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The NW was my only hold up - the rest were in by a remarkable minutes. LOI was the long…. Your IP address will be recorded. Recommend this entry Has been recommended Send news. Log in No account? Create an account. Remember me. Previous Share Flag Next. I was a bit worried that I was in for a slog today, with none of 1ac, 1dn or 6dn jumping out at me, but things soon sped up. In the end, it would probably have been a very quick solve had I not had to stare at 2dn for well over a minute before guessing.
I could see how the clue worked, and obviously had all the checkers, but I didn't know the word and it took an unaccountably long lime to find the correct synonym for 'pull'. I thought 10ac was a stinker as well; a long charade which exposed a gap in my GK, and that I had to investigate post-solve. We have a couple of lovely anagrams to admire - 16ac and 5dn - well hidden by unusual indicators and misleading surfaces. My COD is 18ac in which I struggled to separate the wood from the trees!
All residents of selected households aged 16 and older were eligible to participate in the survey, indicating that their household had been selected as eligible for participation in the study and that researchers would soon visit their home. Researchers visited dwellings a minimum of five times to recruit eligible residents to participate.
During a successful contact visit, researchers completed a brief household survey and distributed hard copies i. Participants could complete the study survey immediately, at a later point at which time researchers would collect the survey, or online. Researchers made a minimum of two reminder phone calls to residents who had promised to complete the survey, but had not done so. The BGPS included four primary types of measures.
Positive responses included answering fairly often or very often to criteria 1—7 i. Third, the survey included a series of variables representing gambling-related attitudes e. Fourth, non-gambling information included a variety of demographic e.
For the current study, we focused on game type, gambling problems and demographic information. For game type, we used the above-defined categories with one exception. This data reduction replicated that employed by Griffiths et al. This is a conservative measure because the combination of three categories of activities creates a variable that by definition represents greater involvement. This notation also applies to other gambling activity categories that can represent multiple gambling opportunities e.
For gambling problems, we used the past year DSM-IV assessment and considered aspects of the endorsement of symptoms i. We operationally defined gambling involvement as the number of types of gambling for which an individual reported being involved during the past 12 months. We used weighted data for all analyses. Specifically, the BGPS created a weighting variable correcting for dwelling and household selection probabilities, age, gender and individual non-response within participating households.
We conducted three primary sets of analyses. First, we calculated for the full sample, and by gender, participation rates for each game type. We used chi-square analyses to determine whether those rates varied by gender.
Third, we conducted a series of logistic regressions, which used participation in each gambling type to predict disordered gambling status among past 12 month gamblers. We conducted these logistic regressions first without controlling for involvement and then added involvement as a control.
Table 1 shows the participation in all types of gambling by gender and for the full sample. Also popular were private betting, bingo and other sports betting other than online betting or betting on horses or dogs. We observed a number of gender differences for gambling participation.
About 0. Table 2 shows gender stratified prevalence rates for gambling-related problems reported by individuals who participated in various types of gambling. These types of games also were associated with the highest mean numbers of DSM gambling symptoms and mean number of types of gambling during the past year i.
The top five prevalence rates of any DSM gambling symptoms by types of game were: virtual gaming machines, spread betting, casino table games, other sports betting and betting on dogs. The top five types of games for the mean number of DSM gambling symptoms were: spread betting, virtual gaming machines, casino table games, Internet gambling and betting on dogs. The top five types of games for the mean number of types of gambling during the past year i.
Among the full sample, participants engaged in an average of 1. Among gamblers i. Table 3 shows a series of logistic regressions illustrating how well each type of gambling contributes to the prediction of gambling-related problems i. Bivariate analyses showed that all types of gambling, except for the National Lottery, contributed significantly to the prediction of gambling-related problems and all increased risk for gambling-related problems.
The top five odds ratios were for: virtual gaming machines, spread betting, Internet gambling, betting on dogs, and casino table games. Logistic regression analyses predicting disordered gambling status from type of game, with and without controlling for involvement. Subsequent regressions that added involvement i. The addition of involvement greatly reduced the contribution of games to the prediction of gambling-related problems in each model.
For almost all games, the addition of the involvement variable rendered the significant positive association between gambling type and gambling-related problems non-significant. The exception was virtual gaming machines, which maintained a significant positive relationship to disordered gambling status after adjusting for involvement. Two games, private betting and betting on horses, had a reversal of association.
After controlling for involvement, individuals who engaged in private betting or betting on horses were significantly less likely to have gambling-related problems than people who did not. In this study, we provide a comprehensive analysis of participation with different games among British residents aged 16 and older.
We placed a special emphasis on the nature and strength of the associations between types of games and gambling-related problems. The types of games that had the strongest associations with gambling-related problems did not include all of the games that the conventional wisdom might expect.
Virtual gaming machines had the strongest association with gambling-related problems, but few people i. These findings suggest that popular perceptions of risk associated with specific types of gambling for the development of gambling-related problems might misrepresent actual risk. Regardless of the type of game, past month participation was associated with disordered gambling; however, for the most part, such associations disappear, or at least become weakened, when statistical analyses control for the range of gambling involvement.
Our findings with a primarily adult British sample are consistent with Welte et al. Taken together, these two sets of findings suggest that researchers and others use caution when interpreting results showing that people who play specific types of games have a higher rate of gambling-related problems than others.
In fact, these studies reveal that some games might be indicators of unhealthy involvement, rather than critical factors for gambling-related problems themselves. One interesting, and perhaps unanticipated, finding was that the nature of the relationships between private betting and betting on horses and gambling problems changed when we considered the influence of involvement: engaging in these types of gambling, but not other types, seemed to protect players against developing gambling problems.
This finding suggests that the apparent risk between gambling activities and developing gambling-related problems resides, perhaps primarily or even entirely, among individuals who have high rates of involvement. For others who do not have high rates of involvement, playing these types of games might reflect social setting characteristics e. These findings hold some disparate possibilities for theories of gambling exposure. On one hand, these findings might imply that more opportunities to gamble create more opportunities for involvement and, therefore, might yield more gambling-related problems.
On the other hand, these findings might suggest that more opportunities to gamble will have little to no impact on the prevalence and incidence of gambling-related problems because individuals are more or less prone to involvement. Increases in gambling opportunities will not influence individuals who are less prone to involvement, but only those likely to become, or who already are, involved.
There is some evidence to support the latter view because the rate of gambling disorders has changed little during the past 35 years despite the extraordinary growth of gambling opportunities and access around the world. Notable strengths of this study include the analysis of multiple game types simultaneously and the incorporation of a measure of involvement into analyses that examine the association between type of game and gambling-related problems.
Controlling for involvement allows a more sophisticated understanding of the risk unique to some types of games and provides a level of analytic sophistication more advanced than the majority of available research. In fact, controlling for involvement drastically reduces the ability of games to discriminate statistically individuals who have gambling-related problems from those who do not. Another strength of this study is that it advances this more sophisticated methodology and line of inquiry from a US adolescent sample to a British primarily adult sample.
This broader study sample helps to avoid problems related to legal access to different types of gambling observed among the US sample and concerns about different gaming interests by age cohorts. Nevertheless, this study is not without limitations. First, the analyses rely on self-report data and not actual gambling activity.
Self-report is vulnerable to weaknesses, including faulty memory, factual errors and self-presentation biases. Second, we only included one measure of involvement i. Other measures of involvement e. Third, this study relied on retrospective reports of behavior and therefore cannot establish any causal patterns. Fourth, many of the game-type variables represent multiple types of games by definition e.
This approach is conservative and only presents as a limitation because of the inability to distinguish the effects of subtypes of games. Fifth, a small number of people played some types of games; consequently, increases in the sample size might alter the findings for games played by small numbers of people.
Future research should include the longitudinal assessment of real-time gambling data and multiple measures of involvement to yield a better determination of whether involvement is a moderator, mediator or both, of disordered gambling. Other important directions include examinations of game clustering, to determine whether subtypes of involvement are possible, the determination of whether there might be a critical level of involvement e.
The range of gambling involvement frequently is a better predictor of disordered gambling status than type of gambling. This research does not suggest that differentiating between types of games is completely unimportant; clearly, there are differences in the popularity of games. These and similar results 7 suggest the need to reconsider the conventional assumptions related to the influence of game types and direct more attention toward global behavioral characteristics, such as the range of involvement.
Conflict of interest: During the past 5 years, the authors of this paper have received honoraria and fees for a variety of activities, including gambling-related symposia, speaking events, education events, research, and consulting. HJS has served as an expert witness for gambling and other addiction-related legal cases. The authors have no other personal or employment-related competing interests. The sponsor had no role in this research. We conducted this research independently from the sponsor.
The aetiology of PG is uncertain, but research has attempted to determine whether specific game types e. Recent research suggests that past findings linking game types to risk for disordered gambling failed to consider the range of gambling involvement among people who play specific games and when the extent of involvement is considered, game type influences diminish. Nevertheless, this recent research is limited by its reliance on a US youth sample.
The current study extends recent research by testing the associations between specific games, range of involvement and disordered gambling among a nationally representative British adult sample. Google Scholar. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.
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By contrast, other fruits stop sweetening and ripening the moment they are picked, so if they are picked tart, they will remain that way. They may eventually soften, but this is a sign of deterioration, not ripening. Fruits in this category include every kind of citrus, grapes, strawberries, blueberries, pineapple, watermelon and cucumber.
Bell peppers, chili peppers and eggplants are also fruits. Lettuce and cabbage are leaves; radishes, carrots and beets are roots; beans are pods; peas and corn are seeds; broccoli heads, cauliflower, and artichoke are flower buds, and Brussel sprouts are leaf buds. No, there is no such thing as a vegetable. Getting back to medlar trees, they make fine ornamental subjects, too. In the manner of persimmons, their leaves change color in the fall, showing off brilliant fiery colors.
They put on a white flower show in the spring and their mature fruits are a pleasant burnt orange to russet, around 2 inches in diameter, resembling oversized rose hips. This is not a coincidence since medlars — like apple, pear and quince — belong to the rose family. You can order medlar trees by mail order from two Pacific Northwest nurseries through these websites: raintreenursery. Q A lot of us have a small fortune invested in cacti and succulents that are both potted and planted.
A As for containers, your best bet is to cover them when rain is forecast. You can do this with a cold frame wood-framed box with glass or plastic sides or even a strong cardboard box. You should be able to collect cardboard boxes for free by visiting the produce department of any supermarket. Cover the boxes with plastic so they stay dry when it rains. If you have lots of plants — whether in containers or the ground — you could cover them with plastic sheeting or tarps.
I think that rain exclusion is probably the safest way to go. Just make sure you take the plastic off when the rain stops, although if freezing weather is forecast, keep the plastic on. Send questions and photos to Joshua perfectplants. Medlar fruit and foliage Photo by Andrew Dunn. Medlars in fruit tree. Unripe medlar white and bletted brown and mushy. Wattle Photo courtesy Home Depot. Show Caption. By Daily News. Once the formative shape has been created in its first years, you really only have to remove any dead, diseased or overcrowded branches.
Regular pruning is not needed. The medlar can be grown as a bush on a dwarfing rootstock, but as a tree it has a lovely spreading, almost weeping habit and works as a half-standard 3. Several cultivars exist, including "Royal" which some say can be eaten before bletting. Medlars aren't really fussy. They prefer a warm, sheltered site with moist, well-drained soil don't we all? It's worth watering them in very dry spells, especially in the first three or four years of life.
Strong winds can damage the flowers, so it's best to ensure they're not too exposed. They will tolerate partial shade - mine is at the back of an overshadowed, east-facing bed that only receives sun for a couple of hours a day, but it still produces well. Some people leave the fruit to drop to the ground but it's easier to keep an eye on the fruits if you pick them in late October or November, while still hard.
Store them in a single layer on dry sand or paper, stalk upwards, somewhere cool and airy it doesn't have to be dark. It's a good idea to dip the stalks in a strong salt solution to prevent moulds and rotting. Any time from a week to three weeks later, the fruit will have bletted. The skin will have browned and possibly become slightly wrinkled, and the fruit will be soft to the touch.
Eat as soon as it's ready, as this seems to be when it's at its most tangy and citrus. What you definitely don't get is a lot to eat from each medlar they contain several, fairly chunky stones — "pips" just doesn't paint the right picture and my favourite way is to eat them is to scoop the flesh straight from the fruit with a teaspoon. It makes a delicacy with wine, port or cheese.
You can also mix the pulp with sugar and cream but I think this actually reduces its flavour. Adding it to breakfast yoghurt is something of a treat. Medlars are probably best known, however, for being made into a jelly or cheese, when the fruits are stewed whole and passed through a sieve.