half the lignite-firing capacity of the United States. Class II; Rural Cooperatives : Class II utilities differ from Class I utilities in that they may either borrow directly from the REA at significantly lower rates than investor-owned utilities to finance construction or may ask for REA guarantees on loans from other sources.

Class II utilities are typically smaller in terms of their generating capacity and invested capital. Three such cooperatives Companies D, E, and F herein discussed, have lignite-fired generating stations and are adding addi- tional lignite-fired capacity. Both the investor-owned and rural electric cooperative utilities are making a significant investment to expand lignite-fueled capacity.

Companies A, B, and C whose total installed capacity is over 12, megawatts, of which 1, Note that Class I's total installed capacity will increase only 1. Thus Class I companies have significantly : more capitalization and are readily able to obtain rate structure adjustments to cover increased costs. The l! These two regions of heavy lignite utilization have a potential for growth either as population centers or more likely as energy producers.

The fact that the North Dakota area is becoming an exporter of energy and the fact that lignite V A financial brief for each of the six utilities, including planned pollution control expenditures, is found in Appendix A. We suggest that the reader consult the prospectuses for bond issues, bond counsellor others, if more detailed information is needed.

Other pollutants from lignite firing include:. Carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, soot. Particulates , :. Sulfur Oxides SOx These pollutants are common to all fossil fuel stationary combustion sources and particulate and SOX standards of performance are already applicable to lignite firing. The expected levels of these emissions for lignite firing are not significantly different from those expected from bituminous coal firing.

Such plants are designed for high reliability, operating days per year or more. A sketch of a typical steam boiler is shown in Figure II The radiant section of the boiler is lined with boiler tubes on the walls, floor and roof of the furnace enclosure.

The boiler feed water is i ' ' converted to saturated steam within these tubes through the radiant transfer of heat from the hot combustion gases within the furnace. Finally, most boilers have an air preheater to transfer heat from the boiler exhaust to incoming combustion air.

The three areas where steam-generating equipment differ in'. These variables are summarized in Table II The boilers have been classified according to the three commonly used methods of fuel firing:. Pulverized fuel firing. Cyclone firing. Stoker firing These three categories are discussed further below. Partial 2 in. No Ash removal Dry typically Wet Dry 1. Pulverized Firing In a. From the bunkers , the fuel is metered into several pulverizers which grind it to approximately mesh particle size.

A stream of hot air from the air preheater par- tially dries the fuel and conveys it pneumatically to the burner nozzle where it is injected into the burner zone of the boiler. The tangential method of firing pulverized coal into the burner zone has been developed by Combustion Engineerings Inc. Such a firing mechanism produces a vortexing flame pattern which CE describes as "using the entire furnace enclosure as a burner.

In these firing mechanisms, the pulverized coal is introduced into the burner zone through a horizontal row of burners. For furnaces less than about MW the burners are Usually located on only one wall. Pulverized coal units have been designed for both wet and dry bottoms, but the current practice is to design only dry bottom furnaces. Cyclone Firing The cyclone burner, manufactured by Babcock and Wilcox, is a slag-lined high-temperature vortex burner.

Crushed lignite is partially dryed in the crusher and is then fired in a tangential or vortex pattern into the cyclone burner. The burner itself is shown schematically in Figure II The temperature within the burner is hot enough to melt the ash to form a slag.

Centrifugal force from the vortex flow forces the melted slag to the outside of the burner where it coats the burner walls with a thin layer of slag. As the solid coal particles are fed into the burner, they are forced to the outside of the burner and are imbedded in the slag layer. The solid coal particles are trapped there until complete burnout is attained. The ash from the burner is continuously removed through a slag tap flush with the furnace floor. Such a system insures that the burner has a sufficient thickness of slag coating on the burner walls at all times.

One of the disadvantages of cyclone firing is that in order to maintain the ash in a slagging liquid state, the burner temperature must be maintained at a relatively high level. The higher temperature promotes NOX fixation. Unfortunately, this cannot be. Tests on cyclone burners firing lignite alone have shown that the burner cannot be satisfactorily operated at a sub-stoichiometric air condition because of flame stability problems, i.

Stoker Firing In a stoker-firing furnace, shown schematically in Figure II-4, the coal is spread across a grate to form a bed which burns until 'the coal is completely burned out. In such a mechanism the coal is broken up into approximately 2-in. The type of feed mechanism used has very little effect on NOX emissions.

The physical size of stoker-fired boilers is limited because of the structural requirements and extreme difficulties in obtaining uniform fuel and air distribution to the grate. Most manufacturers of stoker-fired equipment limit their design to 30 MW. It is unlikely that plants any larger than this would ever be built in the United States.

In most stoker units the grate on which the coal is burned gradually moves from one end of the furnace to the other. The coal is spread on the grate in such a fashion that at the end of the grate only ash remains, i. Hence stoker-fired units typically have lower NOX emission rates than other coal-burning equipment used for generating steam.

These are shown in Table II Preliminary emission factors were published in by the Public Health Service. These numbers have been recently revised through an extensive field testing program carried out by Exxon Research and Engineering for 78 EPA. The variables which affect NOX emissions can be segregated into two classes: fuel variables and burner design parameters. The significant parameters in each of these two classes are listed below along with a brief discussion of the reasons for their importance.

Fuel moisture'content - the flame temperature in the , combustion zone is inversely proportional to the moisture content of the fuel being fired. The lower temperature results in lower NOX emissions. Volatility content - the rate of devolatilization of fuel particles alters the local combustion conditions surrouriding each individual particle. Experimental data suggest that high volatile fuels burn at a lower heat release rate than less volatile fuels. Hence, the anticipated temperature profile within a boiler is expected to be lower for a high volatile fuel than it is for a low volatile fuel, resulting in a correspondingly lower NOX emission.

Fuel-nitrogen - although the mechanism by which NOX originates from the fuel-nitrogen is not clearly defined, it has been demonstrated that fuel nitrogen oxidation can account for as much as percent of the total NOX emissions in pulverized firing.

Lignite has a fuel nitrogen content larger than gas or oil and comparable on a Btu basis with that of bituminous coal. Sodium content of the ash - although the sodium content of the lignitic ash does not affect NOX emissions, it has an indirect effect on the emissions level in that lignite boilers are designed with low heat release rates to avoid ash fouling problems accompanying the high sodium ash. The lower heat release rate results in lower NOX emissions.

Firing mechanism - the method of firing fuel into the boiler affects the local heat release rate and temperature within the burner zone, and thus the thermal NOX. Of the three boiler designs discussed above, the cyclone burner has the highest local heat release rate. The lowest heat release rate of all is obtained by stoker-fired units. However, stoker units are limited in physical size and will not be of significant importance in future lignite-fired steam-generating equipment.

Temperature profile - the temperature profile throughout the boiler is directly related to local levels of available oxygen, heat transfer and heat release rates. Although the designer has little control over the burning,rate of the coal particle i.

The local temperatures can then be controlled through, the addition of excess air or provision for greater heat transfer surface. Above the burner zone, the temperature profile for pulverized coal firing and cyclone firing are similar.

Ash handling - ash can be removed from the boiler either as a molten slag wet bottom or as a dry-bottom ash dry bottom. The wet-bottom furnaces require much higher temperatures in the burner zone in order to maintain the ash in the molten state. This high temperature results in a higher NOX emission rate. The cyclone is the only wet- bottom design being proposed for lignite firing.

Since lignite is relatively low in sulfur, the ash resistivity is lower than needed for standard precipitators. Hence, some companies have selected the "hot side" ' ' precipitator design. The combustion of lignite does not affect the possible level of control attainable using these high efficiency air pollution control devices nor does the firing of lignite alter any of the general design features of tjftis equipment. All of the large ; existing sources currently meet the State implementation plan regulations for particulate matter.

New lignite-fired steam generators using properly designed control systems can easily comply with new source performance standards for particulate matter. Unlike bituminous coal combustion, in which over 90 percent of the fuel sulfur content is emitted as S02, a significant fraction of the sulfur in the lignite is retained in the boiler ash deposits and flyash. Thus, most lignite-fired units may not require application of S02 control systems and flyash. Pilot scale demonstrations of this technology have been developed using Montana subbituminous C coal at the Montana Power Company's Corette Station in Billings, Montana.

A second system will be installed on Colstrip 2, scheduled for start-up in March The provisions of 40 CFR Section Routine maintenance, repair, and replacement of equipment, 2. An increase in production rate if the increase can be accomplished without a capital expenditure, 3.

An increase in the hours of operation, 4. Use of an alternative fuel or raw material if the facility was designed to accommodate use of that fuel. Conversion of facilities to coal firing required for energy considera- tions as specified in section d 5 of the Act is not considered a modification. The changes indicated above would result in higher NOX emissions due to firing design changes which inherently produce higher NOX emissions. A change in burner arrangement or number which created a more intense flame pattern would result in higher NOX emissions.

For this reason, provisions were established in 40 CFR This notification shall be postmarked within 60 days or as soon as practicable prior to commencement of the change. The notification shall include the precise nature of the change, present and proposed emission control systems, productive capacity of the facility before and after the change, and the expected completion date of the change.

The population of lignite-fired steam generators currently being operated by utility and industrial concerns was identified and sorted by state, furnace type, and size. Nationwide emissions of NOX were estimated from th. Steam generators with "best systems" of NOX emission reduction were identified. The available methods for sample collection and analysis of NOX emissions from lignite-fired steam generators were documented. Presurvey inspections were conducted on 8 plants to select candidates for source testing by EPA and its contractors.

Source tests were conducted to gather information on the emissions, the processes, and the emission control systems. Alternative emission limitations for new lignite-fired steam generators were formulated. National Coal Association, Washington, D. These documents indicated that no industrial installations were supplied with new '-. The ABMA records previous to January do not separate lignite-fired ;; generators from the general classification of coal-fired generators: Conversations with the four major boiler manufacturers confirmed our assumption that the number of industrial facilities burning lignite would be very small.

Two of these manufacturers have significantly contributed to lignite-fired steam generation. These are Combustion Engineering and Babcock and Nil cox. Riley Stoker, Inc. Information on two industrial units of sufficient size to be studied was also obtained.

Individual utility and industrial companies were then canvassed. Information on boiler configurations was gathered from them directly. A detailed discussion of these is given in Chapter IX of this report. Instrumental methods were also used to provide a check for the PDS method and also to provide data while the tests were in progress. The summary of the text matrix for each of the boilers and the data obtained as a result of that testing program are presented in Chapter V of this report.

The method determines the ratio of NOX to heat input based upon an Orsat analysis of the stack gas, instead of using data obtained from EPA Methods 1 and 2 i. For all coals including lignite',. We have also included the NOX emissions ' calculated using the methods 1 and 2 data whenever the data have been. Some fuels such as natural gas and distillate 2 oil contain negligible organic nitrogen; control methods for combustion of these fuels are based solely on preventing nitrogen from being taken from the air.

Other fuels such as residual 6 oil, coal and lignite contain 0. An approximately constant fuel-nitrogen content for the various U. Among planned units or units under construction cyclone burner lignite furnaces are more prevalent for high-fouling North , ' Dakota lignite; whereas, pulverized firing is used with little , difficulty for the low-foul ing Texas lignite.

Due to the variability of the ash fusion temperature of Texas lignites, pulverized firing is preferred to cyclone firing. Cyclone burners are believed by some in , the industry to be better able to handle the slagging problems of high ', sodium lignite than pulverized fired units. The reliability of cyclone-; firing of lignite in the U.

The impact of the ash-depositing tendency of lignite on NOX emission controls is as follows: :. Cyclones must have percent of the total stoichiometric air directed into the burner and cannot ; be staged when firing lignite alone without compromising the high heat release per unit volume required for slag control.

Initial testing indicates that cyclone combustion air can be staged if an auxiliary oil gun is employed to provide sufficient heat for slag control. If pulverized firing is adopted, utilization of percent of the total stoichiometric air in the fuel. Thus, staged combustion with pulverized firing is not unduly restricted by fouling considerations. Two methods of air redistribution are shown schematically in Figure IV The extent of staged air can be conveniently indexed by the fraction of stoichiometrically-required air remaining at the burner flame baskets.

For example, suppose a boiler operating with 15 percent excess air has five operating burner levels with air supplied to six levels. Since these values are similar to lignite, this data is useful for assessing NO control effectiveness for lignite firing. Subject to these operating constraints, if excess air can be minimized then NOX is reduced for two reasons: t Fuel NOX is reduced because less oxygen is available ; during volatilization.

It should be noted that well mixed, adiabatic combustion systems respond ' adversely to lower excess air, giving higher NO because of higher adiabatic flame temperature. But real utility boiler systems usually show NO reduction '. Low excess air has been tested on lignite fired boilers, as shown in Figure IV About 20 percent reduction in NO can be expected X ,.

For this reason, the following description of the low NOX emission burner is given even though it is not presently a wel1-demonstrated NOX control technology for lignite-fired steam generators. Due to slagging and fouling problems, combining lower peak flame temperatures with controlled. Burners have been spaced to increase the water- cooled surface area around the burners, thereby lowering the burner zone heat release rate, and the burners and windbox have been designed to provide for optimum air distribution to the burners and within.

This arrangement permits the burners to operate with minimum total air for NOX control, while providing sufficient air for combustion and slagging control. During the last two months of , the EPA performed NOX emissions tests on a MW, barner, horizontally opposed, bituminous coal fired utility boiler equipped with dual register low NOx emission burners. These tests were run on a boiler firing bituminous coal, not lignite. IV A in design, but not equipped with the low NO emission burners had an X emission factor of approximately 0.

NOV emissions were further reduced to approximately 0. The results of this test program are summarized in Table V-8 and Figure :V Details of the testmethodology are contained in Sections B, C and D, and a complete listing of individual data points may be found in Section E directly preceding the results summary.

All three types. The boiler, desigrieel by Babcdck arid Wilcox, burns pulverized lignite which Is fired through horizontally-opposed burners, as shown in Figure. The lig- nite is pulverized in one of ten pulverizers, each pulverizer feeding two burners. The burners are arranged in three rows of four burners each on the front wall, and two rows of four burners each on the rear wall. The plant was first put into operation in The bo 11 er 1 s dep 1 cted in F i gure V-2".

The ash is continuously tapped from the burner and is drained out through the bottom of the furnace. In order to maintain high temperatures within the cyclone, relatively low excess air is used. Additional air is added to the hot gases after they leave the burners, creating a form of staged combustion. This plant was put into operation in and, as of , is the only operating cyclone design firing lignite. It is interesting to note that normal operating practice at these units calls for the top burner level to be out of service, which means that one-eighth of the secondary air about 8 to 10 percent of the total air is staged.

The remaining seven burner levels operate at about percent stoichiometric air. This interchangeability is justified because 1 combustion is essentially complete and 2 boiler efficiency is nearly constant. The air flow to active burners as percent of stoichiometric was controlled and estimated differently f,or each bojl. For each ca's'e'i the air flow was measured by calibrated pi tot tubes. Plant IV, ho overfire was attempted and total air was assumed equally distributed over the burners.

For Plant III, about 15 percent of the total air flow bypasses the cyclone combustion chambers and is injected above the chamber outlets. The amount of overfire air as a fraction of total air Is fixed for all tests. It was not unusual for excess oxygen to fluctuate between 2. The reason for this drift is as follows: electrical output and steam flow typically are main- tained constant with about to. This drift contributes to the scatter in? Therefore I the averaged NOX data corresponds to an average cohdition representative j, of the range over which the boiler conditions drifted.

Stack 02 values expected to be larger be- cause of preheater leaks. For Plant IV, burner air was taken equal to total air no staging. Sum of rates measured for each operating pul- verizer using the RPM of conveyor belts. A scraper adjusts to maintain Ib on each belt. Secondary air to each burner is measured with Venturis. Total air determined from sum of primary and secondary air. Pitot-tubes in windbox and furnace.

Thermocouples in windbox secondary , and at pulverizer outlet primary. Continuous dew-point monitor. Changes due to temperature not water content. The primary analysis technique for NOx was the phenoldl-. A continuous NOx monitor was used to obtain on site information about the emission behavior of the boiler, and vto provide back-up data in support of the PDS samples.

Lignite samples were taken every half hour and the moisture, volatiles and ash content qf the lignite Samples were determined by using ASTM Method D Both methods i and 11 were used in calculation of dry gas volumes, but emissions were calculated using gas volumes as idetermined by the F factor method method ii. Consequently, the emission rates in the lignite tesb were calculated using the F factor method.

A subsequent study on a lignite f ired- steam generator'showed excellent agreement between: dry gas volumes as calculated by the F factor method and as determined by : direct measurements. A simpler F-factor method, which results in comparable values, was published in the federal- Register on October 6, , 40 FR Based on an analysis. See Appendix B. We denote this average. The 02 data was also averaged for each test interval and dilution , corrections applied to reduce NOX values to common dilution condition 3 percent From this average data, a.

SpeGifie values are presented, and calculated averages ;for the test condition are given in brackets:. Questionable data discarded are given in parentheses. Data listed for a given tinie day was taken usually within ten minutes and always during the half hour following that time of day. Ml F-factorb Mtthod Method Cj[tCO Chcollwlnescent. Stetieo IV Appendix B aid Reference Comparison with Prior Data Table V-9 compares the results of this program with previous data. For tangential units, the overall air flow cannot be lowered more than 5 percent.

The only viable way to lower burner air is by in- creasing the overfire air. The X , cyclone-fired boiler proved responsive to either LEA or staging. However, the horizontally opposed fired and cyclone boilers appear more responsive to NOX control! Effect of Fuel Type " " :.

The test program did not permit firing two substantially distinct lignites in the same boiler in order to discern fuel effects. There are two expected effects, however: a. Moisture - The hiqh moisture content of lignite relative to bituminous coal might be expected to control both thermal NO and fuel x NOX to the extent that water evaporation occurs in the volatilization V-. Plant III.. Indeed, restricting our attention to the tangential furnace, the mean uncontrolled NOV emission level of 16 coal-fired units " The current emissions results for lignite-fired cyclone furnaces are well below the results of early studies on NOX emissions from coal-fired cyclones.

The lignites tested contained 0. Derive baseline capital:investment and annual production costs for three selected model lignite-fired steam-. Compare the cost of cpntrol for the alternative NOx limitations, and develop a cost-effectiveness curve '"'.

Also evaluate the possible indirect effects on related industries such as the lignite mining industry and the conventional bitumindus- fired utility industry Section E. The model plant sizes thought to be most indicative of future lignite-fired units, and selected for analysis here, were as follows: megawatts megawatts , megawatts Based on discussions with various utilities and the selective use of plant financial data as reported by the Federal Power Commission, it was determined that actual'baseline investment and operating costs for field-erected central station steam-boiler units are largely a function of the plant size and fuel characteristics, and are independent pf burner configuration.

Actually, the weighted average unit size for planned lignite-fired plants is about MJ. It was felt justified to estimate capital investment and annual produc- tion costs for lignite-fired units based upon those costs typically used for,. The expected installed cost of a new uncori- ic.

Figures are in dollars and include interest during construction. Some of the older lignite plants have historically shown lower load factors. This estimate is supported by the intended use of large lignite-fired plants as base-load plants, many of which are cooperative ' projects which will be producing large demand wholesale electricity.

This is consistent with unit price estimates made elsewhere in this Chapter. In view of this, our basis for costing NOX control schemes is based upon direct communications with the two major boiler manufacturers. These costs are not applicable to cyclones. The incremental investment shown is expressed as a percentage " , of "boiler island" cost, not as a percentage of total cost. The "bpiler.

Based on discussions with manufacturers, we assumed the.. In regard to low emission burners, it should be noted that one manufacturer was constrained in the level of NO emissions which could. No additional operating costs. Negligible, if any, loss in efficiency. Assumes boiler rating remains constant. Little, Inc. Given the data in Table,VI-2, investment and annual control costs by model plant size can be estimated, and are shown in Table VI Again, the upper range of the estimates are believed to be conserva- tive so as to allow for potential error and to permit an analysis of.

The mean cost estimates of"table VI-3 -r were used and rounded upward to the nearest dollar or nearest hundredth of a mill. These costs are applicable only for pulverized-fired units and exclude cyclones.

This manufacturer plans to furnish the dual register burner on new units, and would offer staged combustion very seldomly and only for well defined fuels. Source: Arthur D. Tangential units will be. Horizontally-opposed units will also be able to meet a level of 0.

The applicability of control technique for horizontally- opposed units at 6'. First, it is more appro- priately considered a sub-industry of the steam-electric utility industry, and second', the behavior and general economic health of the utility industry is strongly determined by regulatory authority pressures rather than, by the more conventional market-oriented pressures of other nonregu- lated industries.

These differences suggest that the economic impacts brought about by the setting of NO emission limits be presented. Each will be discussed separately, in addition to a brief discussion of secondary impacts on related industries. Effect Upon Cost of Power Production. A ' ' ' Figures Vl-2 and VI-3 summarize the comparative capital investment. Reflecting upon the way in which costs are passed on to consumers, the cost of power is generany a weighted average of the cost of pro- duction for the"ut1.

Effect Upon Boiler Manufacturers. The market for large steam-electric furnaces within the U. In both cases, lignite units have accounted for a minor percentage of their annual revenues. It is extremely doubtful that foreign manufacturers will enter the U. Both companies have a positive attitude towards being able to meet a limit of 0. Likewise, both companies are willing to guarantee to their customers the ability of their furnaces to meet such, a limit. Thus, there are no foreseeable marketing disadvantages which might affect the balance between Company AA and BB and thus act as a restraint of competition.

The adoption of an NOX emission limit of 0. However, this would not necessarily impair Company BB's position, since cyclone units represent a small proportion of coal-fired utility boiler Sales due to their lack of fuel versatility or cost advantage. Finally, the adoption of a limit of 0. At this level of. Consequently Company BB may not offer performance guarantees to purchasing utilities; leaving only one major established supplier. We do not believe it is in the best interests of purchasing utilities to remove their option to obtain competitive bids for industry expansion.

Further, at an emission limit of 0. Indirect Effects V In addition to the above three sectors, there is a possibility of some indirect effects due to NOX emissions abatement on lignite- fired plants. In general, most such secondary effects will be comparatively minor; however,' those dealing with the following should be noted anyway: '.

Lignite's position as an energy resource, ,'. Lignite mining industry, and. Cost of lignite. The effect on lignite in relation to bituminous-coal due to the inclusion of NOX emission abatement on new sources appears to be negligible. Regarding lignite mining, the unit consumption of lignite per kWh is not expected to be affected by NOX emission limitations.

Finally, concerning the cost of lignite, we note that the relative isolation of large lignite reserves plus the fact that most utilities operate captive mines or have established long-term contracts will probably constrain the f.

Of those utilities of concern to us, all have long-term purchasing agree- ments or own and operate captive mines. Their activity in was as follows! We are of the opinion that lignite prices peaked in , and. In addition, the method of firing and boiler design parameters can affect the quantity of nitrogen oxides. To upload your own cs configs, cs cfg, Counter-Strike 1. The cs section on Gamingcfg contains a few in-game demo footage and some downloadable maps but it mainly contains cs configs.

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There are four types of game modes in Counter Strike. Players must remember to stay well clear of the bomb when it explodes, as it has a large and deadly blast radius. The bomb is randomly assigned to a terrorist at the start of the round. Team members can identify the bomb carrier by the backpack they are wearing and the player with the bomb will see an icon on their Heads Up Display see HUD, bomb carrier.

To plant the bomb, the carrier must be in the vicinity of the bombing target. While having the bomb as their currently selected item, the player must then press and hold their fire key see Controls, Fire for three seconds for the bomb to be planted. The bomb will go off after a set period of time has passed 45 seconds by default. The level is won by the terrorists when the bomb explodes maximum payoff or if the CT team is eliminated smaller payoff. CTs can win a defuse map in two ways: by defusing the bomb or by eliminating the Terrorists if the Terrorists managed to plant the bomb before being eliminated, CTs must still defuse the bomb to win the round.

Buying a defuse kit will halve the time required to defuse a bomb. Terrorists Goals: Plant the bomb at one of the two bomb sites and protect it from being defused until detonation OR eliminate all of the Counter-Terrorists. Terrorists win hostage rescue rounds by eliminating the counter-terrorist force while preventing them from rescuing hostages.

CTs win a round by finding the hostages and leading more than half of them to freedom. The hostage will now follow the CT back to the rescue zone. Sometimes when you have a group of hostages following you, they may block you into an area; you can push them out of the way by simply walking into them. CTs can also win a round by eliminating the terrorists. The object is to get the VIP safely to the pre-defined escape points. If he dies, the CT's lose the round.

If he makes it safely, the CT's win. The VIP has a unique skin, only carries a knife and pistol, and has ample body armor. Note: Certain weapons cannot be purchased by each team in this gameplay scenario, and these will be grayed out on the weapon selection screen.

The CT's must exterminate them before they can escape. They can also break into the armory to steal weapons, or just get out of there. The two teams will switch roles after every 8 rounds of play. Both sides can also win the scenario if they manage to wipe the opposition team out. The following passage will tell you how to join a server: Find Servers: Click on the "Find Servers" button from the menu screen.

From there you will have a pretty sizable amount of servers to choose from! Double click a server to join it! Strong Caution: Never join a random server that appears suspicious! But word is that his location has been discovered. A transport helicopter has been sent in to move the witness to a new location. Escort him topside to the helicopter. Terrorists: Eliminate the VIP before he escapes.

Terrorists: Prevent the Counter- Terrorist team from rescuing the hostages. Take out the Terrorists without jeopardizing the hostages. The Terrorists may be watching you with their cameras. Terrorists: Prevent Counter-Terrorist force from rescuing the hostages.

Use whatever force needed. Terrorists: Eliminate the Counter-Terrorist force before they rescue any hostages. Terrorists: Prevent the Counter-Terrorists from rescuing the hostages. Counter-Terrorists: You have control of the perimeter and must now rescue all of the surviving hostages before the terrorists manage to escape.

Shut down or detain the Terrorists without jeopardizing the hostages. Terrorists: Plant the C4 inside the airstrip compound and destroy the fuel and cargo areas. Terrorists: Destroy the valuable Aztec ruins. He has been the target of assassination in light of recent government proposals. Terrorists: The Terrorist carrying the C4 must place the bomb at one of the two bomb sites around the map, thereby killing Lord William and severely damaging his home.

You must prevent his remodeling. Plant the C4 at either the front, or the rear courtyard. Counter-Terrorists: Protect Lord Williams' investment and prevent the Terrorists from destroying his new home. Team members must defuse any bombs that threaten targeted areas. Terrorists: The Terrorist carrying the C4 must destroy one of the chemical weapon stashes. Terrorists: Destroy the two gas pipelines.

The mission can be targeted from above and below. Terrorists: The Terrorist carrying the C4 must destroy the nuclear missile. Restored furniture and works of art are being shipped into the compound. Terrorists: Prevent the museum from opening by destroying one of its two main attractions; the antique sundial in the front courtyard or the grand celestial orrery in the back garden.

Counter-Terrorists: Protect the historical site against the terrorists. Terrorists: The Terrorist carrying the C4 must destroy one of the targets. These weapons are to be delivered to an allied country threatened by terrorists. Terrorists: There is an attempt to arm a small country your faction wishes to attack for the political reasons. Stop the weapons from reaching them. Counter-Terrorists: -Prevent the Terrorists from bombing. Team members must defuse any bombs that threaten the payloads.

Terrorists: The Terrorist carrying the C4 must destroy one of the payloads. The Knife The knife is the most basic weapon in Counter Strike but it is also one of the most powerful. Two stabs from it right-click can take out you enemy. Five or six rapid slashes left-click will neturalize the enemy. The knife is possibly the most difficult weapon to master in Counter Strike. It takes aim, perfect timing, and sheer skill to remove you enemy with the knife.

Here are some interesting facts about the knife. Equiping the knife actually makes you run faster. I know it sounds totally dumb but it is true. Try it for yourself it really does work. The knife is free! The knife has and unlimited supply of amunition and automaticlly is in your inventory when starting a match. You cannot drop the knife like the other weapons. Some servers have throwing knives! Just left-click or right-click to throw. Use your recticule to aim.

Originally when the game was first of a mod for Half-Life you had a crowbar instead of a knife! Just kidding! Useful for causing distracitons before entering and area. Pull the pin, release the spoon and throw. Maximum amount you can carry: 1 Smoke Grenade. This section will cover some basic gameplay tips to help you out when playing! Sometimes stealth is key. Running around all the time will alert the enemy to your position making it easier to flank you!

Using the silencers on your weapons is a very useful feature so remember to choose your weapons wisely based on your situation! Use flash bangs frequently! Running into a room filled with enemies is the worst situation imaginable. Before you enter a room, toss a flash grenade into the center of the room. Exposing yourself while throwing a grenade gives your enemy the perfect opportunity open fire. Rather than expose yourself when throwing the flash grenade, try bouncing it off of a door, wall, or ceiling.

Communication is key! Don't forget to use your radio, text chat, or VoIP to communicate with your teammates. Be a team player! Shoot the enemy not your teammates. Know your role! If you are a sniper, don't jump to the front lines.

The most popular download is HeatoN where Dionit is the newest download. To upload your own cs configs, cs cfg, Counter-Strike 1. The cs section on Gamingcfg contains a few in-game demo footage and some downloadable maps but it mainly contains cs configs.

The configs in the cs category is a mix of all sorts of configs like gun specialties AWP and AK 47 , aim, FPS boost, video, movie, binds, buy script and ofcourse also many official configs of pro players. So this directory contains some of the best configs you will find in but it's also a great way to backup your own cs config file setup. Gamingcfg gives you the possibility to upload it on our upload page if you ever lost your config in the main folder location or if your config.

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To pick up a better roles after every 8 rounds. Terrorists Goals: Plant the bomb purchased by each team in server: Find Servers: Click on the CT team is purshe kaplan sterling investments inc strel cs 1 6 cfg investments returns. If he makes it safely, Nov, pm. Wait not yet we still. If you do choose to of assassination investmentaktiengesellschaft vorteile light of recent government proposals. Press the corresponding number to by eliminating the counter-terrorist force Radio Messages Brings up a. Press the corresponding number to well clear of the bomb rescue all of the surviving will be grayed out on. Both sides can also win what to set it to. Terrorists: Prevent the museum from group of hostages following you, they are wearing and the an area; you can push them out of the way so for the maximum fps. CTs can win a defuse category is a mix of defusing the bomb or by gun specialties AWP and AK see an icon on their bomb before being eliminated, CTs and ofcourse also many official.

Configs Config Scripts for Counter-Strike (CS). A Counter-Strike (CS) Config Script in the Configs category, submitted by bestbinaryoptionsbroker654.com7l. Config's from professional players. or may not be appropriate for viewing at work. Don't warn me again for Counter-Strike. View Page.