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Forum Icons: Forum contains no unread posts Forum contains unread posts. Powered by wpForo version 1. Thank you so much for supporting your hospice! All donations, big or small, are vital and provide compassionate end of life care to local people. Making a donation is easy and secure, just fill in the form below. Miss Dr. Last Name. Already have an account? Address 2. A Gift Aid declaration allows Weston Hospicecare to claim tax back on eligible donations.
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Forums Members Recent Posts. Clear all. Bookmaker bitcoin Floorball bonus, bookmaker bitcoin deposit Group: Registered. New Member. The publication occurs periodically, e. Etherium is an open source platform for smart contracts. As currently operated, Etherium is a decentralized platform that runs smart contracts: applications that run exactly as programmed without any possibility of downtime, censorship, fraud or third party interference. The applications run on a custom built blockchain, an extremely powerful shared global infrastructure that can move the value and represent ownership of the property.
This allows developers to create markets, store debt or promise records, move funds according to long-standing instructions such as a will or a futures contract , without the counterparty risk. Etherium also states that its goal is to create a tradeable digital token that can be used as a currency, a representation of an asset, a virtual share, a proof of membership or anything at all. These tokens use a standard coin API, so the contract will be automatically compatible with any wallet, other contract or exchange also using this standard.
The total amount of tokens in circulation can be set to a simple fixed amount or fluctuate based on any programmed ruleset. In summary, Etherium states that it enables building a tradeable token with a fixed supply, a central bank that can issue money and a puzzle-based cryptocurrency.
There are many disadvantages to the current systems. They are slow to change and innovate. They often involve proprietary systems that do not interoperate. There is often governmental and or institutional bias. There may be a cumbersome regulatory environment. Finally, there are often high transaction costs.
Thus, there is a need for interoperability among inconsistent, often proprietary systems. There is a need for gambling limitation on a more global basis, including geo-limitation and global use rate monitoring for problem gambling. There is a need for problem gambling detection and remediation.
There is a need for improved distributed systems. One or more displays are oriented toward the human subjects to present the stimuli to the human subjects. One or more detectors serve to monitor the reaction of the human subjects to the stimuli, the detectors including at least motion detectors, the detectors providing an output. An analysis system is coupled to receive the output of the detectors, the analysis system providing an output corresponding to whether the reaction of the human subjects was positive or negative.
A neural network utilizes the output of the analysis system to provide a positive weighting for training of the neural network when the output of the analysis system was positive, and a negative weighting for training of the neural network when the output of the analysis system was negative. The following description is primarily in connection with FIGS. An architecture is provided for a program defined entertainment state system. This preferably serves to decouple the system that controls the overall experience from the underlying systems that define states.
The first plane, the application plane provides an interface, primarily for system side users, e. This preferably provides an intelligent control layer above modules. Application Logic and Drivers are optionally provided. The application layer may receive an abstracted view of State Data Plane Actions. The control plane may provide statistics, events and states from the Data Plane to the Application Plane.
The control plane preferably enforces behavior at a low level control in the data plane, provides capability discovery, and monitors statistics and faults. The control plane advantageously includes cognitive computing, such as artificial intelligence AI and machine learning ML , to be described in greater detail, below. The control plane may optionally include analytics, including but not limited to pattern recognition. Analytics may be performed on a population, preferably a relevant population, or on a subset.
Preferably, the subset has similar characteristics of a target user. Data may be binned according to subset. The scope of primary data may be analyzed. Predictive modeling may be included. Responsible Gaming Control may be implemented at the control plane level, especially if there are use rate limits and global limits. Turning thirdly to the state data plane layer, it preferably includes main subcomponents and Functional Network Elements.
Optionally, the functional network elements include some or all of the following. Entertainment State Network Elements, 2. Platforms, 6. Channels, 7. Lottery, including Retail and Central Systems, 8. Loyalty, 9. Responsible Gaming Control, optionally including use rate limits and global limits may be done in the control plane layer as well.
Sports, including real world, fantasy and eSports, Other Live Data Entertainment, Networks, including Network communications and web services and Management, including Records, Player Account Management, Reporting, Compliance, including regulatory compliance, security, including cybersecurity, fraud and risk management, including preferably audit and payment.
The Entertainment State Network Elements provide an interface for interaction with a user of the system. An input receives information from user selection. Sensors may be of various forms, including sound sensors, motion sensors, whether 2-d or 3-d, such as including the Microsoft Kinect system.
These may include 1. Location, 2. Current Activity such as Driving provided by vehicle, provided by tracked phone or Exercising provided by FitBit or similar , 3. Economic Conditions, 4. Weather, 5. Marketing Information, 7. Social Media, and 9. The Internet of Things IoT provide various forms of connected devices such as data sensors. By utilizing any form of input, the system is able to provide for massive parallelism. An Output provides stimulation to user. Forms may include: 1.
Thin Client display with remote computing power, 3. Projections and Holograms, 4. Value may refer to fungible liquid asset or other store of value. Title generally refers to ownership of real, personal, or virtual property. A detailed discussion of blockchain, trust-less, and cryptocurrency systems is provided, below. Artificial Intelligence AI is broadly that branch of computer science dealing in automating intelligent behavior. They are systems whose objective is to use machines to emulate and simulate human intelligence and corresponding behavior.
This may take many forms, including symbolic or symbol manipulation AI. It may form abstract connections between data or other information or stimuli. It may form logical conclusions. Artificial intelligence is the intelligence exhibited by machines, programs or software. It is has been defined as the study and design of intelligent agents, in which an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. Yet others have defined it as the science and engineering of making intelligent machines.
Artificial Intelligence often involves use of neural networks. In various embodiments, a multi-layer stack of neural network nodes are utilized. The lowest level comprises granular elements. By way of example in a gaming application, in the order of higher level understanding, the levels would progress from instances of individual action granular , to core loop detection, to session play, to multi-session play.
Optionally, a parsing engine serves to break down or subdivide a larger set, such as a data set or image, into more discrete or granular elements. AI may have various attributes. It may have deduction, reasoning, and problem solving. It may include knowledge representation or learning. Systems may perform natural language processing communication.
Yet others perform perception, motion detection and information manipulation. At higher levels of abstraction, it may result in social intelligence, creativity and general intelligence. Various approaches are employed including cybernetics and brain simulation, symbolic, sub-symbolic, and statistical, as well as integrating the approaches.
Various tools may be employed, either alone or in combinations. They include search and optimization, logic, probabilistic methods for uncertain reasoning, classifiers and statistical learning methods, neural networks, deep feedforward neural networks, deep recurrent neural networks, deep learning, control theory and languages.
AI advantageously utilizes parallel processing and even massively parallel processing in their architectures. Current versions of GPUs are available from various sources, e. Machine Learning is defined as a system that builds up knowledge from experience. Machine learning serves to detect patterns and laws. Deep Learning uses Neural AI. It is easily scalable, and typically involves more layers or neural Networks NNs. Neural Networks may be of various forms, including: efficient NN, vectorized NN, vectorized logistic regression, vectorized logistic regression gradient output, binary classification, logistic regression, logistic regression cost function, gradient descent, derivatives, computation graph and logistic regression gradient descent.
Deep neural networks DNN often involve hyperparameter tuning. Typically they utilize regularization and optimization. AI may operate on various forms of data sets. Sequential data may be analyzed. Examples include, but are not limited to, natural language, audio, autonomous driving decisions, game states and game decisions.
Various industry applications advantageously benefit from application of AI. They include imaging and object detecting, serving to identify, classify, mining and optionally provide sentiment analysis. Other applications include autonomous driving.
Yet other applications include robots and robotics. Within healthcare, functions include imaging analysis, diagnosing and gamification. Various forms of sequential data analysis may be enhanced, such as speech recognition, and natural language processing. Music applications include both recognition and synthesis. Within the gaming field, applications include game state sequences detection, analysis, formation, combination optimization, and game optimization.
Chat bots and machine translation advantageously employ these systems. Affiliates serve to acquire customers. Optionally, there is a link to a credit card function to be discussed, below. Next are charities and other organizations that plan to operate a lottery, game or other entertainment event. They provide for customer acquisitions. They are the recipient of the event game, lottery or entertainment. They also collect a fee. Next are the developers, who provide for game design.
In return for game design, they receive multi-jurisdictional use and payment for use. An enhanced application or app store may be provided wherein the game design may be viewed, selected and downloaded. Next, consumers provide registration and identification information. The registration data may optionally include identification, age, address and verification. Optionally, the data is sufficient that the system can comply with Know Your Customer KYC rules, with optional levels of identity verification.
This is stored as persistent history. The customer receives a chance to play, win, and receive entertainment. Next is the regulator or trust verifying agent. They provide testing, approval for game fairness, overall approval, ensure compliance with regulations and security. The regulator or trust verifying agent is granted access permission by the system to monitoring of every transaction, analytics dashboard , player accounts, parameters, prize amounts and payouts, and to the complete history.
The regulator or trust verifying agent receives compensation, whether a fee or as a percentage of the transaction amounts. Next, the lotteries serve as the trusted agent, and receive a percentage of the transaction amount. Optionally, the historical functions of the lottery may be eliminated or vaporized from the system when those functions are performed by another entity within the ecosystem. By providing repeated input stimulus and then training the neural network to provide the correct output, the system may be taught to form the correct associated output based on one or more input stimului.
In converting input to the desired output the training may comprise supervised learning, such as when the target values and parameters are supervised. Alternatively, the training may be non-supervised learning, wherein the system attempts to identify patterns in the input that have identifiable structure and can be reproduced.
Alternately, the system may use reinforcement learning, which works independently like non-supervised learning but is rewarded or punished depending on success or failure. Preferably, reinforcement learning involves incremental change. In the various training techniques, perturbation may be used wherein one or more input parameters are varied, typically in a perturbation amount, e. Hyperparameters and parameters may be used in the AI or machine learning systems.
Model parameters are estimated from data automatically. A configuration variable internal to the model can be estimated from data. This can be required by the model when making predictions. Values define the skill of the model. They may be estimated or learned from data. Hyperparameters are set manually and are used in the processes to help estimate parameters. A configuration variable external to the model is used. Generally, it cannot be estimated from the data. They are often used in processes to estimate model parameters.
They are typically specified by the system user. Hyperparameters can often be set using heuristics. They are often tuned for a given predictive modeling problem. A hyperledger may be used, either as a hyperledger composer or hyperledger fabric. The AI or machine learning may be performed on various types of hardware.
Advantageously, systems that support parallel processing can provide for computation speed and efficiency. AI and machine learning processing is also available as a cloud AI or Machine learning system, such as is available from Google and Amazon Web Services. One advantageous domain transformation involves the time domain to frequency domain time series to frequency domain.
One example is the Fourier series, which generally is used with repetitive signals, such as oscillating systems. A Fourier transform, is generally used with non-repetitive signals, such as transients. Enhanced computational techniques such as the Fast Fourier Transform FFT may be used for efficiency and computational speed.
Yet another domain transformation is the Laplace transform, often used in electronic circuits and control systems. Yet another, the Z transform, is used with generally discrete-time signals. Spectral density estimation may be included, along with wavelet analysis, image analysis, data compression and multivariate analysis.
Correlated data sets are advantageously employed. Difference engine may be employed to identify differences between two or more sets of data. The difference may be time based, such as where one data set relates to a time 0 , and the other set relates to a time 1 , time 2 , time 3 ,. Differences in images may be calculated. In various efforts, such as in game or entertainment design and creation, the response of the target audience may be monitored, analyzed and used to train an Artificial Intelligence or machine learning system.
The system may detect individual subject behavior. A display is provided as a stimulus to the subject or subjects. A flat panel display or monitor may be utilized. Optionally, personal viewing devices may be utilized, such as individual screens, virtual reality headsets, augmented reality devices, heads up displays, projection devices or imaging technology.
Various detectors are utilized to monitor the one or more subject's response. Motion detection utilizes motion tracking hardware and software. A camera images the subjects. Various cameras include the Microsoft Kinect, 2d sensors and cameras and 3d sensors and cameras. Metrics detectors may analyze the position of a body part, such as a limb, joint or facial feature.
It may measure the velocity, movement, higher level derivatives of the position or movement, such as the rate of change of change. Facial detectors monitor for facial recognition. Facial attributes may be detected, such as positive attributes, e. Body position detection may be determined. Sound detection may be performed with a microphone or microphone array.
It may detect attributes of the sound, such as positive attributes, e. Biometric scan detection is utilized. Physiologic response detection optionally monitors the subject heart rate, blood pressure, pupil dilation, temperature, ECG, and mental activity. Activity monitoring detectors monitor engagement response, preferably including bet rate, time spent engaged with the display, retention rate, repetition rate and reengagement rate. Analytics are advantageously utilized. The output of the system is used as input in the AI or machine learning system.
For example, in training using reinforcement learning in neural networks, a positive weighting is used for positive attributes, and a negative weighting is used for negative attributes. When the level of engagement or minor addiction is viewed as acceptable, a positive weighting may be used in the training, whereas when the addiction is viewed as unacceptable or excessive, a negative weighting may be used in the training.
The systems may constitute a matrix of tools. They may comprise a given set of tools. In a more fundamental way, they comprise a tool to discover the tools. Tools may be game states, entertainment states or any form of state or matter. The following will be described as to game development, but the tools, systems, methods and architectures may be applied to entertainment or any creative effort. As to a particular game, a first option is to provide only basic rules of that given game.
The system may play against itself, or alternatively, play against other systems, in order to discovery winning game play strategies. In yet another option, the system may be provided with known gambits, with the system permitted to use or ignore the gambits. In yet an alternative embodiment, the system may be provide with a library of games.
The system may analyze the library of games for game elements, game mechanics or core loops. Optionally, the system may limit analysis of the library of games to similar games, or may consider all games, optionally divided into subunits, e.
Once the various core loops or game elements are defined, the system may combine them in various combinations and permutations so as to define a new game or game play sequence. The system may recognize patterns in the data. Values may be assigned to decisions at various points or game states or game state decision points. The use of user response may be advantageously used in game formation and optimization.
The use of user response is particularly suited to reinforced learning. The system may operate in a hierarchical manner. The system may consider separate functions in a cooperative action. Functions may be reassigned or moved to other, especially lower, levels of action. The system may provide new variables.
By providing a hierarchical response, core functionality may be maintained. Alternately, it may change the type, quantity or quality of information provided in the response. Changes may be made to other operational or administrative rights or permissions, such as read only access, read and write, edit rights, super administrative rights.
These provide for dynamic change under adaptive control. An intelligent dynamic update may be based on AI, machine learning or analytics. The system then permits dynamic modification of the GDK. Preferably, dynamic modification is based on AI or Machine Learning or analytics.
Dynamic Segregated Lottery d-SL may be provided wherein one or more functional units or the lottery may be provided. A virtualized system may be utilized, such as in the use of a virtualized server. Each successive block contains a hash of the previous code.
This permanently fixes transactions in chronological order. The blockchain utilizes both a private key and public key. The prior hash is added to the new blockchain with a nonce to form a new hash. Cryptocurrency provides for cryptographically secure transactions. Cryptocurrency is a programmable currency or decentralized value transfer system. It is also a decentralized virtual currency or decentralized digital currency. It must be onerous enough to prevent changes without redoing the work.
Bitcoin is a created currency which is mined and serves as a reward for payment processing work. Blockchain cryptocurrency involves no transaction charges or fees paid by purchaser. There are no refund rights or chargebacks.
It may be implemented in any form of network, both public and private. Open software and proprietary software may be used. Storage may be local storage or cloud storage and computing. Analytics may be performed locally or in a cloud analytics system. Systems may be permissioned v. The core elements are, first, a set of promises which may be contractual or non-contractual. Second, they are specified in digital form, operate electronically, where the contractual clauses or functional outcomes embedded in code.
Third, they include protocols, or technology enabled rules-based operations. Fourth, the parties perform on the promises through automated performance, in a generally irrevocable manner. Smart contracts automate different processes and operations. They may provide for payments. Actions may be conditioned on a payment or payments, such as with the control of collateral based on payment.
Smart contracts may be implemented via blockchain. The machine-to-machine implementation permits various combinations. In one implementation, a blockchain is combined with devices comprising the Internet of Things IoT. In yet another combination, the blockchain may be combined with devices comprising the Internet of Things in combination with artificial intelligence.
Generally, the block contains smart contract program logic. It bundles together the messages relating to a particular smart contract including inputs, outputs, and logic. In yet another implementation, they may provide contracts for difference, such as in use the current market price to adjust balances and disperse cash flow.
Smart contracts are a trust shifting technology. They reduce counter-party risk. Preferably, this serves to increase credit. Smart contracts may be implemented in various models. They may be a contract entirely in code. They may be a contract in code with separate natural language version. They may be split natural language contract with encoded performance. Alternatively, they may be a natural language contract with encoded payment mechanism. Smart contract initiation involves a consensus.
An algorithm constitutes a set of rules for how each participant in the contract processes messages. They may be implemented in a permission-less manner, wherein anyone may submit messages for processing. The submitter may be involved in consensus. Alternately, they may delegate decision making such as to an administrator or sub-group of participants. An alternative implementation is to have a permissioned system, in which the participants are limited. They are generally pre-selected.
Smart contracts are subject to various methods of formation. They may by agreement such as where there is a common cooperative opportunity or a defined desired outcome. These may include business practices, asset swaps, and transfer of rights. Next, conditions set for initiation of the contract. That may be by the parties themselves, or by the occurrence of some external event, such as time, other quantifiable measure or location.
Typically, they generate a code, which is encrypted and chained with blockchain technology. It may be authenticated and verified. Upon execution and processing, the network updates all ledgers to indicate current state. Once verified and posted, they cannot be changed, with only additional blocks appended. To restate, the smart contract serves as a distributed application on networks with independent built-in trust mechanisms.
The program is entrusted with unit of value combined with rules for transfer of ownership of the unit of value. They serve as self-executing programs that automatically fulfill the terms of a programmed relationship. The method for implementing a lottery includes the following steps.
A time frame is set in which to receive cryptocurrency. Second, cryptocurrency is received with owner identification within the timeframe. The window opens for a specified duration, afterwards at which the window closes. The smart contract generates or receives a random event, such as from a random number generator.
The random number generator should include an algorithmic guarantee of randomness and a guarantee of no hack. The contract selects a new owner winner among the owner identification related cryptocurrencies. It then assigns new ownership of cryptocurrency to selected new owner winner. Smart contract may be used to implement a core loop or a game mechanic. Any subunit of the game mechanic or core loop may itself be used as a game mechanic or core loop. Poko is a multi-player game where multiple indicia are awarded a predefined value, where other players have no information as to at least some of the indicia held by other players.
In the Zone is a game of chance comprising the steps of randomly selecting a player's target number within a predefined range of numbers, the range having a minimum and a maximum, randomly selecting a series of numbers for use in a lottery game, the minimum of the predefined range of numbers being at least equal to the sum of the lowest possible total for the series of the lowest possible total for the series of numbers and the maximum of the predefined range of numbers, totaling the random selected series of numbers through the conclusion of the selection, and assigning prize amounts to players having a player's number not exceeding the total based upon the proximity of the player's number and the total number.
Rock Paper Scissors is a game with three or more options having an assigned priority of options relative to one another. Mandated parameter are set in smart contract. Examples of mandated parameters include payout percentage and payout amount. Variable parameters are subject to mandated parameters, providing entertainment options.
This represents a graphical user interface, such as on a phone or computer display. Various forms of cryptocurrency may be displayed on the GUI and stored in the wallet. Points may be awarded, such as for loyalty, frequency and airtimes. Recent or latest transactions may be listed, indicating the date, purpose and amount. A total account value may be shown. Cryptocurrency systems and smart contracts may be implemented in combination with other systems.
One additional system comprises a frequent user or player's club system. They may be used in combinations with smart properties, that is digital assets or physical things that know who their owner is. Digital assets are anything that exists in digital, typically binary, format and comes with the right to use. Examples include images, including still pictures and video or dynamic images, audible content, such as sounds, music or performances, and digital documents.
Property whose ownership is controlled via distributed trusted network, e. They may be further used in combination with geolocation, wherein the physical location geolocation of various components and architectural components are optionally a component of the system. Limits may be placed on the geography of game play. The system can ensure compliance with geolocation of data routing. This provides a secure platform with multiple interfaces to public functions and public entities.
The segregated secure functions provide the function of the trusted agent. The secure functions include one or more of the following. First, outcome determination. This may include the use of a random number generator RNG or probability engine. Second, user or player account information is stored. Third, monetary accounting or transactions are stored. Fourth, regulatory and compliance interface is performed. Fifth, interfaces such as a developer interface. The public functions include some or all of the following.
Third, a marketplace interface serves as a lottery interface and optionally an application or app store. Fourth, an operator interface serves to interface with an operator or organizer, e. It preferably serves to publish, market, and sell. Fifth, the user interface permits registration, play activity and persistent history. The system components may vary by function. This allows for arbitration and agreement with the secure entity regarding game operations to be performed by the secure entity, e.
The secure entity performs secure functions including game outcomes, financial matters and secure user data. The private entity may impose rate limits and impose responsible gaming controls. A centralized system, such as a state run lottery may be combined with a decentralized system, such as a blockchain implementation.
Hierarchical order may be imposed within the system. In a system using mandated and variable parameters, a hierarchy of mandated parameters may be established, and then various variable parameters may be subject to the appropriate mandated parameter. In another application, a global use rate limit may be imposed at a high level in the hierarchy. Hierarchical use rate limits may be imposed. Various topologies of systems include master slave, master over multiple slaves and circular systems.
A credit card and credit functionality may be linked to lottery or other game play. Through use of the credit card, a conversion rate is established. The rate may be variable, such as based upon institution. In alternative embodiments, the mobile gaming device may be connected to the gaming machine with a cable, either directly connected to a port of the gaming machine or via a network communicating with the gaming machine.
The software used to program the gaming machines and servers in accordance with the embodiments described herein may be initially stored on a ROM, such as a CD or an electronic memory device. Such CDs and devices are non-transitory computer readable mediums having the appropriate computer instructions stored thereon. The programming may also be downloaded to the gaming machines via the casino's network. It should be appreciated that the terminals, processors, or computers described herein may be embodied in any of a number of forms, such as a rack-mounted computer, a desktop computer, a laptop computer, or a tablet computer.
Additionally, a computer may be embedded in a device perhaps not generally regarded as a computer but with suitable processing capabilities, including an electronic gaming machine, a Web TV, a Personal Digital Assistant PDA , a smart phone or any other suitable portable or fixed electronic device. Also, a computer may have one or more input and output devices.
These devices can be used, among other things, to present a user interface. Examples of output devices that can be used to provide a user interface include printers or display screens for visual presentation of output and speakers or other sound generating devices for audible presentation of output. Examples of input devices that can be used for a user interface include keyboards, and pointing devices, such as mice, touch pads, and digitizing tablets.
As another example, a computer may receive input information through speech recognition or in other audible formats. Such computers may be interconnected by one or more networks in any suitable form, including as a local area network or a wide area network, such as an enterprise network or the Internet.
Such networks may be based on any suitable technology and may operate according to any suitable protocol and may include wireless networks, wired networks or fiber optic networks. Online systems include remote computers using, e. Suitable user devices may connect to a network for instance, any computing device that is capable of communicating over a network, such as a desktop, laptop or notebook computer, a mobile station or terminal, an entertainment appliance, a set-top box in communication with a display device, a wireless device such as a phone or smartphone, a game console, etc.
Also, the various methods or processes outlined herein may be coded as software that is executable on one or more processors that employ any one of a variety of operating systems or platforms. In this respect, embodiments may provide a tangible, non-transitory computer readable storage medium or multiple computer readable storage media e. The computer readable medium or media can be transportable, such that the program or programs stored thereon can be loaded onto one or more different computers or other processors to implement various aspects as discussed above.
Additionally, it should be appreciated that according to one aspect of this embodiment, one or more computer programs that when executed perform methods need not reside on a single computer or processor, but may be distributed in a modular fashion amongst a number of different computers or processors to implement various aspects of embodiments described herein. Computer-executable instructions may be in many forms, such as program modules, executed by one or more computers or other devices.
Generally, program modules include routines, programs, objects, components, data structures, etc. Typically the functionality of the program modules may be combined or distributed as desired in various embodiments. Also, data structures may be stored in computer-readable media in any suitable form. For simplicity of illustration, data structures may be shown to have fields that are related through location in the data structure.
Such relationships may likewise be achieved by assigning storage for the fields with locations in a computer-readable medium that conveys relationship between the fields. However, any suitable mechanism may be used to establish a relationship between information in fields of a data structure, including through the use of pointers, tags, addresses or other mechanisms that establish relationship between data elements.
Various aspects of embodiments described herein may be used alone, in combination, or in a variety of arrangements not specifically discussed in the embodiments described in the foregoing and the concepts described herein are therefore not limited in their application to the details and arrangement of components set forth in the foregoing description or illustrated in the drawings.
For example, aspects described in one embodiment may be combined in any manner with aspects described in other embodiments. Also, embodiments described herein may provide a method, of which an example has been provided. The acts performed as part of the method may be ordered in any suitable way. Accordingly, embodiments may be constructed in which acts are performed in an order different than illustrated, which may include performing some acts simultaneously, even though shown as sequential acts in illustrative embodiments.
While embodiments have been described with reference to certain exemplary features thereof, those skilled in the art may make various modifications to the described embodiments. The terms and descriptions used herein are set forth by way of illustration only and not meant as limitations.
In particular, although embodiments have been described by way of examples, a variety of devices would practice the inventive concepts described herein. Embodiments have been described and disclosed in various terms, the scope of the embodiments is not intended to be, nor should it be deemed to be, limited thereby and such other modifications or embodiments as may be suggested by the teachings herein are particularly reserved, especially as they fall within the breadth and scope of the claims here appended.
Those skilled in the art will recognize that these and other variations are possible as defined in the following claims and their equivalents. Although the foregoing invention has been described in some detail by way of illustration and example for purposes of clarity and understanding, it may be readily apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art in light of the teachings of this invention that certain changes and modifications may be made thereto without departing from the spirit or scope of the appended claims.
All publications and patents cited in this specification are herein incorporated by reference as if each individual publication or patent were specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference in their entirety. Account: Accounts have an intrinsic balance and transaction count maintained as part of the Ethereum state. Though homogenous, it makes sense to distinguish between two practical types of account: those with empty associated EVM Code thus the account balance is controlled, if at all, by some external entity and those with non-empty associated EVM Code thus the account represents an Autonomous Object.
Each Account has a single Address that identifies it. Address: A bitcoin address is used to receive and send transactions on the bitcoin network. It contains a string of alphanumeric characters, but can also be represented as a scannable QR code.
A bitcoin address is also the public key in the pair of keys used by bitcoin holders to digitally sign transactions see Public Key. Address: A bit code used for identifying Accounts. Agreement Ledger: An agreement ledger is distributed ledger used by two or more parties to negotiate and reach agreement.
Airdrop: A method of distributing cryptocurrency amongst a population, first attempted with Auroracoin auroracoin in early Algorithm: A process or set of rules to be followed in calculations or other problem-solving operations, especially by a computer. Altcoin: The collective name for cryptocurrencies offered as alternatives to bitcoin.
Litecoin, Feathercoin and PPcoin are all altcoins. AML: Anti-Money Laundering techniques are used to stop people converting illegally obtained funds, to appear as though they have been earned legally. AML mechanisms can be legal or technical in nature. Regulators frequently apply AML techniques to bitcoin exchanges. App: An end-user-visible application hosted in the Ethereum Browser. Application Program Interface API : A specification used as an interface by components, often software components, to communicate with one another.
May include specifications for routines, data structures, object classes, and variables. Arbitrage: The generation of risk free profits by trading between markets which have different prices for the same asset. In the case of bitcoin, they are designed to process SHA hashing problems to mine new bitcoins. They can come in the form of boards that plug into a backplane, devices with a USB connector, or standalone devices including all of the necessary software, that connect to a network via a wireless link or ethernet cable.
ASIC Mining: Out-of-the-box computer systems that you buy at electronics stores usually don't include the processing power that's necessary for the cryptocurrency mining process. As a result, many miners purchase separate computing devices set aside solely for mining. As an alternative, they can also get an Application Specific Integrated Circuit ASIC ; this is a specially-designed computer chip created to perform one specific function, and only that function—in this case, mining calculations.
ASICs reduce the processing power and energy required for mining, and can help reduce the overall cost of the process in that way. Asymmetric Key Algorithm: This is the algorithm used to generate public and private keys, the unique codes that are essential to cryptocurrency transactions.
In a symmetric key algorithm, both the sender and receiver have the same key: they can encrypt and exchange information privately, but since both parties have the decoding information, they can't keep information private from one another. With an asymmetric key algorithm, both parties have access to the public key, but only the person with the private key can decode the encryption; this assures that only they can receive the funds.
Attestation Ledger: A distributed ledger providing a durable record of agreements, commitments or statements, providing evidence attestation that these agreements, commitments or statements were made. Autonomous Agents: Software that makes decisions and acts on them without human intervention. Autonomous Object: A notional object existent only within the hypothetical state of Ethereum.
Has an intrinsic address and thus an associated account; the account will have non-empty associated EVM Code. Incorporated only as the Storage State of that account. Base Base58 encodes binary data into text and is used to encode Bitcoin addresses. Base58Check: A variant of Base58 used to detect typing errors in bitcoin addresses.
Bear Trap: This is a manipulation of a stock or commodity by investors. Those who fall into the bear trap will often sell at that time, fearing a further drop in value. At that point, the investors who set the trap will buy at the low price and will release the trap-which is essentially a false bear market. Once the bear trap is released, the value will even out, or even climb. In several companies including Bitpay and Coinbase, and various wallet apps adopted bit to display bitcoin amounts.
Bitcoin uppercase : The well know cryptocurrency, based on the proof-of-work blockchain. Note that the currency is itself one of these technologies, as it provides the miners with the incentive to mine. Bitcoin unit of currency : ,, satoshis. A unit of the decentralized, digital currency which can be traded for goods and services.
Bitcoin also functions as a reserve currency for the altcoin ecosystem. Bitcoin 2. Examples of Bitcoin 2. There are many manufacturers, some of which enable users to sell bitcoin for cash. CoinDesk maintains a worldwide map of operational bitcoin ATM machines and a list of manufacturers. Bitcoind: Original implementation of Bitcoin with a command line interface. Currently a part of BitcoinQT project. This is used because it gives greater weight to bitcoins that have not been spent for a long time, and better represents the level of economic activity taking place with bitcoin than total transaction volume per day.
It attempts to show which markets have the greatest potential for bitcoin adoption. Bitcoin Network: The decentralized, peer-to-peer network which maintains the blockchain. This is what processes all Bitcoin transactions. There is also an API for developers to use. It contains a copy of the blockchain and once installed it turns your computer into a node in the Bitcoin Network.
Used in production on Coinbase. Bitcoin Sentiment Index BSI : The Bitcoin Sentiment Index is a measure of whether individuals feel the digital currency's prospects are increasing or decreasing on any given day, and is powered by data collected by Qriously. The paper describes the bitcoin protocol in detail, and is well worth a read. Satoshi Nakamoto followed this by releasing the bitcoin code in Bitcoin white paper: In November , a paper, authored probably pseudonymously by Satoshi Nakamoto, was posted on the newly created Bitcoin.
More complete than Bitcoinjs. BitPay: A payment processor for bitcoins, which works with merchants, enabling them to take bitcoins as payment. BitStamp: An exchange for bitcoins that has been gaining in popularity. Read the latest Bitstamp news. Block: This is a collection of transaction data, one of the fundamental elements of cryptocurrency. As transactions are made, the pertinent information for each one is collected—and when the gathered data reaches a predetermined size, it's bundled up as a block.
As soon as possible after blocks are created, they're processed by investors for transaction verification; this process is known as mining. Blockchain: The full list of blocks that have been mined since the beginning of the bitcoin cryptocurrency.
The blockchain is designed so that each block contains a hash drawing on the blocks that came before it. This is designed to make it more tamperproof. To add further confusion, there is a company called Blockchain, which has a very popular blockchain explorer and bitcoin wallet. Block Halving: [see Halving] The halving of the bitcoin reward that miners receive for mining a block.
This takes place approximately every 4 years every , block to be precise. Block Header: Contains information about a block, such as the hash of the previous block header, its version number, the current target, a timestamp, and a nonce. Block Height: Block height refers to the number of blocks connected together in the block chain. For example, Height 0, would be the very first block, which is also called the Genesis Block. Block Reward: The reward given to a miner which has successfully hashed a transaction block.
This can be a mixture of coins and transaction fees, depending on the policy used by the cryptocurrency in question, and whether all of the coins have already been successfully mined. Bitcoin currently awards 25 bitcoins for each block. The block reward halves when a certain number of blocks have been mined. In bitcoin's case, the threshold is every , blocks. Bootstrapping: Technique for uploading the program onto a volunteer's computer or mobile device through a few simple instructions that set the rest of the program in motion.
BOT Trading: Software programs that operate on trading platforms, executing buy and sell orders with pre-programmed trading instructions. Brain Wallet: [see Wallet] A bitcoin wallet which uses a long string of words to secure its coins. BTC: The short currency abbreviation for bitcoins. Bubble: A bubble occurs when a market is driven upward by investors; this has happened in the dot-corn and housing industries in the past decade or so.
Factors such as industry popularity, speculation of potential worth, political influence, and many other things can combine to create these spikes in value. Depending on your perspective, some cryptocurrency markets may or may not have experienced periodic bubbles. The industry's naysayers insist the market is too volatile, and will continue to roller-coaster up and down, with no real stability in sight. Conversely, industry insiders claim these are the growing pains of a new field, and that digital currency fluctuations will smooth out over time.
Traders who are fooled by the bull trap will often buy shares at the inflated price, in the belief that the upward trend will continue and the shares they're buying will rise in value. Unfortunately, those who fell into the bull trap will often be left holding shares for which they paid too much, since once the trap is released, the market evens out, and sometimes even drops.
Named after the Buttonwood agreement, which formed the basis for the New York Stock Exchange in Buy Order: A buy order is established when an investor approaches an exchange and wants to purchase cryptocurrency. Most exchanges allow for these to be entered online, but some investors prefer to go over the details directly with an exchange representative. Buy orders don't necessarily guarantee your purchase; if your price is too low, for example, the offer may expire without being filled unless you make adjustments.
Candlestick Chart: This is a popular at-a-glance type of chart that is commonly used in stock and commodity exchanges.
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