Moreover, continuing training opportunities for all public archaeologists are ofered by the Centre for Archaeological Operations CAO , created in 1 The CAO is a self-contained research, advisory, and training unit catering for the needs of government archaeology throughout the nation. I ts permanent staf travel to sites being excavated to give advice, and they run training courses several times a year for select groups of prefectural archaeologists.
The Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties 1 , 1 in Japan is very non-Western in that i t makes no distinction between public and private land. This is in great contrast, for example, to the corresponding laws in the United States, which apply only to state-owned land.
In Japan, all buried objects are decreed to be the property of their original owners however many centuries i n the past! Before the mi d- 1 s, the important materials were retained and sent to the Tokyo National Museum for curation; since then, however, almost every prefecture has built a new prefectural museum, and most excavated materials are curated locally.
If conservation is necessary and local facilities are not available, artifacts may be sent to the Gangoj i Conservation Unit in Nara, which services most government and some academic excavations. In addi tion to their public museums, many prefectures have built site museums on the model of the Heij o Palace site museum established by Nabunken.
Some of these stand in areas containing clusters of ancient monuments mounded tombs, early provincial centres and temple sites, etc. Fifteen national and eleven private universities currently run graduate degree programmes in archaeology, while another ffty three universites ofer courses in archaeology.
I t resembles the Japanese l aw in making no distinction between public and private land. Any buried obj ects found in the course of construction are to be reported to the Ministry of Culture's Bureau of Antiquities and Museums, and any planned excavations must be licensed by this bureau. Excavations are conducted by a variety of institutions: university archaeologi cal departments of which more than a dozen ofer degrees in archaeology , Z 2 provincial or local museums, and government institutes.
Three government institutes located in Beijing are directly involved in ongoing archaeological excavation and research. Pleistocene studies and the Palaeolithic are the main concerns of the IVPP, which has a branch ofce at the site of Zhoukoudian. The Institute of Archaeology has permanent feld stations in the cities of Anyang, Xi'an and Luoyang, where ongoing excavations of important protohistorical and early historical sites are conducted.
The Institute also maintains about ten teams of archaeologists in Beijing which it can deploy to any area in the country where excavations are necessary. The Institute of History does not participate in excavation but acts as a locus for the analysis of excavated inscriptional material. In addition, there exists the Dunhuang Institute for Cultural Relics, which was established in 1 and reorganized in 1 95 1 expressly for the investigation of the Dunhuang Buddhist caves and fg.
Virtually every province and many municipalities have museum facilities to house materials unearthed in their administrative districts, and have their own excavation teams. Another special museum - in Luoyang City, Henan fg. Museums have also been established at many archaeological sites: Banpo, Tahe, Zhoukoudian, Yinxu, Zhangj iapo, and the Shang Palace Museum in fgs 16, In addition to museums, designated historical sites constitute an important part of cultural heritage preservation in modern China.
Provincial branches of the Bureau of Antiquities and Museums are empowered to designate sites without consultation with the national headquarters. Thus, the provinces have some leeway in deciding for themselves what cultural remains will be preserved as their local heritage. Interestingly, China has few national archaeological associations. The existing ones usually focus on specifc topics or regions and include the recently plate I formed Chinese Rock Art Association and the Society for Circum-Bohai Archaeology.
Thus national meetings hosting archaeological discussions of mixed sorts are replaced by international conferences of fxed content. Recent conferences, for example, have dealt with prehistoric culture in South China, plate 3 1 bronze drums and bronze cultures in southern China and Southeast Asia, Xia and Shang culture, circum-Bohai archaeology, and 'Dunhuangology'.
China is also continuously involved in sending large exhibitions of Chinese archaeologi cal materials abroad; expanded catalogues of these exhibitions, incorporating research and syntheses by maj or scholars, form a large proportion of the Western-language materials published on Chinese archaeology. The maj or national j ournals for archaeology in China continue to be Wenwu, Kaogu, and Kaogu Xuebao. But the proli feration of local j ournals under decentralization policies has vastly increased the amount of data and research being published - the problem now being gaining access to these materials outside China.
Korea The Koreanization of archaeology on the Peninsula has taken place only since 1 With economic reconstruction occupying the frst two decades after the Korean War, archaeological research has really only flourished since the 1 s. The two Korean governments have approached the task in somewhat diferent ways. South Korean excavations are conducted mainly by the national museums and the universities, whereas in North Korea government institutes play an i mportant role.
The National Museum structure inherited from the Japanese colonialists has been expanded in region and scope by the South Korean government. These are located in maj or cities or ancient cultural centres, supplanting the need for provincial museums, though some plate 63 municipalities such as Pusan have their own facilities. Amsadong is a Chulmun-period village in Seoul whose pit house reconstructions are open to the public, and a small site museum displays artifacts of the period.
Most of the national museums feld teams of archaeologists, and the fnds are eligible for conservation and preservation by the Department of Conservation Science at the I nstitute of Cultural Properties in Seoul. This I nstitute is an arm of the Bureau of Cultural Properties under the Ministry of Culture; established in 1 , it now has branches in Kyongj u, Mokp' o, Changwon and Puyo, which fg.
Several universities in South Korea have active programmes in archaeology, and sixty-one have museums holding large archaeological collections. One of the mai n j ournals, Hanguk Kogo-Hakbo, is published by the Korean Archaeological Society Hanguk Kogohak' oe , with several other more specialized associations producing their own publications as well. The character of East Asian archaeology Despite continuing exposure to Western archaeological research, some aspects of East Asian archaeology are still conditioned by traditional concerns: the priority of inscriptional materials in Chinese protohistoric archaeology; the obj ect-orientation of Japanese archaeologists; the search for Korean ethnicity in past cultures; and most interestingly, the common East Asian conception of time deriving from myth and legend.
The last is realized in a vocabulary that sees times past as rising of the ground into the heavens, so that the earlier the fg. This gives meaning to the phrase 'the upper limit' of a site's existence as the oldest limit, whereas 'the lower limit' in East Asian terminology means the youngest. These meanings are exactly opposite to the Anglo-American archaeological vocabulary. Such contradic- tions are simultaneously confusing and enrichi ng.
With the input oflocal ideas into archaeology, the discipline becomes less ' Western' in character. The recognition of on-the-ground prehistory as opposed to mythological and legendary history took a very long time to emerge in East Asian archaeology. In Japan, although Morse introduced the ' idea of prehistory' with his excavations in the late 1 9th century, it took over ffty years for Japanese archaeologists to cease equating prehistoric remains with individuals and peoples mentioned in the early chronicles and view them as anonymous cultures.
The traditional history, extending fom fact into legend into myth as it 'ascended' into the past, provided no room for recognition of on-the-ground prehistory dotted line. The time words in East Asian languages all incorporate the up-down analog: Jogo back ntmc. Jo comc Iorward ntmc. Japanese saka-noboru kudaru 'to climb a hilf ' to descend' Chinese guoqu xialai 'to ascend to the past ' 'to come down' Korean olla kada nerida ' to climb up' ' to descend fom' the Japanese, who now commonly speak familiarly of the Jomon and Yayoi peoples as identifed exclusively through their material remains.
A second point of variance with the West is in the area of theory. Whereas anthropological archaeology as developed in the United States aims to study the origins and development of humankind, East Asian archaeologists are more locally focused. Tracing the historical roots of their own societies and genetic links between their individual cultures receives top priority, and the re-creation of the li festyles of former inhabitants in particular periods through the analysis of material culture is the overarching problem which guides all archaeological investigation and synthesis.
In this sense, enquiry into past human behaviour as an i nteresting phenomenon in itself does not enter into the research structure, even though comparative studies with external cultures have been taken up wi th gusto by Japanese archaeologists in the 1 98os. Perhaps the most recent development in archaeological research in East Asia is the increasing shift towards scientifc analyses in investigating the details of past activities and material culture.
This has manifested itself i n China in the chemical analyses of ceramics and metals. Large groups of archaeologists and scientists are now collaborating in investigating ancient technologies, with the results being brought together through large conferences and conference publications of massive scale. The formation of the Japanese Society for Scientifc Studies on Cultural Property in 1 is a measure of the widespread involvement in technological questions, and the society' s j ournal, Archaeolog and Natural Science Kokogaku to Shizen Kagaku , illustrates the diversity of research topics being undertaken.
Then, according to most palaeoanthropologists, came the migration 'Out of Africa' by the ancestors of modern humans, the early peoples known as Homo erectus: 'Homo erectus. He had reached Java about a million years ago, and he survived to about thousand years ago in China'. The subsequent broad distribution of Homo erectus fnds is looked upon as evidence of an actual expansion of the geographical range of the genus Homo. This scenario is compatible with the dominant theory of biological evolution, which postulates that species evolution occurs rapidly and only within small reproductively isolated populations.
An opposing view, that Homo erectus developed in Asia, is held by some Chinese archaeologists. The ancestral population, in this case, is thought to have been the ramapi thecines -fossil apes which lived between 1 4 and 8 million years ago across a huge area from eastern Africa to southwestern China.
Unfortunately, there i s l i ttle evidence of an evolutionary transition from Ramapithecus to Australopithecus, either in Asia or Africa, and the acknowledged ancestors of Homo erectus - the australopithe cines - so far occur only in Africa. This is not to say that australopithecine fossils are not sometimes claimed to exist in Asia. Pl ei st. Western scholars, however, disagree with these attributions, classifying these fnds instead as Homo erectus despite their rather large size.
Thus, the lack of universally acknowledged australopithecine fossils from the Mainland renders the Chinese hypothesis of indigenous Homo erectus evolution currently unsupportable, interesting though it may be. Even when the spread of human ancestors 'Out of Africa' is accepted, the date of their appearance in East Asia is hotly debated. Before absolute dating methods were applied to East Asian Palaeolithic materials, the earliest date for Homo erectus on the China Mainland was assumed to be about 70o,ooo years ago at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene.
This date was chosen because no human fossils or stone tools occurred with any Nihewan faunal assemblages of the Early Pleistocene, only with Middle Pleistocene Zhoukoudian fauna. Box ] This date has now been challenged by a palaeomagnetic dating programme and the recent discovery of three Palaeolithic sites containing Nihewan faunal assemblages. About 70o, ooo years ago not only marks the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene but also serves as the boundary - in the world' s palaeomagnetic history - between the present epoch of normal polarity and the most recent major reversal of polarity.
Lantian, where Homo erectus fossils have been recovered from two localities, is now dated before this boundary at , and 8oo,ooo years ago, while dates of over 1. However, not all scholars accept these early palaeomagnetic readings, especially from Yuanmou.
The debate over the normal polarity reading at Yuanmou derives from fg. The pattern from Yuanmou has been matched with both older 1. Some claim that the case for the younger dates is reinforced by an analysis of amino acid ratios in animal bones from the Yuanmou stratum, which gave a reading of o.
U Cohili W q. Their alignment then preserves the direction and polarity - which are variable - ofthe magnetic feld at the time ofthe rocks' solidication. Major reversals in the earth' s polarity have been documented in cores several times for the last 4 million years. The most recent major reversal occurred between o. Thus, , is the approximate dividing line between the Brunhes Normal Epoch - continuing to the present - and the earlier Matuyama Reversed Epoch.
However, these major epochs also entail brief shits of polarity within them, and problems in interpretation most ofen arise in matching feld data with these minor shits. In view of all these difculties, a tentative date of one million years ago is fg. This i s bound to change as the details of the mechanics and timing of the initial peopling of Asia are clarifed i n what is one of the more interesting research problems in understanding Early Palaeolithic East Asia.
Primary among them i s Locality 1 at Zhoukoudian. This cave site has yielded the largest number of Homo erectus fossils in the world - so numerous that they can be used as a group to study individual variation within the species. Among the forty-odd individuals represented, 40 per cent belong to children under age 1 4, with only 2. It is possible that the originals will be recovered one day, since claims - none substantiated as yet continue to flter in of their rediscovery in somebody's loft.
Locality 1 has consistently been portrayed in the archaeological literature as a cave inhabited by Homo erectus, who built fres in the interior to keep warm and cook food. This homey scenario - based on tens of thousands of animal bones and stone tools from the thirteen cultural layers spanning several hundred thousand years - has recently been challenged by both Chinese and Western archaeologists. No one thinks that the thick ash layers in the cave were produced entirely by these early humans, but Chinese archaeologists point to ash heaps positioned I I The Zhoukoudian cave sites.
Locality I shown in cross-section and the later-occupied Upper Cave shown positioned above it. These are only two ofscores oflocalities excavated at Zhoukoudian in the past Oyears. I n Earl y Pal aeol i thi c assembl ages, per cent of speci es are now exti nct; i n Mi ddl e Pal aeol i thi c, per cent; and i n Late Pal aeol i thi c, onl y 1 0 per cent.
In addi t i on, the assembl ages of di ferent t i me peri ods are popul ated by di sti ncti ve ani mal types or groups of ani mal s, whose presence i n a si te wi l l gi ve the i nvesti gator a cl ue as to the age of the assembl age and perhaps to the cl i mate at that t i me. Faunal dati ng, usi ng these pri nci pl es, i s an extremel y crude gui de to real age and tends to mask regi onal and temporal osci l l ati ons. Neverthel ess, i t i s a commonl y used techni que, and references to standard faunal groups as age i ndi cators pepper the Pal aeol i thi c l i terature.
I n East Asi a, di ferent ani mal assembl ages represent the northern and sout hern Mai nl and as d i vi ded by t he Qi nl i ng mountai n range. The southern mammal s bel ong to t he Ai l uro poda-Stegodon panda-el ephant fauna, referred to here as the southern fauna. Ani mal s of thi s group i mpl y a warm cl i mate; for exampl e, the panda and bamboo rat both i nhabi t southern bamboo groves, and t he tapi r and orang-utan are common to the humi d tropi cal forests.
The occurrence of any of these southern ani mal s above the Qi nl i ng boundary i ndi cates that a warm phase of cl i mate prevai l ed i n the north. The southern fauna was overal l remarkabl y stabl e t hroughout t he Pl ei stocene i n contrast to the northern fauna, whose composi ti on changed several ti mes i n accordance wi th cl i mati c vari ati ons.
Sti l l , i n the south i ndi vi dual genera or speci es of ani mal s had l i mi ted spans of exi stence. These i ndi vi dual s are used as temporal markers to date southern si tes, whereas the dates of northern si tes are known from ent i re compl exes of ani mal s.
Throughout t he Pl ei stocene, t he nort hern fauna was a mi xture of ani mal s of the temperate forest bear, deer, squi rrel , monkey, etc. The Early Pl ei stocene or Ni hewan fauna sel dom occurs i n archaeol ogi cal si tes because most ear l y human si tes on t he Chi na Mai nl and date to t he Mi ddl e Pl ei stocene. Succeedi ng i t i n the Late Pl ei stocene i s t he Loess fauna, whi ch i s augmented dur i ng the l ast gl aci al phase by t he Mammoth fauna. The tradi t i onal l y recogn i zed di agnosti c types for these faunal di vi si ons ar e gi ven bel ow, but i t must be noted that these do not refl ect the phase di vi si ons wi th i n the groupi ngs t hat are currentl y bei ng devel oped.
I t i s no l onger acceptabl e to assi gn several si tes to the Mi ddl e Pal aeol i th i c, for exampl e, and assume they are contemporaneous; after al l , thi s peri od l asted for hal f a mi l l i on years and entai l ed maj or changes i n cl i mate and i n t he ani mal s roami ng the l and. A few burnt bones such as several horse j aw and teeth fragments give clear, visible evidence of roasting; other evidence of heating not visible to the naked eye is expected to be ascertained by scanning electron microscopy.
Homo erectus may have scavenged their kill, since some of the animal bones bear tool marks in addition to signs of gnawing. Most of the thousands ofbones in the cave layers had been introduced by denning animals; only 1 per cent of the recovered bones exhibit clear evidence of human modifcation.
Whether any of these were used as tools rather than being scraped for meat is controversial. The variety of animals at Locality 1 includes some of the species which Peking Man, Woman and Child exploited for food. Such animals also reflect changes in the climate through time.
In the absence of radiometric dating when Zhoukoudian was frst excavated, groupings of warm-phase and cold-phase mammals were used to assign the layers to successive climates and periods. Layers 1 1 to 5 display a gradual progression from the cold-climate Zhoukoudian fauna e. Recently, several sophisticated dating methods have been applied to the Locality 1strata.
Since these new dating methods are quite expensive, many Palaeolithic sites in China are still dated through the relative means of their faunal assemblages and stone tool typologies. In fact, the strict dichotomy. Top to bottom: chopper, hand-adze, chopping tool, proto-handaxe. Sho; ,. The righthand series comprises large chopper-chopping tools made on fakes and heavy triangular points.
It includes relatively fw smal tools. Conversely, the lefhand series is characterized by the use ofsmall, irregular fakes bearing fne retouch. These data revealed that the assemblage from Locality I consisted almost entirely of small flakes and flake tools - not the large tools predicted. This discrepancy was not fully appreciated until the I 96os, by which time several Palaeolithic sites had been excavated, some - yielding assemblages of small flake tools like Zhoukoudian and some yielding large-tool assemblages as at Kehe, Lantian and particularly at Dingcun.
The comparative ages of the flake tools from Zhoukoudian Locality I Early Palaeolithic and the large tools - especially the trihedral points - from Dingcun Middle Palaeolithic make it clear that the size of tool was not a product of chronological progression from large to small as expected. Flakes were carefully retouched for specifc purposes, but standardized tool shapes were just beginning to appear.
Among the retouched fake tools are scrapers, points, awls and gravers. Considerable variety and regularity was achieved by the Middle Palaeolithic, and tool types became more systematized. Flakes were detached from their cores by several techniques: direct percussion with a hard pebble or soft bone, wood hammer; throwing the core on to another stone; striking two blocks together; and the bipolar technique of setting the core on an anvil stone and crushing it from above with another, thus producing percussion scars at both ends of the resulting fake.
I t is interesting to note that bipolar fakes occurred by the thousands at Zhoukoudian Locality I, but not a single example was recovered from Dingcun. Thus, the diference between these assemblages lies not only in the size of tool but also in the method of fake detachment. Andersson's crew at Zhoukoudian, is preserved for the English reader in Children of the Yellow Earth, written by Andersson himself.
It was another two decades before Palaeolithic stone tools were uncovered by an amateur archaeologist in Japan I , and over three decades before they were identifed in Korea by an American serviceman I It might be said, however, that the Palaeolithic is still in the process of discovery in East Asia as its time limits are constantly challenged in the diferent regions. At the northern Peninsular site of Sangwon Cave, investigators claim that the frst stratum above bedrock may be 40o,ooo years old because of the occurrence of Box ] an extinct species of feld mouse.
At the Sokchangni site, however, heavy quartzite cores and flakes, choppers and chopping tools occurred at Location I below a layer radiocarbon dated to 30, years ago. These lower assemblages also contained J. Oval planing marks are clearl visible on both sides ofthe waterlogged plank.
Other fragments ofwood found with it in the gravelly layers ofthe site have been radiocarbon dated to roughly 54, years ago. Typological similarities in tools have also been used to date the lower level of the Kulpori site to the Early or Middle Palaeolithic.
If accurate, this site has produced some of the earliest evidence of a Palaeolithic settlement, since an enclosure 8 7 1 1. The tools accompanying this enclosure, which has been interpreted as the footing for a tent-like structure, were quartzite fakes belonging to a flake tool industry.
Tool maintenance at this site was evidenced by retouched flakes. In Japan, the excavator ofHoshino and Sozudai thinks these sites represent a Palaeolithic sequence for between 40o,ooo and 35, years ago. At Sozudai, a similar range of tools made of quartzite appeared in a layer assessed to have been formed either 2oo,ooo or , years ago; both the tool types and the sequence are likened to Zhoukoudian. However, no radiometric dates have been obtained for these layers, and the Sozudai lithics themselves are thought by a maj ority of archaeologists not to be of human manufacture.
Such doubts also plague a whole new series of excavations in northeastern Japan. These lithics are dismissed by critics as being naturally occurring flakes. Even sceptics acknowledge that these cultural materials may remain from a Palaeolithic stage commencing as early as so,ooo years ago. A second peopling? The appearance of Homo sapiens sapiens is not j ust an East Asian problem but one of worldwide controversy and implications.
Basically the same issues as in the frst peopling are at stake: were modern humans a product of 'punctuated equilibrium' evolution within one Homo erectus group in a corner of Africa or the Middle East who then spread out and replaced Homo erectus elsewhere in the world, or did modern humans develop within the whole Homo erectus population on a broad geographical scale?
These are long-standing questions in East Asian archaeology, and scholars have traditionally taken sides, either supporting the 'replacement hypothesis'2 1 or the hypothesis of 'indigenous evolution'. The ' Eve' or 'replacement hypothesis' follows current evolutionary thinking in requiring the evolution of species to occur only within small, reproductively isolated groups. A 1 analysis of DNA found within small organelles known as mitochondria in cells of living humans suggested that modern humankind 'can trace their mitochondrial genomes back to a single female founder' , and that this founder lived no longer than tso,ooo years ago in Africa or middle Eurasia.
Homo erects was dirent fom modern humans in having a receding chin, pronounced alveolar prognathism, and virtually no forehead; the long, keeled skull sloped back from a very heavy brow ridge - the supraorbital torus. The male is estimated to have stood em and the fmale em tal. Several fossils identifed as 'transitional' between the two species and labelled as Homo sapiens have been discovered at the Chinese sites ofDingcun, Maba, Changyang, Dali, Jinniushan, and QuyuanhekouP The remains consist of teeth, face and skull fragments and are sometimes misleadingly termed 'neanderthaloid' by analogy with Europe' s own early modern population, the Neanderthals.
If Homo sapiens sapiens developed outside East Asia as suggested by the replacement hypothesis, there would be no need or reason for the existence of transitional types within East Asia; nor could they properly have been products. These data thus argue strongly for the i ndigenous evolution of modern human populations throughout the range of ancient Homo erectus.
This scenario is incompatible with evolutionary theory, but some scholars argue that it was precisely because of cultural activities, which separate humans from other animals, that this modifcation of natural processes could have occurred. Triangles indicate obsidian sources.
The shells may have been obtained through exchange with distant coastal groups. Whether similar long-range interaction can be found for the Middle Palaeolithic, however, is another question; and it remains to be seen if such cultural activities can indeed be made to account for the evolution of the human species. Ongoing research promises to clarify the mechanics of the peopling of East Asia as well as to refne many of the assumptions used in evolutionary theory.
Archaeological sites less than o,ooo years old are assumed to have been produced by modern humans. It is noteworthy, though, that very few Late Palaeolithic skeletal remains have been recovered - the most important sites being the Zhoukoudian Upper Cave and the Minatogawa limestone fssure in Okinawa.
LK I nnovati ons of Modern Humans , 1, years agO Exploiting East Asialand The Late Pleistocene, which witnessed the appearance of modern human beings in East Asia, began with a long interglacial of relatively stable warm weather between 1 3o,ooo and 75, years ago. Subsequent cycling of warm and cold phases of increasing severity led to dramatic fuctuations in the geographical contours of coastal East Asia. During cold phases 7o, ooo, 5o,ooo and 37, years ago and then again during the last glacial maximum at 1 8,ooo years ago, the Y ellow Plain and Seto Plain were exposed by lower sea levels, and the Japan Sea became merely a large lake which drained through the present Korea Strait.
These increased land areas facilitated the movement of humans and animals among and between parts of East Asia that are now separated by large expanses of water. The cold-phase dates given above do correspond loosely with the very tentative data for human occupation in the Early Palaeolithic of Japan as discussed in Chapter 3 After about 2o,ooo years ago, despite extremely cold conditions, Late Palaeolithic populations grew rapidly, as demonstrated by the thousands of known Late Pleistocene sites.
Some new groups probably migrated in from the north, as Sakhalin, Hokkaido and Honshu were successively j oined to the Siberian mainland. Elephant bones dredged up from the bottom of Japan's I nland Sea confrm that large game roamed the now-submerged Yellow and Seto Plai ns. It is quite plausible that many Late Palaeolithic sites were situated on these plains, which are inaccessible in their flooded state today. Consisting of a peat bog formed between 35, and 1 5,ooo years ago, Hanaizumi yielded bones of bison, elk moose , and elephant Loxodonta at what is thought to have been either a kill site or a bone dump.
This map shows the coastline bold line at the time ofmaximum cold during the last glacial period I, OOO years ago, with the Yellow Plain and Seto Plain exposed. Tundra, steppe and boreal conierous forests characterized the northern latitudes, with temperate conierous forests spread across the mid-latitude ranges.
The steppes and plains were mostly treeless, supporting large herbivores such as auroch, bison, elk and Nauman' s elephant. Both the woolly mammoth and woolly rhinoceros extended into the Hokkaido region from the Eurasian landmass, while bison, giant deer, horse, dog and bear remains have been recovered from present day Honshu.
Just two such sites have recently produced over fve hundred bone awls, needles, knives, shovels, clubs and pronged implements. The arid steppe of the north China Mainland is one place where faunal remains have been recovered from open sites. From this evidence, it can be postulated that some Late Palaeolithic groups in this region may have concentrated on specifc species. Horse and wild ass dominate the assemblages at Shiyu and Xuj iayao, but at Salawusu Sj ara-osso-gol in Inner Mongolia, the remains are almost exclusively gazelle.
One avenue for doing so is to analyze the kinds of fatty acids remaining on stone tools after use. These are removed from the artifact in an ultrasonic bath of solvent and then identifed and measured with a gas chromatography mass-spectrometer. Artifacts from the Babadan A site controversially dated to 1 4o, ooo years ago yielded fats very close to those of the Naumann elephant, while fatty acids on artifacts from the Mirikawa 1 site dated to about 1 2,ooo years ago were especially close to those of deer.
Another approach is through the investigation of tool use by identifying patterns of wear on tool edges. Whereas most use-wear studies in the West are carried out on obsidian or fint tools, the Japanese corpus consists mainly of tools of siliceous shale. An analysis of several artifacts from the Mosanru site radiocarbon dated to between 1],ooo and 1 5, years ago suggested the following tool uses: one burin used to scrape bone or antler; a second burin used on the same materials, engraving with one edge and scraping with another; a third burin used for cutting bark with one edge and engraving wood with another; and four end scrapers, one for hide and three for bone.
This is a method ofpreparing cobbles ofsanukite, a fne grained volcanic relative of andesite, for the production ofside-blow fakes; it was named afer the Japanese Inland Sea Setouchi area where the most abundant rock type was available. The technique seems to have been deeloped specicall to overcome the rather intractable nature ofthis rock and its peculiar facture patterns. To make a side-blow fake, a large circular fake a to be used as the core was struck ofa sanukite cobble b.
The arrows indicate the direction ofthe blow. This fake side-view, c was covered by the original wbble surface cortex on the rounded top surface, but the bottom surface was fat. The circular shape was modied by taking fakes of across one side c, d to frm a symmetricall beveled edge. The upper surface of this bevel formed the striking platform where successive fakes were detached e ; in shape, these fakes folowed the profle ofthe lower surface ofthe bevel - that is, shallow in depth and wide in breadth f.
The platform area was ofen blunted g , leaving the blade to be used as it was or sharpened with retouch. A typical artiact made fom a sanukite fake was the Ko kni h, 9 -5 em long. The bulb ofpercussion occurs on the longitudinal side ofthe implement, giving rise to the name ' side-blow' fake. The Late Palaeolithic of the Japanese Islands, nominally beginning 3o,ooo years ago, is currently divided into four major phases, each characterized by a diferent lithic technology but with fg.
In general, the inhabitants frst manufactured rather elongated flakes for tools Phase I , but in Phase II they achieved the production of true blades - that is, fakes more than twice as long as they are wide with regular, parallel sides. They made some of these blades into socalled 'knives' , but for other knives they used side-blow fakes made with the Setouchi technique.
As early as I 7 ,ooo years ago, they began to manufacture micro blades - tiny bladelets which became widely used in Phase I I I. Usually mm long and made of obsidian, microblades were probably used as inserts into composite tools like a razor blade today. Microblade production represented the refnement and scaling down of the previous blade technology, but an entirely di ferent way of fashioning tools became popular in Phase IV. Although this description of successive lithic technologies deals only with fake tools, larger tools such as choppers continued to be made throughout East Asia during the Late Palaeolithi c.
On the Chi na Mainland, the lithic traditions have been divided into fake and heavy tool traditions lasting through the Middle Palaeolithic and merging thence onwards. Many of the Late Palaeolithic flake assemblages, such as at fg. Phase : ended in the Kanto region about 7, OOO years ago but continued almost without interruption until iJ, SOO years ago in Hokkaido; ending dates for other regions are unclear marked by dotted lines.
Phase 2 contains a volcanic ash date marker, the A. True blades occurred in the northeast from : g, OOOyears ago or so dashed mesh. At the end ofthe phase, trapezes become common in Kyushu, and points appear across the central region. Phase q is characterized in the north by ground-edge adze faxes and stemmed points. Except for Hokkaido, pottery dotted mesh enters the sequence at this time.
These dates are compatible with the early microblade occurrences in the archipelago noted above, with the revised date of the Dyuktai microlithic culture of Siberia 1 8, ooo years ago at the earliest ,8 and with the major site of microblade manufacture i n the northern Japanese Islands, Shirataki, at I J,OOO years ago.
This is one ofseveral methods of preparing obsidian cores for the subsequent detachment ofmicroblades. First, a large biace having an oval shape and thickened centre was created a. These detachments leave a wedge-shaped core with a smooth upper surface forming the striking platorm.
From one end ofthe wedge, tiny longitudinal fakes or 'microblades' were detached by applying pressure to the platform, leaving futed scars on the wedge c. The technology fg. Several fourishing microlithic traditions, including the Yubetsu technique in Hokkaido and the conical-core tradition in Kyushu, were based near local fg. But microliths enjoyed only a very brief lifespan in the archipelago compared with the northern areas of the continent, where microblade production continued well into the postglacial period even within the north-central Neolithic cultures.
A mobile lifestyle Actual habitation remains for the Late Palaeolithic are extremely scarce and ephemeral i n nature, encouraging the view that Late Palaeolithic peoples were mobile hunters. A foor measuring 5 m2 was edged with rocks, perhaps used to weigh down a roof covering; a burnt spot on the foor indicated a hearth, and several post-holes were in evidence.
The most characteristic features at these sites are clusters, m in diameter, of burnt cobbles associated with artifact scatters. U The cobble clusters might have been locations for food preparation or stone floor linings for large hearths. Some stones are encrusted with charcoal or tar like substances which have yielded animal lipids, supporting these interpre tations. Each of the various kinds of scrapers as well as the microcores were recovered from a diferent area of the site, suggesting that activities using these tools were spatially separated.
The Iwato site lef and Sunagawa site right give us dirent information about the formation oflithic scatters. The relative positioning of such scatters is ilustrated at Sunagawa. Some ofthe fakes recovered from the scatters in Locations A and F ft together, indicating the shiing of the manufacturing locus through time. Apart from its purely technological interest, core reftting also yields important sociological information about lithic manufacture.
Which flakes were chosen for use and carried away use value? What percentage of the core debris was discarded economy? And did the flaking of one core occur all in one place or was the tool carried around and modifed in its lifetime of use curation? At the Sunagawa site, cores used to make fakes in one area were frst carried away by the inhabitants and then later carried back on to another part of the site for further flaking activity.
These successive activities were discovered entirely through reconstructing the sequence and location of fake detachment from the debris in the two areas. Palaeolithic peoples could choose to locate their settlements in close proximity to stone resources, as at Shirataki where the river 'provided an inexhaustible supply of water-transported obsidian cobbles for toolmaking'.
Three local sources for obsidian used in the Kanto region during the Palaeolithic have been identifed through neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analyses. Meanwhile, as early as 27, years ago a small amount of obsidian was apparently transported from the ofshore islands, 1 8 though this source was not exploited heavily until the succeeding Jomon period.
The social mechanisms by which they obtained their stone are unknown; most scholars presume some sort of exchange network similar to the 'down-the-line' model developed in the West. Palaeolithic art The advent of Homo sapiens sapiens was not j ust a biological phenomenon: it was also a psychological revolution, accompanied by the development of self consciousness and aesthetic appreciation.
The suddenly felt need to bury the dead, the use of body ornaments, and the creation of cave and portable art followed from these changes and have been cited as the major attributes of human modernity. In East Asia, these changes manifested themselves in the Late Palaeolithic. Zhoukoudian once again enters the story here with its exceptional fnds from Upper Cave, a diferent cave from Locality 1. Although a few ashy areas and burnt spots indicate that fres were lit in the cave, there was no extensive tool debris or rubbish characteristic of long-term occupation.
Instead Upper Cave. Bird bones, pebbles and animal teeth were all pressed into service for the frst human foray into the fashion world. Palaeolithic rock pee kings ofdeer on the Korean Peninsula a contrast greatly with anthropormorphic pebbles found in the Japanese Islands.
A pecked face stares out fom a cylindrical stone rod b , and an incised pebble bears the fgure ofa woman c , perhaps wearing a grass skirt? Similar ornaments consisting of bird-bone beads, ostrich-eggshell pendants and perforated shells have been found at the nearby open-air site of Hutouliang. The frst Palaeolithic examples of Mainland portable art have recently been identifed, consisting of geometric carvings on bone. A 'face' sculpture pecked on to the hilt of a stone rod was excavated from the lwato site dating between zo,ooo and 1o, ooo years ago, and several river cobbles excavated from the Kamikuroiwa site, dating to 1o,ooo years ago, bear incised decoration interpreted as depicting female fgures.
These female forms with heavy breasts and what look like grass skirts! In addition to these portable obj ects, some rock art on the Korean Peninsula has been ascribed to the Palaeolithic on the grounds that the animals portrayed were Late Pleistocene cold-limate fauna not currently found on the Peninsula. It is hypothesized that about 14, years ago, with the amelioration in climate, these cold fauna began to migrate northwards together with the recession of the grasslands and forests of their glacial habitat.
Korean archaeologists are of the opinion that Peninsular occupants followed the herd animals north, possibly leaving the Peninsula unoccupied in the early postglacial period. East Asi a' s l i thi c tradi t i ons have many anal ogues i n arti facts excavated f rom early Ameri can si tes, and possi bl e correl at i ons between t hem are often ci ted i n debates about the dati ng of the fi rst arri val s from the Ol d Wor l d.
The currentl y domi nant but much-chal l enged scenari o hol ds t hat the fi rst nat i ve Ameri cans were l arge-game hunters who used bi faci al l y fl aked s pearpoi nts, cal l ed ' Cl ovi s poi nts' after thei r si te of fi rst di scovery.
These are dated to c. J J , years ago, comparabl e wi th the bi faci al fl aki ng technol ogy whi ch arose i n the Japanese I sl ands at about the same ti me. Mi crobl ade technol ogy - wh i ch i s dated much earl i er t han bi faci al fl aki ng i n Eurasi a up t o 35, years ago on the Chi na Mai nl and and J4, years ago i n t he Japanese I sl ands - al so occurs i n North Ameri ca. On the Eurasi an si de, t he Yubetsu techni que i s common i n Hokkai do, the Amur Ri ver drai nage, the norther n Mai n l and, and Trans-Bai kal ; t he l ast two regi ons al so host t he Campus-type mi crocores i denti fi ed fi rst i n Al aska.
So far, t here i s no evi dence that the Campus technol ogy i s as earl y as i ts Eurasi an counterparts, but researchers are now al l owi ng for i nteracti on i n both di rect i ons across Beri ngi a so that t he Eurasi an remai ns are not automati cal l y assumed to be earl i er. A few si tes yi el di ng amorphous cores and f l akes i n North Ameri ca date pr i or to J J , years ago.
Some researchers di smi ss these as mi s-dated arti facts or natural l y broken stones, bel i evi ng that the earl i est Ameri cans al ready possessed bi faci al technol ogy; others bel i eve these l i t hi cs t o be t he heterogeneous remai ns of peopl e who made an earl i er crossi ng from Eurasi a, taki ng wi t h t hem general i zed tool ki ts not yet i ncorporati ng bi faci al technol ogy.
I n any case, earl i er mi grati ons woul d be demanded i f controversi al dati ngs of si tes i n Brazi l and Chi l e t o ' at l east 1 5, years ago and possi bl y o a o 30, years ago' were to become general l y accepted. Very l i ttl e i s understood about the envi ronmental adaptati ons and mi gratory processes of groups on both si des of Beri ngi a.
I n fact, the l andbri dge i tsel f may have been i rrel evant i f Late Pal aeol i thi c peopl es of northeaster n Asi a had water transport of sufi ci ent qual i ty to make crossi ngs al ong the Kuri l e and Al euti an I sl and chai ns. The deep-sea fi shi ng capabi l i ti es of the earl y postgl aci al Jomon peopl es of the Japanese archi pel ago Chapter 5 thus become rel evant to thi s di scussi on.
Both these sites date to about 1 2, years ago, posing two problems for their excavators. First, Japanese archaeologists are reluctant to accept the idea that the archipelago formed the locus of ceramic innovation in world prehistory, and they look to the continent for precedents. The classic distinction between the Palaeolithic old stone and Neolithic new stone ages was the di ference between chipping and polishing as the means for fnishing stone tools.
The 'new' technology was j udged to have been polishing, which occurred in Europe with ceramics and agriculture. In Australasia, however, there is now a large body of evidence that polishing, frst in the form of edge-grinding, began as early as 3o, ooo years ago. These developments in ceramic and ground stone are thus Late Palaeolithic innovations which demonstrate that the European model of technological change cannot be applied indiscriminately to other areas of the worl d.
However, as wi th any invention, the mere existence of the occasional pottery vessel and edge-ground tool in the Late Palaeolithic may not be as important as the conditions which stimulated their more widespread adoption and use.
I n East Asia, such conditions might be found i n the transformation of the forest regimes i n the terminal Pleistocene. Forest exploitation patterns Alpine tundra and boreal conifer forests began to recede northwards about 1 4,ooo years ago. According to work done on the Japanese Islands, these might have been succeeded immediately by an open steppe environment,26 and then came colonizing temperate forests from the south.
By 6ooo BC, a warm-temperate evergreen broad leaf forest unique to East Asia colonized a broad strip from the Yangzi Basin across the southern tip of the Korean Peninsula into the western Japanese I slands. The warm-temperate evergreen oak and laurel forests provided acorns from the chinkapin and the evergreen oaks.
Experiments have shown that these nuts have low tannin content c. Mac hilus t hunbergii Casti nopsi. Not only was there a south-north transformation in forest types, indicated by the extension upper lef ofthe broad-leaf evergreen forest lower lef into the Japanese Islands, but altitudinal stratication occurred as well, as can be seen within the Japanese Islands upper right. Cold forest types which existed in lowland areas during the glacial maximum retreated to higher mountain tops in the postglacial period.
Thus, on a pollen diagram for a mountainous region, lowland warm and highland cold species are likel to occur together, indicating not temporal change in climate from one to the other but the distribution offorest types according to altitude. The use of polished stone tools might also have been associated with the exploitation of forest resources for supplies of timber. Two characteristic products of the postglacial period not seen in the Palaeolithic are dug-out plate canoes and huts built with posts.
With the rise in sea level and gradual fooding of the Yellow Plain during this initial period of climatic warming, coastlines became longer, the sea and its resources became more accessible, and the need to communicate across water became more intense. Boat-building was the obvious solution. It is not clear how Palaeolithic people made earlier crossings of the Korea Strait or how they gained access to the obsidian on the ofshore islands of Tokyo Bay or travelled to Okinawa Island.
One would assume that rafts or other watercraft were employed, as has been suggested for water crossings in Australasia. Likewise, with the felling of trees for posts. Such changes had occurred to some extent during every previous interglacial warming period, but they were particularly signifcant in the early Holocene because they afected modern humans for the frst time.
With the extinction of many large herd animals at the end of the Pleistocene and the fooding of the Yellow Plain, human groups along the retreating coastlines of East Asialand turned to exploitation of a much broader fg. Fishing and shellfsh collection were new strategies, while increased plant manipulation led to the development of two full-fedged agricultural economies on the China Mainland. This chapter will examine the adaptations of the non-agricultural Chulmun and Jomon peoples to the new resources aforded by that portion of the East Asian littoral gradually emerging as the Korean Peninsula and Japanese Islands, shaped by the rising sea levels.
The agricultural societies developing on the China Mainland at the same time will be dealt with in Chapter 6. Regardless of the nature of their subsistence economies, all the early Holocene peoples of East Asia manufactured and used pottery.
As noted in Box Chapter 4, pottery has traditionally been viewed as an attribute exclusive to agricultural societies, but the East Asian data have played an important role in worldwide recognition of what one may now call 'ceramic hunters and gatherers'.
Sedentism implies rich resources as well as storage technologies to support stationary populations. S u n d a y uneral Funeral Chapel. Buhl h a A m orcan Hoar Elder St.. A fte r. Blane Cc T h c Jl w h c h cc from bo approved to serve u fucly. A C All C ontlnu. C ontnu th e ft jrlcy. S tc v no lollowngan Deprt :k. D arym ama. W ash.. Suo cmma duncton. D ouglas Eastsdo Baptst Wh J. Hernngsen plans to expa sponsc to gm w h by Unver en F oods, w hch w ll use lngscn faclty, an t m o n ey w ould h ave be 10 w den and deepen V cu.
Bul f H ennng; clcd t would create. KH dfference becausc cr jo b s w ere q rcatc d th a n predcted, he sad. Vcrml lh that m uch m oney al stu com pany needed m ore lme ond. Burgdorf sad that sn Dup new ly formed group thc nto o fb u sn e ssb onng nt W e a re lo o kng r a s approach our legslaton! Thc board also: gel Planned a worc sess n g. G enldtews. Fler ru also The delense of our e and he- sad.
U tah Lee. Trangle-V fcal Fam ly. D ary daho M ortcnsen bought a :a u s e o f b u tte r from a C alon ctw peralve. She attend cla. Glnes and C books for tw sson for Dcc. Calfoma greed to package b u tter. W estern know wha t. Frank Km a larg e cjuanty cooperatv C a lfo rn U rd alry SVc rb u tter fn shpped to U tah, w e re go pcd and shpped ourown b n a e o f jo b s, fnance ll sad.
XK 1C sad. Lsses n the dustrct ths week, re hopng that havng these n cla. Whte sad. S20 Rdom LU. Ar Force Base. Road as well as. Socnunento M s- son. H e wll speak n Sacraqent M eetng at 9 a. Sunday at th e Jerom e 3rd. Chapel , E. Steftnreceved the aw ard durng- the program. Sundy: Sunday schoo worshp a O:SO w Momng worthr Evenng scrvcc al 7 p.
Worshp at 11 shp al 7 p. Locust, Sunday: Chrstan ed t a. Momng worsh Evenng servce at 6 p. N Sunday: Sunday Kh a. W onhp at Tuesday: Spansh se he Rev. Gene Kssnger. Fourth Ave. E Sunday: Sunday sch. Khool for all ages al homc. Rusty TWN lp a-7 p. Mom- Eastland 1. E vlng worshp al 6 Sunda; shp al :hoot at a. Wor- TWN h he Rev. Dan Mller. Shoshom 11 a. Evenng wor- TWN landdr ly nght al 7 p. Gl cduealon for all ages Cred. Bllngsl p. Church, Per- TVffl 5;-K2o. Church schooj. Evenng servcc Suw.
T W,3. Evenng scrvcc at 6 a 7 o m l-y5 k fv a llc y B apdtt. Wor- j tl he Rev. Mke Heller. W lycr scrvcc at 7 p. Ev f Khwl al 10 a. Mom- Calbol 17 y l ow a nd have earned to n -o f-th rc e -o th e r awards. A Laurel a requrement o fth e award. E lder K endall K.. Brd, son o f Lyle K. H Jose M sson. Jm OD onnell speakng on "Wh Co? Dougla see. Hspanc worshp al lo a. M sday: Bble study al p.
Worshp al 11 a. Dsfcoungcmcnt, Pan 4; Lftr he Do ncasl. Wo Bl a. Cly ngsly. Ma unday; Sunday school at 9 a. W at 0a,m.. Evenng wrvcc at 7 p,m. Wednesday: BbVe sludy al p. W Sunday: Sunday school for ages mng wonhp a ft ajnrn unerypro Evenng scrvcc al 7 p. Sunday through Saturday: Rado pmg a m. Frday at HEY ln Ave. W ll- Today: Mass at 6 p. Ed " Ave. Sunday: Sunday scho 5 r ; 9 ;4S.. W onhp Monday: Bble Study ll. Grandvew Drve,. Sunday: Sunday scho a.
Shoshone S. N Sunday: Sunday Kho a. W onhp al w, Rck Bender speakng o Readng s Thessalo broadcast al p. Thursday: M ens pra a. M oshe e message they delver s co 3utsdethe realm o f Jewsh Leader G lenn Harrs salt are jorc than ju s t m elody a songs reflect th e pognant as been part o f synagogue houlthe ages :rs are burstng w th the san ng.
The group s spund s s Jl a vamty u. C huph- Ave. H om em ade rolls and : ncm ade pcs w ll also be sen tourrorh6"sev en cathcdrol ; church wll bc held lhrou oon. T he publc he. Andrew L.. Wor- " 2 Rev. Maurce Jones: Cmbery Chrstan. Youlh n. Rado 4 m. W orshp nt d Pangbumlspcakng ncs Roll. E tans who Road. Sabbath Schc rmony and a song scrvce ler Jewsh ages. T oday s s specal T hanksg he Rosen, The H eybum consdered ton for nne ye sh thought a.
The- The publc s n and lyrcs, rtt. Stan Cook, ba? S 31C S nvt cancr. Hvcnng prayer servcc a csday: Vouth group al 7 p. K29 Broad y: Ublc classes al 10 a. W onhj , wlh Robert C. Wor u. CHlay: Bble clasncs ul 7p. Wl Nnth Avc. Worshp nl 11 a. C hurch, located. Evenng prase :cnt p. RchHeld: 9 a. DeCLO - Albon: 9 a. Declo st: 9 a. Sth and 6tl ST on 1st: 1p.
W orshp begns at T hursday. C hrstan! Scence tms; Boston. M ass.. Send -fo r ThdmwM; The Tme :hld. Twn Fulls. D scl- noon Thursday for pul m ed urday relgon pac Famly : p. Marvn : urey 1st. Sucb 1st. Sunday: H. Sunday Khool for all ages at 10 lly worshp al 11 a. EmmMwel O sw ch. Sccond on. Sunday 10 a. Sunday - Sunday: Mornng servce for truck ruckcrs at Sunday: Sunday sch choolaa. Chrs- g E. Coffee rfee and breakfast avalable CboralEuebarst at Sunday: 5 W orshp at 11 a. Sd Harrs. W orshp a t 11 a m wth the Rev.
Evenng servce al 6 JO p. Sunday: Worshp a tla jn. W orshp at 11 o. Church pastors Sunday: W orshp at 9 and 11 a. H l East Ave. Pastor geo Scolt Allen. Bran Vncsman speakng on s Today: W orshp ser lervce at a. Madson St shp at 11 a. Pcgg K. Worshp at 7 p. Fler Av.. Worshp at 11 a. O mrcl ttrch. Worshp at a.
Worshp at 11 o. Prayer meet-. R open st. Bob Sebe. Aevy class followng Come- t Keunen speakng on "The: Meanest. Dale Metzger r speakng Chldrens Tme. Nur lurscry provded. W orshp al 11 a. Thanksn Avenue West lnster. Cooammty f Utdtcd wth dnner for S2. Thunday: h Thanksgvng Dayserv servlce-ot v-jnb dh hw l : Cfcu U. Sunday: Sunday Ksc hm l al 3 a. Worh ho 1 Rev. W orshp scrvcc at 11 a. W orshp at 11 a. Youth grou Toup at 6 Church.
Frst Avenue East, a. Please remember the - Sprtual AwKcness! Walnul Sl or Me Methodst. Thanksgvng [ dnner c followng wor- lne s ooon on Thusdtys. W or- shp.. Adete le Husts. Depot Orll. For o r nfomfllon. BU REY. Baon at Sunday: Sunday school for all t ages a -r. SuccM suc and Prvate Problems. East :, Roger W. Pre-servce p p a y er at p,m. Thankgtvng worshp servce. Sunday :. Ffth, maton. W orshp at a.
Route Rev. Worahp hp al 11 a. Comer 12th and d Poplar. Pc K2,,h shp at 11 a. Evenng servce al [ Sunday: Sunday day school and Bble clas. Erc Kellcrer wll speak at C exceptons, everythng 1 Bl 9 am. Woahj shp at 10;S a,m. Ra v Benscc nscoler. WedneKdy: Wc Weekday school Tor knder- e. All custom - top to qualty fm eghth grades at 3 p. Sunday: Sunday school al a. WorNN ozam e. Tm rm Cartwrght. Evenng worshp patoa p. Gary S. Sunday: Sunday! Ray L. Doane speakng on rlfe n the Sprt. Alt are e wc welcome.
Sunday pj, Pcklesmer speakng. Khool and Bble le study al 9n,m. Tuesday: Bble study al p. SvAday: Wotshp ont at a,m, wth the wlh the Rev. Wayne H. Harold J.. Bble D classes Tor alt ges at Magc Vallcy. Unted Melhods sdst Church. Kerr Fler Ave. E Adull educaton at P a. Pfcwr escnalon on -Wlts" by Thea. W eberal Sunday: Wors Worshp at a.
Sunday school at to have the best care ca possble. Adult lult study at 11 a. T h at s why we ve c :echnqucs for fxng yc yourfonj,, B lueu e L a k e s B lvd. They T ve. Rchard L. Stop n anytr me.. Tcnv Mller. Lncoln better than we do? Worsh orshp at 11 a. Vstors welcome. Jbe study at. Suoday:uwl unday K hool at a. Sunday: Sundu y school and worshp ser- day..
Da- a. V mon Wrgh. Nursery provded.. CmyMMuctMBh ft00a. C a l : T m H a rd a w a y s j contract extenson w W arro rs on Thursc - contract through the 1 Z T e rm s o f th e a Z extends a four-year : H ardaw ay n w : Hardaway, 25, s t scorng at T he d octor n o rm ally. Utah at DVU 90l. W hch ;ar contract sgned by.. O ur offense played prc the frst p o s s o n and w e to get that gong agan. SMU s. H e Assocated Press For-No. There s nothng to t Acs.
A nd w e sad ng to splt games, to w n. CS, now , totollc rm sson d fference Lance. T he buld on, T hey re a floor.. They stay after t," A 1 Trenkle. W e couldn re and to bltz a lot and tage o f t. A lanz scored from t h e ; team s then traded nteree pull awa 2nd half h e y cam e o u l o n f re," s h JefT M alby. And w e ddn ter that, a run here and a : le d to a e x p lo s ont ballgame. Johnson a gam e-hgh 25 ponts.
C r led H arrs talled 16 p e Jackson Several S. Davd A. Son n, w ho sg n ed Jo e N om ath ; brng credblty to the Amcr League, ded o f 0 heart atu : sad Frday. H e was W e re notnlke ap ad a chld takng pano lesson e heard Chopstcks. N ewton, juc o A lanz had t nullfe ound 55 yords on a draw, ow n W etbln Sear s Da rcrcnce Saturday. B esdes ocate N o. C orolna; N o. Ju st 2 j ked up wth Rod Jaeger; mother touchdown. C aptal The Suns, who broke 1 g a m c lo sn g srn g on l nghl, go 19 ponts fron : ] fourlhyw rplaycr w ho sta rt th s seaso n as c Ftzsm m ons followed, promse to shake up hs ; p ructon.
The Suns took a fourth quarter, then star wth three free throws b! Lesle Ward chppc ; for Dctrch. Cumd 2. LWarfl BoMon 0 5. Dkembe N 10 mdway through ponts n th e -M a lo n c g o t httt; stay. A tlantc D ;ot a season-hgh 28 C harles s c o re d ny Urc scorcd O 4S X vatoft-oc.
Ct Mmt. O M 29 Z2 wrymmlb. V lrt1. Rgby 1. Onwd 0. Utybt 4. ToUl 4V 0. DrwAM 2. Dtmk 1. Vrtfc M J S. Cota hun. G llam. L ast. S he c a t contest wlh 11 ponts. Kng CW Harral fssfjsss.. A fter Buc. Maro K O rtd 20 pons freedrow sv fc oyer slumpng fyal nuen. Prtncattn Tonra 4 1 n. AP Larry heno. Rege Mller had 25 ponts xn. Suck Wllams nbounds pass of bounds over Clyde Drcxlers o Ele was fooled and sank two rs wth no tme remanng for the [n scored 25 pons ahdsarunas ns 22 for the Warots.
But he smycd close and fnally caught rs ot on Eles footcr 1 mnutes remanng. Sute, wnnng n Portland for fourth tme n ts last 42 tres.! Pena Z 3. AMn 23, VWw 1. MMt HanlBon ToUto: nty Nobs Oatell 4. Waddoupt 8,, Uayt fl, un 2. Kj ChtfM OaUty. AdMM LMt ta. T hat gave c a l, c o lle g e lead; Sellen o fth e Y ear last baskets dur p o n ts and S four free thn :ked uve. D onny Mar: throw. Colorado son w h eth er to, r second hall JW guard T erry L a rso n be lshed w th 2 0 ponter o f t H all p o sted ls d o m n a to ory n a season mnutes.
Even C o n n e c tc u t s o p e n n g s rousng success, coach loun wasnt ready to gve rmance a thum bs up. Sellers bad ts and 12 re b o u n d s and mth scored all 13 o f hs 1the sccond half. TeUlt rt M2 J-4 2T. CMon C. Joekaen 2. Bu he NEW N. A "1 haven t J been to m y offce :e ye t. Glbert relumed led to 1 Calforna lule. The tral j u r y t j; rens at Chcago. Lefebvre L. Lefebvrc -e a the tw o-tm e NL L Eas champons w c o f cverj thng, stng n next to ad.
Feld news conference. Tle m stc. Hmes sad. He : s: sad the team was H erzog attended the meetng lg along offers to free agents ager Edde M urray t! W c ant mtcpac form er Baltmore executve. He drove n 96 runs l a s t ; U thrd base coach Chucl uck Cotter ahd solve thele-sm all -p ro b lem s, you ru runs. Tle Bonlla. SCJ season and hnted at chanj noes nt,es for tor Sae no ,j,e r reuson for frng S He receved 1 uan offer Frank Vola s s a free agent and be-.
Sla Stanford has won sx vctory. Ston tonford g otcven on th e : Sabatn beat Caprat t66 -l, a fk r two bowubour lund teams. Cul s headed y. T h e mpro rovenen by bolh leums tor he frst lme n 50 ycurs, goal tw o plays s a fter aft hdusands o f fans -Sabaln and. Her -ler frst major By now. Opep Kp at Flushng ; been pushed d mo the background by run n so hgh. Meadows las year. Afterl f Aganst the year-c Capral.
The Cardnal se senor cluss weeks ago, he Bears held the Sun. Stanford couc lach Denny Green sad. Sabaln the classroomom up, the kds the teach- huve " never been n Calfo foru have After startng the season by losng won the nexl tw o games nes to pull even. APUMfpltO hus usesscs. Stanford : And when she broke c C Caprat from ; deuce n the seventhga game, she was G a b rle la Sabatn e a sly d efeated Jennlfer Caprat Frd a y w th say ths s the leam you wan to w n.
Seles ncreased her :r career record agansl Fernandez lo 10 lo-. Every gam ;amc and almost ng to con: om e out there and play he : Several lmes. Fernandez : l tred a drop! KX purchase se o f the Los m andtnew stadum : Baseball. W c warn the wst ovcrarfacllles fsr om aneskrw ho-fommt erly-ow ned There arc threats he lea team wll move; n he mn lnor leagues so kds can play y the Helena. V team n o f the Po Govemmenl oltcal: :als hold emer- n a safe envronment conducve to O ncer League; warned lhat t l hc Dodgers callng th e Tl f m e s N e w s gency m edngs.
There ;rc s talk o f dam- movng up d major league baseball.. W And the tonal Assocaton o f. Professonal The current Parker R eld fals n scene nay be repealed ued n ddzcns o f Baseball tl Leagues the mnors several categores, wth the m ost glar- o Jh cf-m n o p -lcag u c ctr nrmss hr sa ld. Sparks sad. That and many other problems p are J f 5 de"herba5ebal -st 1-stadum -to-kecp thnk : thng-s wll.
But he tc could not speculate on how w January. From Durtarn, N. There are ; K deadlne lo ; satsfy,fy the lst o f counly to spend S. W e all should be. T h e resort wll pay oul. C ty s lead, but he sn t opr plmstc. W We hope to Sk. Twn ompett rwn Falls. Twn F; n Falls. Xtaho Saturday. On For Holyfel Tfeld,;he fght scens lttle. Cooper was. Ray-M crccr: tsbmojrlcws; n fght wlh nju njured rbs ; long flrt lrtaton wth the bg tmne e H n..
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If you are logged in, any players you get in a pack will be stored in your futwiz club. You can check which players you need to pack, and which you have already packed here. Reapris ,00 kr Ordinarie pris ,00 kr. Faithful 1. It is available for the following versions: 1. Sort Minecraft resource packs by category, resolution and game version The official website of Faithful Team - Home to Faithful x32 and so much more. Trappmatta Riva. To download Visual Studio Update 3, click on the download button.
The files are downloaded from our free Dev Essentials subscription-based site Matta i sisallook. Although not the newest installment in the series, to some FS15 remains the best. With farmingmod. Here in our website you'll find many categories of mods, specifically created for FS The best thing about it - they are all free and downloads are not.
There was a problem submitting your report, please try again. If the problem persists, please try again in a few minutes Download Minecraft Texture Studio for free. Easily create resource packs for Minecraft. Easily create resource packs for minecraft.
Program automatically detects your minecraft installation and imports the textures from minecraft allowing you to edit them easily, and import them into minecraft. This is an old version of the resource pack editor made for minecraft 1.
From Borderlands-like cartoons to realistically sunny vistas, here are the best texture upgrades to shape your playing experienc Windows 10, Windows 7 Service Pack 1, Windows 8, Windows 8. Hardware Requirements: 1. With conformance packs, you can package a collection of AWS Config rules and remediation actions that can be deployed together as a single entity across an entire organization. EBR 15mtr Xcape-Pack. Complete many fun challenges to get achievements. Craft and build everything from scratch using the least possible resources.
Map Details: In this map there are only two rules, do not make a bridge to the main map, outside the void and never play on Peaceful. Soulbound Bring your best mate and face endless puzzles and adventures together in this Co-op Map! What is Awesome About Soulbound : Bring your best friend to solve puzzles and take on exciting adventures together!
Sit through hours of Gameplay packed with extreme action and suspense. Engage in story-rich dialogues with NPCs with multiple answers to choose from. Map Details: This map is episodic with 12 individual levels, some being puzzle-based, some having story and dialogue and some being boss fights. Crack in the World Investigate and explore a mysterious town before disaster strikes! What is Awesome About Crack in the World : This map offers a short but highly entertaining narrative with amazing cut scenes, 3D animations and special effects.
Bring your friends as it supports 2 to 3 players and solve the mystery together! Customization options — custom resource pack with block shapes, textures, sounds and music. What is Awesome About Criswelvania : This map offers fantastic multiplayer support as well as amazing Redstone and piston mechanisms and contraptions. Map Details: For an optimal experience, Difficulty should be set to Easy if needed and Normal as recommended. Terra Restore 2 Restore and bring this huge fantastical world back to life with the help of your friends!
Supports players, so bring your friends and experience this world together. Map Details: This map will mostly bring you in survival mode giving you the freedom to do things your way and at times, adventure mode, to do various tasks and challenges. What is Awesome About Assassination of Steve 3: Endergeddon : Filled with heavily customized mobs and loot tables, players will be able to obtain a diverse amount of weapons and armour sets with different for different play-styles.
Map Details: When using the custom resource pack, if you are in single-player, it will load automatically. Payday 2: Endgame Plan the perfect heist with your friends in the most luxurious locations. Map Details: You must use the custom resource pack that comes with the download and turn off all other resource packs. More on this topic: minecraft. Having failed the Jedi Trials, Dani was assigned to the Jedi Service Corps to explore strange new worlds and civilizations where the force compels her to bring back new knowledge and great stories.
Gamer Since: PvP Wars Satisfy your blood lust and battle it out with some friends! Log in or register to post comments. More Top Stories. Minecraft servers are an amazing feature of the game! Do you ever get bored of playing standard Minecraft by yourself? Servers offer some pretty cool ways to break out of that routine! Try surviving the hunger games or maybe even roleplay on an economy server.
Minecraft servers are your oyster Best Minecraft Bow Enchantments. In Minecraft combat is important. Whether you are fighting mobs or other players, having powerful weapons is key. A popular weapon of choice is the bow.
One of the only range weapons in Minecraft, the bow can be especially lethal when enchanted. Who knew there could be so much more to the world of Minecraft? Especially when you have Is survival mode getting repetetive? Minecraft is an enormous game, with tons of content to keep players invested for hours upon hours! However, a lot of people quickly find the game boring or repetitive, and want some new features to breathe life into their survival worlds.
We all know some of the simplest ways to gain Experience in Minecraft are by mining, defeating mobs and players, trading, fishing or even burning things in the furnace. But some of these just takes a little too much of your time and will bore you to tears watching the XP meter go up ever so Although Minecraft is a sandbox game that allows players a large amount of creativity, many players within the community chose to make Minecraft feel more like an RPG through As a gamer there is nothing worse than having a game crash on you, or having someone constantly nagging about how many hours you spend on a game.
You get use to people hating on you because of your choice of entertainment. There are things Minecraft has remained an extremely popular game for nearly a decade now, partly because of how it caters to a wide variety of playstyles. One of these playstyles is focusing on the more aesthetic aspects of the game, forgoing combat and exploration to focus on expanding your home and surroundings Then you progress from Easy to Hardcore as you become a mob-fighting master.
Once that has lost its fun you give Creative mode a try, or maybe you went for No need to go outside with Minecraft shaders this realistic. Wish your Minecraft world looked more like the real world? Graphics are everything.
A good shader can revive your gameplay or completely transform your With Minecraft in the height of its revival, some of us that played it when it came out may feel we've exhausted all the game has to offer. But fear not. But entirely different, too.
In Minecraft there are a lot of important factors to take in to ensure your survival. One of those factors is armor protection. Whether you are fighting mobs or pvping other players, armor enchantments are essential to long-lasting armor and a better chance at survival. It's time to break out the lapis lazuli and upgrade your tools and weapons. You finally have enough diamonds to craft a diamond tool of every type and a full set of armor.
You stare at the Is creative mode lacking some features you wish were in the game? Creative mode is definitely a big highlight of this accessibility, allowing players Minecraft is a beautiful game in its original form. The simple cubist form of each object gives off a relaxing sandbox aura to this wonderful game.
Nonplayer characters better known as NPCs are an integral part of many if not all video games. Minecraft is no exception. Villagers are an example of vanilla Minecraft NPCs but, there is a larger part of the community that enjoys a larger variety of NPCs in both singleplayer and multiplayer Back to the Future The Future is playable! The game takes place six months after the end of the third film, right as the Delorean Time Machine returns.
You play as Marty and the fate of the time continuum rests in your hands. The game features iconic characters from the Minecraft has become something of a phenomenon since it was released in Gamers of all ages have been getting lost in its endless world for all that time, choosing how they want to play and survive through the game.
This choice, alongside the fantastic crafting, combat, and resource gathering This space shuttle build looks ready to rocket you straight into the stars. This stellar creation by Corpeh is massive, featuring a control center and the launch pad itself Are you craving a new Minecraft challenge? Use a Minecraft seed to generate the specific world you want to live in and play out your favorite scenario. The code will start your game just where In vanilla Minecraft, the world consists of three dimensions: the Overworld, the Nether and the End.
Although fans have called for it, new dimensions are unlikely to find their way to vanilla Minecraft anytime soon. Despite this, fans of the game have created some amazing mods that generate new Are you smelting your ingots efficiently? Finally, you have a full stack of iron ready to be smelted into ingots. Just imagine the things you will be able to craft with it all! Are there Is Minecraft lacking fun ways to travel around your world? Minecraft is a game with limitless possibilities, where you can build and create almost anything you want!
Minecraft worlds are procedurally generated, meaning each new world you create is randomly generated from a world building algorithm. A seed is a string of numbers that An aspect of Minecraft that has always been a fan favorite is its diverse pool of biomes. Before the large biome update in version 1. Today, there are over 60 variations of biomes in-game version 1. Biomes are the different regions within the Without these awesome PC games, we would have never fallen in love with PC gaming!
PC gaming is home to countless classics — games so good our experiences with them will probably be included in our dying thoughts. But even among the greats, there are those that stand out as games so innovative You've got your diamond gear, but what if it could be made better?
Your gear is important; from your helmet to your boots, and of course, your pickaxe and sword are invaluable for adventuring. But what are Cracked servers, also known as Offline Mode, allows for non-paying Minecraft users to have access to multiplayer games. Not only that, but because they exist apart from Mojang, Cracked servers allow for playtime during public-server outages.
Mojang does a great job of updating and upgrading Minecraft, but there are always a few little things that could be better. Fans of vanilla, rejoice! These QOL mods are just the ticket. From helpful organization mods to smarter maps, any one of these tiny tweaks will improve your experience These skins are perfect for making you stand out. You - Kindergarten You by Chasie-Poo is Minecraft is known for its diversity and seemingly randomized worlds.
Upon the creation of a Minecraft save, players are given a unique series of numbers known as a seed. Seeds can be used individually and can be given to other players if the seed number is distributed. Seeds allow for
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