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Land-based sports betting in the United States has expanded to 23 different states now. This new found boom in approved regulated sports Iowa sports betting lies against comes following the repeal of the Professional and Amateur Protection Act PASPA that barred states from allowing locally based sports betting. Now sports bettors in these states are able to travel to local casino operations and bet on their favorite sports.
These sportsbooks are Las Vegas-style full-service sportsbooks, which means they offer Esports betting brazil all-time same high-quality sports betting that you would find Iowa sports betting lies Sin City. The number of regulated states will continue as many states are in the process of passing legislation to bring land-based sports betting to their residents. For against, Tennessee only allows online and mobile betting, no land-based operations, while New York only allows land-based sports betting operations.
Here Iowa sports betting lies against can find all the information you may need about betting on sports in the US. Legal sports betting is a growing market so the number of states with land-based sports betting may increase. It is also important to note that some states have already past legislation for regulated land-based sports betting but they have not launched as of yet.
Betting on sports is slowly becoming the norm so expect the total number of regulated sportsbooks to increase. While many states have regulated sports betting, each state Siti di scommesse sportive in texas county different when it comes to their own rules for betting on sports. Iowa sports betting lies against states have strict restrictions than others and it is important to know what you can and cannot wager Steak eating contest near me in which state.
Indiana sportsbooks will Pa online sports betting video website not offer betting lines on high school events for the same reason. Betting on esports tournaments is also banned in Indiana. It should come as no surprise legal sports betting in Nevada is a billion-dollar industry, considering against it is the original sports Vincite scommesse calcio betternet gratis state.
The only restriction per Nevada sports betting laws was that sports Iowa sports betting lies could not become sportsbook licensees. State-licensed casinos and independent betting shops, however, can legally offer sportsbooks. A unique feature of legal sports betting in Nevada is that you can actually use mobile betting apps to browse boards and place wagers. Most of the casinos that own and operate sportsbooks have apps that allow you to place wagers and track your bet slips from your mobile device, giving you the ability to leave the casino and still get your bets in.
These apps can only be used within the state of Nevada. Several other states have taken a cue from NV on mobile wagering and have legalized similar practices within their own borders. Because of its full exemption from Iowa sports betting lies againstNevada Quiz sullitalia calcio da were able to Luino calcio serie a results every type of wager they thought would make money, using trial and error to focus that field over the years.
Nevada sportsbooks have Confronto quote scommesse sbanzi from basic Taranto calcio live stream real madrid odds like moneylines, spreads, and totals, Partite di calcio serie d girone italiana parlays, props, futures, specials, pleasers, teasers, if-bets, reverse if-bets, Asian Handicaps, and more. These sportsbooks used to bank on the fact that they were Calendario calcio sky e dazn to offer something that every other state was denied the right to, which has given them the time, space, and money to set the full-service, single-game sports wagering standard that all current states are following in their own efforts to legalize post-PASPA.
Despite Iowa sports betting lies against of upstart competition, Nevada is still the grand-daddy of them all. This is because, inDelaware expanded its lottery laws to include NFL parlay cards. But because they never repealed the law, Delaware became one of the four states grandfathered into the federal law exemptions though only for those parlay cards.
Linee di scommesse divisionali Nfl same Vegas-style odds and betting options that were once only in Nevada are now offered in the First State. Delaware has also Parma brescia calcio bigliettino online sports betting, but that product has not yet been rolled out. Technically speaking, sports betting in Siti di scommesse asiatici has been legal since Iowa sports betting lies against state included the provision in a daily fantasy sports bill.
Now, residents and tourists can Lottomatica calcio italia serie a on sports at more Indiana grand sports betting app 20 different sportsbooks spread across the state. All of these locations offer full-service sports wagering, though the state has Calcio rimini juventus yet fully addressed mobile sports betting within its statutes.
Most insiders believe Mississippi will have legal online sports wagering up and running sometime in or at the latest. Rhode Island sports betting took most of the nation by surprise, with the state becoming the eighth state to start accepting sports bets. Now, Scommesse live in tempo reale de 18 or older can place bets on football, basketball, hockey, tennis, baseball, Iowa sports betting lies against other popular sports at local Rhode Island sportsbooks.
Mobile sports betting in Rhode Island was also made possible by bill that passed in early There is only one mobile Betta fish betting in Rhode Island and you will have to register Iowa sports betting lies against at one of the Twin River casino locations to use it. Sistemi per vincere scommesse calcio classificazione a years-long battle, no state is prouder to offer legal sports betting than New Jersey. The state has lies against sports betting at local racetracks and all of its Atlantic City casinos as of June New Jersey sportsbooks are the most comprehensive betting products available on the East Coast, with land-based, Live football , and mobile betting options.
Of all the legal sports betting states, Calcio streaming canale telegram tv live Jersey has the most competitive market outside of Nevada. While most of the wagering Iowa sports betting lies against is concentrated in Atlantic City, all of the sportsbooks in New Jersey have full-service sports betting. Betting lines are available on all of the Iowa sports betting popular sports, and each Suggerimenti quotidiani per le scommesse sul calcio con gambling property provides a unique experience.
Lawmakers in West Virginia were vocal proponents of regulated sports betting in the US. As the fifth state to launch legal sports gambling, WV could be considered an early pioneer of the Iowa sports betting lies against. There are Scommesse calcio su scommesse sportive led casinos in WV that can offer sports betting, though one The Greenbrier is a members-only location.
Three out of Frosinone calcio vs as cittadella h2ha five are operational at the moment. All of the locations accept single-game wagers on sports like football, basketball, baseball, Sports betting bonus codes irs help, and more. There are also online sports betting options in WV powered by local sportsbooks. New Mexico sportsbooks appear to have been legalized overnight. The sportsbook at the tribal Santa Ana Star Casino opened Partite calcio domani in tv oggi tv doors in Octobermaking New Mexico the sixth state with legal sports Iowa sports betting lies against.
Fantasy football players you should trade for Interestingly enough, there was no new legislation passed to make this happen. The Tamaya Nation at the Pueblo Iowa sports betting lies against Santa Ana was able to start offering sports betting based on the language within their state-tribal compact.
The venue features two self-service kiosks for convenience, along with four wagering stations. The Santa Ana Sportsbook is not able to accept mobile or online Olanda calcio under 21 bets per their Tecnica del raddoppio scommesse compact. Since the Tamaya gambit, more land-based NM sportsbooks have opened under the same compact allowances, albeit at different tribal venues. Legal online sports betting requires the NM congress to pass a new law, which is currently not in the cards.
There are a total of 12 Iowa sports betting lies against and racetrack locations eligible to offer legal PA sports betting, and nearly all of them currently do. PA sportsbooks are of course located in major cities like Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, though there are also several sports wagering venues in central PA. To lose they only need to hit a few balls out, serve more softly or run slightly more slowly. Over the past 10 years, numerous rumours and recognised cases of corruption have peppered the life of the professional circuit.
The first instance of corruption to receive wide media coverage was back in October , during the Lyon tournament. Betting company Betfair had recorded bets of , on the victory of Fernando Vicente, who was quoted at 5-to-1 against Evgeni Kafelnikov, one of the best players in the world.
Vicentes victory triggered an inquiry. But it failed due to lack of evidence. Suspicions were also aroused by the withdrawal of Russian Nikolai Davydenko World No 4 at the time from his match against Argentinian outsider Martin Vassalo-Arguello in August at a tournament in Sopot Poland , for which Betfair had once again recorded particularly irrational betting: bets of 7 million were in fact placed on the Argentinian to win, which was six times more than normal for a match of this type.
Although nothing came of the Davydenko affair, many tennis players then admitted having been contacted by corruptors, thereby revealing the vulnerability of tennis to the risk of corruption Lastly, tennis is also open to the rigging of specific aspects of matches, because players can choose to lose a specific set, game or point without relinquishing their chance of winning the match. In rugby, the possibilities for match-fixing are considered to be less.
Rugby is a sport where the collective dimension is even more meaningful than in football. To ensure the successful rigging of a match, it would be necessary to corrupt the goal-kicker and possibly one or two other key players in the team As for the referee, while he can influence a match on certain occasions, particularly by awarding a penalty in front of the goal posts, or in his management of certain phases of the game lineout, scrum, play on the ground , it is nevertheless very difficult to guarantee a score through bribery alone.
Up to now, none of the media has ever speculated about a deliberate defeat in rugby union, but in August , a case relating to a match detail shook the world of a-side rugby in Australia. Shortly before a game between the North Queensland Cowboys and the Canterbury Bulldogs, an irrational number of bets was placed on the Cowboys to score a penalty early in the match.
A few minutes after kick-off, player Ryan Tandy Bulldogs committed a foul just in front of the goalposts18, leaving the field free for the Cowboys to score an easy penalty. But the Cowboys preferred to run the ball and scored a try19, thereby defeating the match-rigging attempt.
Despite this failure, the player in question, along with several accomplices, was brought to justice and found guilty Rugby is therefore not totally exempt from rogue behaviour. Disciplines with fewer players, such as basketball and handball, are also potential targets for matchrigging attempts. In basketball, corrupting a team leader and one center can be sufficient to ensure the desired score. Referees and umpires can also play a decisive role due to the numerous - and often controversial - instances of physical contact.
At Euro Basket , a Greek manager was excluded from the tournament for having attempted to bribe several referees Many cases of match-rigging have also been identified in the American University Championships. Recently, several French basketball players have admitted being approached In handball, two people are central: the goal keeper and the referee.
In , the European Handball Association declared that there were grave suspicions about the integrity of several European Cup matches and that referees were being regularly targeted by corruptors Other instances in other disciplines testify to the extent of the risk of corruption.
In snooker, a discipline where shots are calculated in minute detail, players are able to play an active role in matchrigging. In May , the then-quadruple World Snooker Champion, John Higgins, was the victim of a bogus match-fixing proposal.
Journalists passing themselves off as members of a Mafia organisation. Higgins agreed to lose four rounds in four different tournaments in exchange for a total of , In the recording the scene was filmed , the player claimed that it was not difficult to lose deliberately, that he only needed to miss certain shots Cricket is another sport whose image has already been tarnished by several major scandals see for example the Hansie Cronjie affair related above.
In November , a number of players in the Pakistani national team were found guilty of having rigged different phases of a match against England during the summer of Once again, it was journalists disguised as corruptors who trapped the Pakistani players. These examples of investigative journalism prove that even top competitions can be rigged.
As we have seen, the methods used to attack the integrity of sport are many and varied. No sports discipline is safe from manipulation. Every person involved is a potential way in for corruption. The influence of a trainer respected by their team, a medical advisor, the important role played by a referee - all provide possibilities when a person wants to influence the course or outcome of a match.
But the major target of this system is, and remains, sport itself. It is therefore worth taking a short look at the profile of a typical sportsperson and studying the weaknesses that can make them vulnerable to this type of criminal enterprise or not, as the case may be. Sportspeople and corruption It is important to understand the characteristics specific to sportspeople that help to explain a certain vulnerability to corruption.
One distinguishing element relates to their education and environment. A large number of athletes are trained and live in a closed circle within which their behaviour is predefined and calculated, and where there is significant pressure from sports management, family, medical advisors and even journalists. A lack of perspective outside this closed environment can tend to inhibit an athletes ethical judgments.
How will a high-level athlete react to a request from a person or group of people who for years has devoted their time and money to training, coaching, and supporting them in their sporting and personal life and problems? In some societies, individuals relate differently to illegality, and corruption in sport is more widespread than it is elsewhere. It is a fact that in globalised disciplines like football and tennis, particular attention must for example be paid by the sports authorities to players from Eastern Europe and the Balkan States.
A second key to understanding lies in the relationship between money and sport. Athletes are in essence individuals who are extremely familiar with the concept of risk risk of losing a match or competition, risk of injury etc. The excitement, the adrenalin rush from playing sport and competing can sometimes extend into gambling, and particularly sports betting In January a German.
Lastly, the lack of financial security among sportspeople should not be ignored. Despite the images portrayed by the press of leading sportspeople with extravagant salaries, the majority of sportspeople do not receive as much money as popular belief would seem to indicate.
The average net salary of athletes in disciplines such as handball or volleyball can be derisory. Even in football, the lower leagues are not particularly rich: the minimum salary of a player in Frances National League during the season was estimated at 1, gross per month Outside Western Europe, sportspeople in Central or Eastern Europe or the Balkan States receive salaries that do now allow them to have even a decent lifestyle, let alone an extravagant one.
Furthermore - and this also involves championships in Western Europe - sports club economics are extremely uncertain because they depend on sponsors, ticket sales, television rights, and therefore the results of the club.
As a result, many football clubs regularly find themselves in difficulty and it can happen that players are not paid, as was highlighted by the Spanish footballers strike in August But this is common in Southern and Eastern European countries. In Albania, while the monthly salary of a national star player is close to 6, per month, young players earn about per month, i. The lack of financial security is such that contracts are fixed term one year and each year, there are many players who do not receive their salary for one or more months The economics of professional tennis are no less uncertain.
Tennis players do not receive a fixed salary. For the great majority of them, the only source of income is their winnings from competitions. There is therefore a significant difference between the income of top-ranking players who also benefit from sponsorship and advertising contracts, which supplement their wins on the circuit and those of other players who are obliged to play the secondary circuit, particularly the challengers.
The professional and financial situation of this second group is therefore particularly precarious. The slightest dip in performance or physical injury can compromise their financial balance. This fragility can constitute a weakness from which some corruptors are able to profit. As explained in a report published in February op. A number of criteria are taken into account: the probability of detection, wealth of the sportsperson, financial gain expected, financial penalty in the event of detection, loss of sporting success when underperforming, a taste for transgression or conversely an inclination to feel guilt.
Corruption at grassroots level is the concrete manifestation of corruption in sport. Its rules are easy enough to understand: to rig a match, one needs to corrupt players, because it is they who win or lose on the field. But it would be unwise to restrict oneself to approaching individual players only. The process of corruption can also involve other people who are physically more remote from the pitch, but who are broadly able to orchestrate corruption in sport. Corruption can in fact be decided upon and organised at sports administration level, i.
In football for example, the most frequent cases of match-fixing involve the clubs themselves. The scandals that shook the Turkish and Greek Football Championships in raised questions about the clubs themselves. During the European Basketball Championship in Lithuania in , it was a member of the Greek delegation who contacted the referees of two matches to try and bribe them.
The classic model: rigging a match so that ones team wins, Buying a match This is the traditional type of match-fixing; it does not focus primarily on sports betting but rather on the issue of a predetermined victory.
The methods used to rig matches in these situations are the same as those directly concerning sporting bets. Hence the interest of spending some time on them. In some cases, victory is more important for a club or athlete than for their opponent. Consequently, the latter may be offered financial compensation in exchange for their defeat.
This may be the case for example when a stronger team meets a supposedly weaker team. Even by losing, the weaker team can earn money! This was the reasoning that enabled Olympique de Marseille to corrupt some Valenciennes players in At the time, Marseille was fighting for the title and was due to play in the European Cup Final several days later.
The Marseilles management wanted to guarantee a win so that their players could prepare mentally for the final against AC Milan. Jean-Pierre Bernes, the Chairman of OM, aptly summed up the situation with the following words to a Valenciennes player: Youre going to lose anyway. So why not do it with 30, francs in your pocket? The risk of matches being rigged in this way increases as the end of the season approaches, if a team is still in contention for promotion or victory in a championship, or is trying to avoid relegation, and the match has no real significance for the opponent.
In this case, sports betting is not the primary reason for corruption, but this in no way prevents various people from taking advantage of the predetermination of the result to amass gains on the betting market. In practice, the corruption of an opponent can be effected in a number of ways. One method is to contact the players directly, as was done by OM in Initial contact was made by a Marseille player, Jean-Jacques Eydelie, who telephoned three strategic players in the Valenciennes team: central defender Jacques Glassman the man who revealed the affair , the team captain Jorge Burruchaga and forward Christophe Robert.
J-J Eydelie knew these three players, who had been his teammates earlier in his career, at Nantes or Tours. Targeted players are approached first by a sportsperson or agent, someone they know, then put in touch with a club manager or chairman, who will put the deal to them.
A second method, specifically related by Aleksei Matveev , op. Club chairmen in the same championship not only often know each other personally, but above all, understand each other because they all have the same aims and constraints obligation to achieve results, income etc. Club chairmen have a doubly strategic position in respect of their players.
Firstly, they know each other. They know who is less scrupulous and will not expose corruption. It is through these players that a match can be fixed. Also, the chairman is the person who is responsible for paying the players and for the conditions under which they exercise their profession. He therefore has particular authority over them and players are less tempted to expose the criminal behaviour of their own chairman. Our study has shown us that this chairman-to-chairman method of contact is very frequent in Albania and Russia for example, where the chairmen have stronger authority over the players and corruption can even assume systemic proportions.
In fact, in Eastern Europe and the Balkan States, clubs have been known to do each other favours from year to year. A club facing potential relegation may ask for advantageous scores when it plays friendly clubs. The club thereby contracts a sort of debt of corruption that it has to repay in future years by rigging other matches or transferring players.
In Albania, this technique of exchanging favours can even take on a political aspect, when the club of a municipality with certain political leanings allows a club to win that is affiliated with a friendly political leader who is fighting an election A club or federation can also corrupt a match through the referee. As we have already seen, fixing a match through a referee is less certain than bribing players.
It is also often more obvious. The study of corruption in sport in Russia and Albania has revealed that the referee option is most often chosen after failure to negotiate with players. Numerous testimonies by former referees speak of the standard practice of clubs giving gifts before European Cup matches, a practice that was very widespread in the s and s.
These gifts did not systematically represent a proposal to rig a match, and the boundary between hospitality and corruption was not always very clear. Using the services of prostitutes to cajole referees into fixing a match was also often used. The so-called golden whistle scandal in Portugal is an illustration of this practice. He was suspended for two years for having bought referees. Two cases of attempted corruption were heard by the Disciplinary Commission of the Portuguese National League.
In the first case, referee Jacinto Paixao and his assistants were offered the services of prostitutes by the club after a match against Estrela da Amadora on 24 January , which Porto won In the other case, referee Augusto Duarto visited Pinto da Costa who gave him an envelope containing 2,, two days before a championship game with Beira-Mar which ended in a draw on 18 April Unlike sports staff, who focus on improving the sporting performance of a team, club chairmen have wider obligations, particularly in terms of financial profitability.
It is on their desks that economic, legal and political aspects converge, because it is their duty to defend the interests of their club. Some who are unscrupulous can therefore be tempted to cross the line in attempting to achieve goals they have been set. By virtue of their relationships, some may try to obtain support within national or international sports bodies, so that they can, for example, find referees over whom they can exercise influence. This was the case with the so-called Calciopoli scandal involving Luciano Moggi,.
General Manager of Juventus of Turin between and , and recently banned for life from all activities relating to football by the Italian Federation. The scandal broke in Spring following publication in the Italian press of recordings of telephone conversations between Moggi and Pierluigi Pairetto, a former referee accused by the Italian Federation and UEFA of selecting referees for some matches held between and These recordings revealed exchanges of favours between Moggi - who for his part provided gifts such as luxury cars - and Pairetto, who appointed referees who were supposedly favourably-inclined towards Juventus.
The following is an extract of a conversation in between Giacinto Facchetti and Paolo Bergamo, another former selector of Italian Championship referees, before a match between Inter Milan and Sampdoria of Genoa. The match, refereed by Paolo Bertini, was won by Inter Milan , although they were down at one point. Facchetti: Hello Paolo? Its Facchetti. Bergamo: Hello Giacinto. Facchetti: Im on my way to the stadium and Ive told my people to be tactful with Bertini, to be receptive.
I said it to the players, with Mancini and the others. Bergamo: Itll be a good match, youll see. Facchetti: Great. Bergamo: Is he [Editors note: referee Bertini] predisposed towards a good match? Facchetti: Yes, yes, very good. Bergamo: Youll see, its a match well win together. Facchetti: I just wanted to tell you that Ive done it. Another more recent example: on 25 September , the Chairman of the Romanian Soccer Referees Association, Vasile Avram, was arrested by the police after having received 19, from a businessman, the sponsor of First Division FCM Targu Mures, in exchange for appointing so-called favourable referees His predecessor, Gheorges Constantin, had also been arrested on charges of corruption in A new type of match-fixing arising directly from sports betting: Selling a match, or Who loses, wins With the advent of sports betting, clubs have developed a new method of corruption.
It focuses primarily on winning money on the betting markets but this time it is a case of getting ones own team. A typical example is the case of Macedonian club FK Pobeda, whose eight-year exclusion from all European competition decided in by UEFA was confirmed in April by the Court of Arbitration for Sport, for betting-related corruption on the occasion of the first preliminary round of the Champions League The sums placed on the Asian betting markets for this match were 10 times greater than usual and the vast majority were in favour of the Armenian club, which was not however the favourite to win.
The club had been experiencing a number of financial difficulties and some players had not been paid for several months. The former trainer had left the club having received only half his salary. The match-rigging had been decided on and organised by the Chairman, Mr Zabrcanec, who asked the players to lose the first leg match.
At half time in the second leg match, when Pobeda was leading , he asked his players to allow Pyunik FC to equalise, which they did. Fraud is more difficult to detect in a case where a club chairman decides on the defeat of his own team, because the match-rigging negotiations are internal to the club. This type of decision does involve a large number of participants though, and the risk of leaks to the media or authorities is not insignificant.
Also, there are some factors in this type of situation that are favourable to secrecy and make it possible to tie up a corruption pact. This type of arrangement can also help to guarantee payment of the teams salaries for a number of months.
Everyone is therefore directly and personally concerned. By agreeing to lose deliberately, club players and management are able to bet on their own defeat and add significant value. A defeat is even more profitable if the players agree to lose with a substantial margin, because bets on greatly differing scores e.
This scenario can be illustrated by the match between Belarusian club Cnepr Mogilev and Albanian club Laci, in the first preliminary round of the Europa League in July The first leg in Albania ended in a draw, making the odds for the return match rather high, because it was more difficult to predict the result.
Laci lost the second leg in Belarus , with a large number of goals being tainted by flagrant irregularities As far as enrichment on the betting market is concerned, club chairmen can place bets themselves, ask their players to bet individually, and more particularly sell information to criminal organisations.
In the case of Pobeda, the chairman received , for selling information on the second-leg defeat to criminal elements outside the club. The decision to throw a match can also be taken jointly between a club chairman and a criminal organisation, possibly one with whom the chairman already has links.
If, on the other hand, Pobeda had gone through to the second preliminary qualifying round for the Champions League, it might have earned only 30,, given that the club was not certain of being in. In fact, there was only a very slim chance of its being able to win all three preliminary rounds, particularly because in the second and third rounds, it would have had to play against major European clubs.
So why not abandon the competition at the outset and take advantage of these hundreds of thousands of euro that would put the club in a solid financial position for a large part of the season? All the more so as in some Eastern European countries, the preliminary rounds of European cups offer better odds than national matches, which are considered by betting operators to be too corrupt Rigging European matches also nets much more for those involved.
Two factors favour this type of behaviour on the part of some clubs: on the one hand the particularly difficult financial situation in some sporting environments, on the other, the organisational system of clubs. The precarious nature of European football can assume a number of forms. Firstly, in the continents most prestigious leagues, such as in Spain or Italy, the richest clubs can get into a spiral of debt that can progressively weaken their position.
In order to attract the best players, these clubs offer very high salaries and thus help to bid up transfer amounts, sometimes spending more than they have. Some clubs can then find themselves unable to pay their players, as was the case in Spain in The excessive indebtedness of clubs is a primary reason for their financial fragility, as highlighted by sports economist Bastien Drut The Chairman of UEFA, Michel Platini, stressed this risk recently when referring to repeated scandals relating to arranged matches and strikes in Spain and Italy: If players are not paid, there is a major risk of their being influenced by arrangers But the most precarious financial situations are to be found primarily in the lower leagues of the leading championships, as well as those of Eastern Europe and the Balkan States.
The situation is similar in Albania, where many clubs are unable to pay their players salaries. Albanian clubs are partowned by municipalities, which invest very little in infrastructure and clubs. Thus, Dinamo Tirana, which is one of the countrys most successful clubs and was National Champion in , had a catastrophic season in , with numerous salaries unpaid. As the chairman could no longer afford to cover the clubs costs, he could have asked his players to pay themselves by rigging matches At the end of the season the chairman left the club, leaving it without management.
The club no longer owns its own training pitch, which it is obliged to rent. Its headquarters is neglected and the clubs youth trainer has had to build up a team for the championship. The example of Dinamo Tirana is fairly representative of the precarious nature of the organisational system of some European football clubs. The main clubs, and particularly those in Western Europe, are run by boards of directors and have finance, accounting, administrative, executive and sports departments.
They undergo genuine audits and there is multilateral surveillance of the various activities of the club. But this type of governance is not typical of most football clubs, which are often run unilaterally by a single chairman. The players and sports staff are in charge of sports-related issues, and the chairman deals with the financial activities. For many clubs in Europe, the role of chairman is primarily that of a businessman seeking a return on his investment.
There is a real danger when the club is in financial difficulties. The chairman, who - unlike the sports staff - has not necessarily spent his entire career in the world of sport, is potentially less inclined to respect the principle of sporting integrity, particularly when rigging a match helps to balance the accounts. There is one factor that plays a decisive part in facilitating the rigging of both bought and sold matches: the opacity of the world of sport.
The economics of a club are inevitably complex, depending as they do on a wide range of variables incoming and outgoing alike : ticket sales, player transfers, salaries, travel, TV rights, sponsorship, bonuses, real estate stadium, training pitches etc.
These multiple activities attract many people into the world of sport players agents, staff, security, federation, supporter groups, investors and other sponsors etc. The club environment is sometimes similar to a vast closed and opaque circle, which is all the more likely to reduce the probability of detecting instances of match-rigging and makes judicial enquiries particularly difficult Exogenous sporting fraud: criminal gangs outside sport In some countries, the links between the worlds of sport and crime are many and ancient.
The disciplines infiltrated vary from country to country, but criminal networks generally favour the most popular sports. This can also make it possible to carry out underground criminal activities back-to-back with a positive public image, that of a sport with millions of supporters. This is what is sometimes known as image-laundering, in other words a criminal enterprise may attempt to buy itself a certain form of moral authority by investing in a popular activity with an enthusiastic following.
In Europe, football has therefore sometimes attracted unscrupulous - even criminal - investors. As highlighted in a report by Frances Financial Action Task Force GAFI published in , footballs economic model can represent a windfall for criminal groups, particularly for money-laundering: The professional football market has seen exceptional growth since the beginning of the s due to increased television rights and sponsorship.
In parallel, the labour market for professional players has become globalised. Transfers are effected throughout the world. The resulting flows of money across borders do not come under the control of national football bodies, and attempts to control such. Recent instances of corruption in Italy have also revealed the close links between Albanian and Italian crime. Cultural and historic links are strong between Albania and Italy, which are separated only by the Adriatic Sea about , Albanians live in Italy.
The Albanian and Italian Mafia cooperate seamlessly with one another45, and in the context of the Italian football scandal of , it was established that the Italian Mafia were selling information about rigged matches to the Albanians, who were betting from Albania on online sports betting sites that were not authorised in Italy.
The network brought together a number of Croatians based in Germany, who ordered match-rigging and tasked intermediaries with orchestrating frauds in over 10 countries. Bets were then laid by professional gamblers who also collected and redistributed the winnings. Money-laundering, a priority for large criminal organisations The first concern of a criminal organisation is the need to give apparent legality to their ill-gotten gains, otherwise they can only use them in very limited circumstances.
They therefore need to launder these considerable amounts of money in order to enjoy them freely. The sums deriving from criminal activities are open to debate. The balance sheet of Italys four Mafia families is eloquent, and these figures only include their activities and earnings in Italy as identified by the law.
After investment, money-laundering is the Mafias second largest item of expenditure. Their net profit would therefore be above 78 billion per year, i. Criminal organisations therefore have a strategic need to launder their money and, as explained by the FATF report on money-laundering in the world of sport , op.
What forms do these Mafia investments take in the world of football? The wolf in sheeps clothing, or criminals taking control of clubs In December , the leak of American diplomatic documents by Wikileaks revealed a report by the US Embassy in Sofia Bulgaria entitled Bulgarian soccer receives a red card for corruption The report reveals that: Bulgarian soccer clubs are widely believed to be directly or indirectly controlled by organized crime figures who use their teams as a way to legitimize themselves, launder money, and make a fast buck.
There is a historic example that helps to give a clear understanding of the Mafias interest in controlling clubs. This is the case of Arkan, an eminent member of the Milosevic regime in former Jugoslavia, who used the club Obilic FK to spearhead his criminal activities, which were as many as they were varied At the end of the s, Arkan was the leader of a group of hooligans connected with the Red Star Belgrade club: he subsequently transformed this ultra-violent group into a paramilitary militia, which committed serious acts of violence during the Jugoslavian wars The Arkan Tigers militia was dissolved in April following the Dayton agreements.
Two months later, Arkan bought FK Obilic, which he transformed into a top-ranking club, even winning the Jugoslavian championship in US journalist Franklin Foer52 relates the various techniques used by the club chairman to win victories: corruption, threats etc. Supporter groups were composed of former members of the militia, who had no qualms about pointing their guns at opposing players and making personal threats sometimes in the form of chants.
Arkan regularly paid personal visits to opposing teams in their changing rooms at half time, to order them to allow Obilic to win. One player told how he had been taken away and locked up while his team was playing Obilic Owning the club enabled Arkan to launder a large amount of capital via ticket sales, sponsorship, player transfers and sports betting. International matches also enabled him to organise illegal traffic arms, narcotics , sporting delegations only very rarely being searched by Customs.
Even though he had to transfer ownership of the club to his wife in because UEFA was threatening to exclude the club from European competitions, Arkan took advantage of football to extend his popularity whilst continuing to promote and grow his illegal activities. Another example that perfectly illustrates the benefits of acquiring a club is that of Chinese businessman Zheyun Ye, who took possession of a Finnish, then a Belgian, club in , with the aim of organising rigged matches and enriching himself on the sports betting market.
A number of Belgian players were also transferred to the club and took part in a rigged match ! The Finnish Federation and police very quickly opened an inquiry and fined the club 10, for not having played its best team. Zheyun Ye then returned to Belgium where he had already tried to make contact with clubs and became actively involved in two clubs in particular: Lierse and La Louviere.
Whilst in Belgium he organised 10 rigged matches, including Lierse-La Louviere in , with the aim of enriching himself on the Asian betting market. During the following season , an FC Brussels player accepted money to manipulate the result of the match on 20 September between his own club and KAA Gent.
During the same period, 13 other players were approached with promises of gifts of up to , if they would ease up on the pitch during certain matches. These players declined the offer. The authorities were alerted by the online betting site Betfair, which detected abnormally high betting on the Saint-Trond La Louviere and Cercle de Bruges - Saint-Trond games.
Legal proceedings were instituted and the trial in the magistrates court involving 31 people has yet to take place, while an international warrant has been issued for the arrest of Zheyun Ye. Although Zheyun Ye was in fact arrested by the police, he was released several hours later due to a police-legal muddle. Since then, he has totally vanished from the scene The ease with which this criminal entrepreneur could infiltrate Belgian football circles is a matter for concern, all the more so as his action was copied by another fraudulent investor several years later.
Revealed during the investigation for the Bochum trial, an instance of corruption in the club UR Namur - at that time playing in Belgiums Second Division - reveals the fragility of the world of football in the face of Mafia intrigues. He then turned to a Croatian investor living in Germany, Marijo Cvrtak. On 22 January , Chairman Baudard and Marijo Cvrtak concluded an agreement whereby the Croatian would pay , followed by two tranches of 50, over the space of four months.
Cvrtak also agreed to take over the clubs debts, amounting to ,, in exchange for a place on the Club Board, where he was introduced as the clubs saviour. Now solidly established within the clubs management, Cvrtak brought seven players into the club, whose salaries he lent and whom he knew to be corruptible.
Two of these players went on to play a major part in rigging matches: Serb Nemanja Cvetkovic and Bosnian Dragan Bubic. The latter was hired to buy other teammates. In any event, his transfer did not really comply with the criteria for a sportsman because the clubs medical team judged him to be 29 kilos too heavy to be competitive!
Six players were eventually involved, their bonuses generally amounting to 2, for. During this time, Cvrtak and his associates took full advantage of the matchrigging, pocketing , from the betting market. The Namur club has since been relegated to Division Three and Cvrtak was sentenced to five years in prison.
His assets in a bank in Zagreb were frozen and the amount 3,, testifies to the resources of todays transnational criminal organisations. The two examples above perfectly illustrate the interest that criminal organisations may have in moving into the management of a sports club, and the ease with which they implement their strategy. In some countries with more powerful criminal networks than others, sporting circles are specifically targeted by the Mafia.
Mafioso not only own clubs directly, but also have secret links with club chairmen and certain underworld circles. In his book55, Aleksei Matveev explains that club chairmen help in covering up illegal traffic, for example, by allowing criminals to use the names of their clubs, which are not subject to the same surveillance by public authorities, particularly when teams are travelling abroad for European Cup matches.
The clubs accounts are then tainted with various obscure amounts from Mafiosi supporters who do not invest in football for love of the game. An article in Russki Reporter corroborated this information on the links between football clubs and the Mafia, and give a number of examples of known links with the Mafia Moscows regional anti-crime department brought to light evidence of links between the success of the club Saturn, from the Mosow suburbs, and the vor v zakone godfather, Oleg Shishkanov.
He also headed up Russias Premier Football League in and and was involved in a number of scandals. The club Spartak Moscow also fell into the clutches of Mafia gangs, particularly the Alazan gang and one of its leaders, Ruslan Atlangueriev, who used the club for his personal business.
Larissa Netchaeva, who became CEO of Spartak and tried to stop these practices, was assassinated in Small provincial clubs in Russia, even though they exist partly thanks to public funds, are also of interest to Mafia gangs. In , the club Fakel de Voronej fell foul of the law. Substantial sums granted to the club by the State were received by people without any official links to the club, but who oddly enough accompanied it constantly on its travels.
Even though the practices of the s and early s are less common nowadays, it is still difficult to get rid of them completely. In May , Rustam Saimanov, who was then a Director of the club Rubin de Kazan, was jailed for his involvement in a series of murders in the mids. The match referee claimed to have been threatened at half-time in the changing rooms by three people, including Osman Kadiev The Russian football championship is now one of the most corrupt in the world, to the extent that betting operators now refuse to accept bets on matches in the Russian Second Division, as well as a significant number in the Premier Division.
Two Russian clubs are currently in the news in Western countries: the first is the club Terek Grozny, headed up by the President of the Republic of Chechnya, Ramzan Kadyrov. He wants to make Grozny an international shop window for his republic and has injected very substantial funds into developing the team and infrastructure. The human rights violations and other crimes of which Kadyrov is accused fuel rumours about his ability to rig matches. Club Anzhi Makhachkala also became famous in for recruiting footballer Samuel Etoo for three years at an annual salary of 20 million.
At the beginning of the year, the club was bought by millionaire Suleyman Kerimov, who has close links with Magomedsalam Magomedov, President of the Republic of Dagestan, a neighbour of Chechnya. The enlistment of football clubs by political dignitaries of authoritarian regimes suspected of entertaining links with criminal organisations therefore represents an additional potential risk of corruption in sport.
Corruption in sport ex nihilo: How to rig a match from the outside Without developing institutional links with sporting structures, criminal organisations are able to bribe one or more athletes to alter the course of a match. They can thus take advantage of the vulnerabilities in the world of sport that we identified earlier, and in some cases, as we have also seen, can avail themselves of exceedingly extensive financial resources to achieve their ends.
It should be noted that in the large majority of cases, match-rigging at the instigation of criminals outside sport has the aim of enrichment on the sports betting markets. The direct approach: a knife to the throat or banknotes before the eyes To convince sportspeople to fix a match, some criminals may use a classic method: threats. This method involves using verbal methods to apply pressure, or blackmail or physical violence.
In the scandal that shook Italian football in , a goalkeeper who was aproached to allow Inter to win against Lecce received physical threats following the failure of the plan. As mentioned earlier, the countries in which Mafia practices are most common are more likely to see this type of physical and psychological pressure on players. The other form of direct approach is that of financial corruption, i.
At the last European Basketball Championship in Lithuania in September , a member of the Greek delegation, Stavros Ellianidis, contacted three different referees by telephone to convince them to favour Greece in first round matches.
Specifically, he contacted the German referee for the match against Montenegro, offering him 20, to favour Greece These direct contacts are very seldom reported. For example in tennis, the media attention given to the Kafelnikov and Davydenko affairs encouraged some players to break their silence and admit having been approached in the past. It was five or six months ago in Europe.
My mobile rang. At the other end of the line was someone who said he was the Czech agent of the player I was meeting in the first round of the tournament I was playing in. And what did he ask me to do? To go slow, to let my opponent win, because apparently he was young and needed to win points to move up the ratings. I was flabbergasted. In other words, the total budget for the tournament, and four or five times more than I would have won if I had won the tournament.
I said no, but how could you not be tempted if you are short of money, which is often the case with players who are moving up through the secondary circuit? In , Belgian player Gilles Elseneer was approached to lose his first round match at Wimbledon against Potito Starace in exchange for the sum of , Another Belgian player, Dick Norman, also admitted having been asked twice to lose a match in exchange for a substantial sum of money: It was during a Challenger tournament.
I only remember it vaguely because it is quite a long time ago. I didnt do anything about it French player Arnaud Clement was also the target of an attempt at corruption: Someone phoned me once four years ago in my hotel room to ask me if I wanted to go a bit easy the next day. At the time it wasnt a common thing, so I thought someone was playing a trick on me.
I said no, no and hung up In March , during the Indian Wells tournament in California, payer Dmitry Tursunov also received a phone call in his hotel room offering him money to lose a match Tennis is not the only discipline in which this type of thing happens. Erol had already settled the rigging of a match between his club and Kayseri with the other members of the team, and now just needed to convince the goalkeeper to allow the goals in. This is an extract from a transcription of the recording received by the Turkish police from the Chairman of Sebatspor who had learned of the corruption attempt and had placed a listening device on the phone of the goalkeeper, Hakan Olgun: Kenan Erol: Ive spoken to all the other players about fixing the match.
The others know about it. Hakan Olgun: What? The whole team knows? Kenan Erol: Dont worry! Hakan Olgun: I dont understand. You just want me to leave my goal area and concede a goal? Kenan Erol: At half time, youll lead But Kayseri must win the match. You will have to let in two or three goals in the second half. Hakan Olgun: Can I trust you? La Dernire Heure, 27 September Kenan Erol: The money is in the car.
Let me show you. Hakan Olgun: So do you mean that its betting? Or have you got an arrangement with the other team? Does our staff know? Kenan Erol: If you talk to your staff you wont receive a single lire! Im trying to do you a favour. These people are trying to bet billion lire. You just need to give us the score we want.
Hakan Olgun: Hey man! Theyre notes. Ive never seen so much money in my life! Are you going to give it to me? Kenan Erol: When the match ends, it will be in your pocket. Hakan Olgun: Ive got debts of billion Turkish lire. How much am I going to get? Kenan Erol: At least 75 billion Turkish lire. The rest will go to your friends63 The indirect approach: using intermediaries or maturing a long-term relationship It remains difficult for organisations outside the world of sport to approach athletes or referees who live within a closed circuit.
An indirect, more subtle, approach is therefore often used. The use of intermediaries specialising in corruption is a classic approach technique. In most cases, these are ex-players, agents of players or members of the world of sport who are known in sporting circles, and have a good reputation. The intermediary will therefore ideally be someone from the same milieu as the sportspeople to be corrupted, who can reassure them about the risks they will be running.
These intermediaries are also able to identify players who are weak, psychologically fragile or in financial difficulties, or possibly at the end of their careers, who make ideal targets. The match-rigging scandal that exploded in Italy in May involved several former footballers, including the famous Giuseppe Signori, a forward in the s, who represented criminal circles and organised corruption at grassroots level.
The player contacted was responsible for the smooth operation of the corruption and if necessary recruited other players to the scheme. Certainly, he would then have to share his gains, but at the same time ensured the chances of the scheme succeeding.
The Juve Stabia - Sorrente match on 5 April can be cited as an example of this because it was Cristian Biancone, a centre forward at the end of his career and childhood friend of Francesco Avallone, an important member of the local Mafia the Alessandro clan , who contacted the teams goalkeeper to persuade him to allow a goal through, whilst reminding him of the type of physical retaliation he could expect if he did not rig the match as agreed Corruption can also be born out of a relationship of collusion between a sportsperson and the intermediary.
The intermediary might also give them presents, which help to deepen the relationship. The stage of actual corruption is reached when the player is asked to go easy in a match. This is a real spiral because as soon as the sportsperson accepts the initial gifts, the corruptor-corruptee. Tuncer , Y.
Greek Cup 2. A Women 1. Premier league 4. Israel Cup 2. Liga Leumit 6. Lega A 1. A2 Green 5. A2 Red 5. Italian Cup 4. League LKL 2. King Mindaugas Cup 2. NKL 6. DBL 7. Polish Cup 4. Energa Basket Liga Women 2. VTB United League 5. Super League 6. Premier League Women 1. First League 1. Extraliga 4. SKL Women 1.
KBL 5. WKBL Women 2. ACB 2. LEB Plata 5. Spanish Cup 4. Liga Femenina Women 8. Basketligan Women 2. SB League 4. Super Ligi 5. FBU Superleague 3. BBL Trophy 2. Liga Uruguaya 1. NBA NCAA ABL 2. ICE Hockey League 5. Extraleague 7. QMJHL 6. Chance Liga 1. Extraliga Metal Ligaen 4. Alps Hockey League 2. Beijer Hockey Games 6.
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Tipos Extraliga LNHH 2. HockeyAllsvenskan 8. SHL HockeyEttan Norra 4. HockeyEttan Sodra 3. HockeyEttan Vastra 3. HockeyEttan Ostra 3. AllEttan Norra 3. National League 4. Swiss League 7. UHL 2. NHL AHL 8. ECHL 4. USHL 1. Friendly International 3. ATP Australian Open hard WTA Australian Open hard Cherbourg Challenger Men hard Cherbourg Challenger Men Doubles hard 8. Biella Challenger Men hard Biella Challenger Men Doubles hard 9.
ITF M15 St. Petersburg 2 Men hard Petersburg 2 Men Doubles hard 3. Potchefstroom Challenger Men hard Potchefstroom Challenger Men Doubles hard AFL 9. AFL Women 7. Elitserien 2. German Beach Trophy Men 2. German Beach Trophy Women 4. Super Smash 1. Super50 2. Super League 3. CSA T20 Challenge 2. Test Series 3.
Twenty20 International 1. One Day International Women 2. League of Legends European Championship League of Legends Champions Korea League of Legends Championship Series Counter-Strike Blast Premier: Spring 4. Dota 2 Pro Circuit Livesport Superliga 5. Extraliga Women 6. F-Liiga 3. Divari 1. F-Liiga Women 7.
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Division de Honor Women 2. Handbollsligan 7. Allsvenskan 1. SHE Women 3. Allsvenskan Women 1. NLA 1. Catchweight - Oktagon Underground Men 2. Middleweight - Oktagon Men 1. Bantamweight - UFC Men Featherweight - UFC Men Flyweight - UFC Men 4. Heavyweight - UFC Men 8. Light Heavyweight - Bellator Men 2. Lightweight - UFC Men 7. Middleweight - UFC Men Welterweight - UFC Men Bantamweight - UFC Women 3. Catchweight - UFC Men 1. Featherweight - Women UFC 1. Flyweight - Women UFC 4.
Strawweight - UFC Women 9. NRL 8. Premiership Rugby 6. Six Nations 3. Top 14 7. Pro D2 8. Super Rugby 4. Guinness Pro14 2. Championship League Liga Women 4. AVL 1. AVL Women 1. SuperLiga 1. SuperLiga 2. Extraliga 1. Champions League 5. MEVZA 1. Mestaruusliiga 1. Mestaruusliiga Women 1. Bundesliga Women 1.
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Volleyball League Women 1. Superliga Women 5. Efeler Ligi 5. Turkish Cup Women 4. A-League 1. Tipico Bundesliga 3. Belgian Cup 3. Serie A 2. Campeonato Goiano 1. Primera A 1. Primera B 3. HNL 2. First Division 2. MOL Cup 2. Landspokal Cup 2. Premier League 1. Championship 1. FA Cup 4. Liga 2. Greek Cup 3.
ISL 1. Ligat ha'Al 3. Serie B 2. Serie C - Group B 1. Primavera 1 3. FA Trophy 6. Liga de Expansion MX 3. KNVB Beker 1. Liga Primera 1. Liga Primera U20 4. Polish Cup 2. Campeonato de Portugal 6. Romanian Cup 3. Premiership 3. Prva liga 3. Segunda Division B - Group 5 6. Tercera Division - Group 6 7. Tercera Division - Group 7 4.
Tercera Division - Group 9 2. Segunda Division B - Group 1 4. Segunda Division B - Group 2 1. Segunda Division B - Group 3 2. Segunda Division B - Group 4 1. Primera Division Women 7. Thai League 1 4. Turkish Cup 1. Superliga 2. Czech Cup 2. A2 Red 3. DBL 2. VTB United League 2. KBL 1. WKBL Women 1. ACB 1. Super Ligi 4. BBL Trophy 1. NBA 7. No events for this time period.
QMJHL 1. Alps Hockey League 1. Liiga 4. DEL 3. Erste Liga 1. Championship 5. MHL 8. NMHL 1. VHL-B 1. HockeyAllsvenskan 6. HockeyEttan Norra 3. AllEttan Norra 2. Swiss League 5. NHL 7. ECHL 1. Cherbourg Challenger Men hard 8. Cherbourg Challenger Men Doubles hard 4. Biella Challenger Men hard 6. Biella Challenger Men Doubles hard 5. Petersburg 2 Men hard 9.
Potchefstroom Challenger Men hard 5. Potchefstroom Challenger Men Doubles hard 8. Super50 1. Counter-Strike Blast Premier: Spring 2. Dota 2 Pro Circuit 5. Livesport Superliga 2. Svenska Superligan 2. Herre Handbold Ligaen 1. Champions League 2. EHF European League 1.
Andebol 1 1. Handbollsligan 4. Liga Women 2. PlusLiga 2. Polish Cup Women 2. Volleyball League 1. Turkish Cup Women 3. W-League 2. Serie A 3. Campeonato Goiano 2. Primera Division 5. Primera B 5. MOL Cup 1. Premier League 3. FA Cup 2. Coupe de France 2.
Greek Cup 1. France -. Dijon 0. Caen 1. Italy -. Reggina 1. Chievo 2. Atalanta 1. Portugal -. Sporting Braga. Caldas Win Draw Sintrense Win. Vila Cortez. Netherlands -. Mexico -. Poland -. Turkey -. Galatasaray Win Draw Alanyaspor Win. Belgium -. Club Brugge 2. Slovenia -. Koper 1. Denmark -. AGF 2. Greece -. Olympiakos Piraeus 2.
Colombia -. Fortaleza CEIF. Austria -. Switzerland -. Young Boys 2. Chile -. Brazil -. Internacional 2. Fortaleza 1. Friburguense 0. Israel -. Maccabi Petah Tikva 1. Maccabi Tel Aviv 2. Maccabi Haifa 2. Luxembourg -. RM Hamm Benfica 0. Uruguay -.
Plaza Colonia 1. Wanderers 1. Estonia -. Iceland -. Magni 1. Romania -. Paraguay -. Hungary -. Vasas Win Draw Videoton Win. Nicaragua -. Managua 1. Managua U Deportivo Ocotal U Sudan -. Hilal El-Fasher 0. Hay Al Arab 1. Al-Ahly Merowe 2. Somalia -. Midnimo 0. Midnimo Win Draw Elman Win. Match Stats - Finished Matches. Sunderland U18 1. SD Ejea. Pontevedra CF. Burgos CF. Cultural y Deportiva Leonesa. Real Oviedo II. Internacional de Madrid. CDA Navalcarnero. Rayo Majadahonda. Real Madrid II. CP Villarrobledo.
Orihuela CF. Arenteiro 2. Premium is Here! Silla CF 1. Torrent 1. Acero 0. Novelda CF 0. Elche II 2. Racing Murcia 1. CD Mensajero 1. Espanyol W. Sporting de Huelva. Madrid CFF. Atletico Madrid W. El Olivar U Badajoz U Valencia U Marina U Real Zaragoza U Getafe U Calavera U Sevilla U Santa Fe U Castilleja U Ural U Txantrea U Valvanera U Oyonesa U Angola -. Argentina -. Australia -. Croatia -. Cyprus -. Czech Republic -. Egypt -.
India -. Indonesia -. Iraq -. Kenya -. Kosovo -. Kuwait -. Libya -. Malta -.