nei nagib jabor international investment

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An investmentfonds wikipedia free fund also index tracker is a mutual fund or exchange-traded fund ETF designed to follow certain preset rules so that the fund can track a specified basket johann pfeiffer iforex underlying investments. Index funds may also have rules that screen for social and sustainable criteria. An index fund's rules of construction clearly identify the type of companies suitable for the fund. Additional index funds within these geographic markets may include indexes of companies that include rules based on company characteristics or factors, such as companies that are small, mid-sized, large, small value, large value, small growth, large growth, the level of gross profitability or investment capital, real estate, or indexes based on commodities and fixed-income. Companies are purchased and held within the index fund when they meet the specific index rules or parameters and are sold when they move outside of those rules or parameters. Think of an index fund as an investment utilizing rules-based investing.

Nei nagib jabor international investment union investment online freistellungsauftrag 2021

Nei nagib jabor international investment

A huge amount of sport- and health- related smartphone applications apps is available in the app. Assessing the relative importance of correlates of loneliness in later life: Gaining insight using recursive partitioning. The regression tree suggested that loneliness was not raised among those with poor mental wellbeing if they identified their partner as closest confidante and had frequent social contact.

The importance of localized related variety for international diversification of corporate technology, Regional Studies. Internationalization of research and development has increased substantially in recent years. This paper analyses the determinants of spatial distribution of foreign technologi This paper analyses the determinants of spatial distribution of foreign It identifies foreign technological activities by applying the cross-border ownership concept to patent applications.

The main proposition is that regions with higher related variety of technological activities between sectors attract more foreign The importance of building construction materials relative to other factors affecting structure survival during wildfire. Structure loss to wildfire is a serious problem in wildland-urban interface areas across the world.

Laboratory experiments suggest that fire-resistant building construction and design could be important for reducing structure destruction, but these need to be evaluated under real wildfire conditions, especially relative to other factors. Using empirical data from destroyed and surviving structures from large wildfires in southern California, we evaluated the relative importance of building construction and structure age compared to other local and landscape-scale variables associated with structure survival.

The local-scale analysis showed that window preparation was especially important but, in general, creating defensible space adjacent to the home was as important as building construction. At the landscape scale, structure density and structure age were the two most important factors affecting structure survival, but there was a significant interaction between them. That is, young structure age was most important in higher-density areas where structure survival overall was more likely.

On the other hand, newer-construction structures were less likely to survive wildfires at lower density. Here, appropriate defensible space near the structure and accessibility to major roads were important factors.

In conclusion, community safety is a multivariate problem that will require a comprehensive solution involving land use planning, fire-safe construction, and property maintenance. The relative importance of health, income and social relations for subjective well-being: An integrative analysis.

There is much evidence that health, income and social relationships are important for our well-being, but little evidence on their relative importance. This study makes an integrative analysis of the relative influence of health related quality of life HRQoL , household income and social relationships for subjective well-being SWB , where SWB is measured by the first three of the five items on the satisfaction with life scale SWLS.

A Shapley value decomposition method measures the relative importance of health, income and social relationships, while a quantile regression model tests how the effects of each of the three predictors vary across different points of SWB distributions. Results are compared with the standard regression. The respective marginal contribution of social relationships, health and income to SWB as a share of goodness-of-fit is These findings are consistent across models based on five alternative measures of HRQoL.

The influence of the key determinants varied significantly between low and high levels of the SWB distribution, with health and income having stronger influence among those with relatively lower SWB. Consistent with several studies, income has a significantly positive association with SWB, but with diminishing importance. Purpose: This paper aims to explore the relative importance of the motives and sub-motives which influence a highly educated individual's decision to move across global boundaries.

Relative importance of vertebrates and invertebrates in epigeaic weed seed predation in organic cereal fields. Exclosure trials were conducted in four organic cereal fields in The Netherlands in and to determine the relative importance of vertebrates and invertebrates in weed seed predation.

The trials showed that seed predation by vertebrates was rather consistent and predictable, occurring on all. Relative importance of cohesion and adhesion for sensory stickiness of semisolid foods. The relative importance of cohesion and adhesion for sensory stickness of semisolid foods was investigated using a texture analyzers.

Products included commercial mayon-naises, custard desserts and warm sauces which varied in apparent viscosity between 0. It was observed that the. Kallas, Z. Animal welfare is becoming one of the most contentious issues in animal husbandry and meat production industries. We assess the relative importance of animal welfare, with respect to pig castration and the avoidance of boar taint, alongside different attributes of pork meat, amongst consumers in six. Job performance ratings : The relative importance of mental ability, conscientiousness, and career adaptability.

According to career construction theory, continuous adaptation to the work environment is crucial to achieve work and career success. In this study, we examined the relative importance of career adaptability for job performance ratings using an experimental policy-capturing design. Two psychological experiments--Anderson and Shanteau , Berkowitz and LePage --are reanalyzed to present the problem of the relative importance of low Type 1 error probability and high power when answering a research question by testing several statistical hypotheses.

The ring of fire: the relative importance of fuel packing versus intrinsic leaf flammability. Two different experimental set-ups were used to disentangle the relative importance of intrinsic leaf traits versus fuel packing for the flammability in fuel beds.

Dried leaves from 25 Australian perennial species were burnt in fuel bed rings under controlled conditions. The flammability parameters. Physical inactivity is expanding across all ages in the United States. Research has documented a deficiency in health- related fitness knowledge HRFK among elementary- through college-aged students.

The need for a credible and reliable resource that provides research-based information regarding the importance of HRFK is significant. The purpose…. The following study investigates the relative importance of Web management practices in business curricular pedagogy from an undergraduate student perspective.

Using conjoint methodology, the results suggest that students early in their program of studies tend to most value more tests in terms of course attributes, while students later in their…. Online shopping interface components: relative importance as peripheral and central cues.

The Elaboration Likelihood Model ELM uses central more thoughtful and peripheral less thoughtful routes of persuasion to maximize communication effectiveness. This research implements ELM to investigate the relative importance of different aspects of the user experience in online shopping. Of all the issues surrounding online shopping, convenience, access to information, and trust were found to be the most important. These were implemented in an online conjoint shopping task.

Respondents were found to use the central route of the ELM on marketing messages that involved issues of minimizing travel, information access, and assurances of system security. Users employed the peripheral ELM route when considering usability, price comparison, and personal information protection. A descriptive model of Web-based marketing components, their roles in the central and peripheral routes, and their relative importance to online consumer segments was developed.

This study's purpose was twofold: first, to examine the relative importance of job demands and resources as predictors of burnout and engagement, and second, the relative importance of engagement and burnout related to health, depressive symptoms, work ability, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions in two samples of health care workers. In both samples, job demands predicted burnout more strongly than job resources, and job resources predicted engagement more strongly than job demands.

Engagement held more weight than burnout for predicting commitment, and burnout held more weight for predicting health outcomes, depressive symptoms, and work ability. Results have implications for the design, evaluation, and effectiveness of workplace interventions to reduce burnout and improve engagement among health care workers.

Actionable recommendations for increasing engagement and decreasing burnout in health care organizations are provided. Perceived importance of sustainability and ethics related to fish: a consumer behavior perspective. Although sustainability and ethics are of increasing public importance , little research has been conducted to reveal its association with fish consumer behavior.

Cross-sectional data were collected through a postal self-administered survey June from a sample of Flemish women aged years. Consumers attach high perceived importance to sustainability and ethics related to fish. However, this perceived importance is neither correlated with fish consumption frequency nor with general attitude toward eating fish.

Refusing to eat wild fish is grounded in sustainability and ethical concerns, whereas the decision not to eat farmed fish is associated with a lower expected intrinsic quality rather than shaped by importance attached to sustainability and ethical issues. The relative importance of wife abuse as a risk factor for violence against children. To investigate the relative importance of wife abuse as a risk factor for physical child abuse, physical punishment, and verbal child abuse. The study explored the importance of wife abuse relative to blocks of parent, child, and family characteristics and also relative to specific risk factors.

Hierarchical logistic regressions were conducted, using five different criterion variables measuring physical child abuse, physical punishment, and verbal abuse separately and in combination. Blocks of parent, child, and family characteristics were more important predictors of violence towards children than was wife abuse, though the presence of wife abuse in the home was a consistently significant specific risk factor for all forms of violence against children.

Of specific risk factors, a respondent's history of having been hit as an adolescent was a larger risk factor for physical child abuse than was wife abuse. Wife abuse was an important predictor of physical punishment. Non-violent marital discord was a greater factor in predicting likelihood of verbal child abuse than was wife abuse.

Though this study confirms the association between wife abuse and violence towards children, it cautions us not to overlook the contribution of other factors in our attempts to understand the increased risk attributed to wife abuse. The perceived importance of physical activity: associations with psychosocial and health- related outcomes.

The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which participation in a month exercise program changed the degree of importance that older adults attached to physical activity. In addition, associations among changes in physical activity importance and health- related and psychosocial outcomes were examined. Participants were randomly assigned to a walking condition or a flexibility, toning, and balance condition.

Physical, psychological, and cognitive assessments were taken at months 0, 6, and Involvement in a month exercise program increased the importance that participants placed on physical activity; this positive change was similar across exercise condition and sex. Changes in importance , however, were only associated with changes in physical health status and outcome expectations for exercise midway through the intervention.

There were no significant associations at the end of the program. Regular participation in physical activity can positively influence the perceived importance of the behavior itself. Yet, the implications of such changes on physical activity- related outcomes remain equivocal and warrant further investigation. Why are agricultural impacts of climate change so uncertain? The importance of temperature relative to precipitation. Estimates of climate change impacts are often characterized by large uncertainties that reflect ignorance of many physical, biological, and socio-economic processes, and which hamper efforts to anticipate and adapt to climate change.

A key to reducing these uncertainties is improved understanding of the relative contributions of individual factors. We evaluated uncertainties for projections of climate change impacts on crop production for 94 crop-region combinations that account for the bulk of calories consumed by malnourished populations. Specifically, we focused on the relative contributions of four factors: climate model projections of future temperature and precipitation, and the sensitivities of crops to temperature and precipitation changes.

Surprisingly, uncertainties related to temperature represented a greater contribution to climate change impact uncertainty than those related to precipitation for most crops and regions, and in particular the sensitivity of crop yields to temperature was a critical source of uncertainty.

These findings occurred despite rainfall's important contribution to year-to-year variability in crop yields and large disagreements among global climate models over the direction of future regional rainfall changes, and reflect the large magnitude of future warming relative to historical variability. We conclude that progress in understanding crop responses to temperature and the magnitude of regional temperature changes are two of the most important needs for climate change impact assessments and adaptation efforts for agriculture.

Relative importance index RII in ranking of procrastination factors among university students. Procrastination is the action of delaying or postponing something such as making a decision or starting or completing some tasks or activities. According to previous studies, students who have a strong tendency to procrastinate get low scores in their tests, resulting in poorer academic performance compared to those who do not procrastinate.

This study aims to identify the procrastination factors in completing assignments among three groups of undergraduate students. The relative importance of procrastination factors was quantified by the relative importance index RII method prior to ranking. A multistage sampling technique was used in selecting the sample. This paper examines the relative importance of political instability and economic variables on perceived country creditworthiness. Our results indicate that both political instability and economic variables are taken into account in evaluating country creditworthiness; however, it appears that bankers assign larger weight to economic performances, which we except of reflect longer term political stability.

In addition, the frequency of changes in the regime and armed conflict, both proxying f The corporate finance literature traditionally abounds in both theoretical discussion and empirical research concerning financing and long-term investment decisions. Managing short-term resources appears to be a much less remarkable issue, despite this resource's significant share of a firm's balance sheet and the time and effort required to manage the current assets and liabilities.

This article provides insights into the relative importance of the selected working capital determinants from Energy saving in Swedish households. The relative importance of environmental attitudes. The objectives for energy saving in the housing sector set by recent Swedish energy and climate policies are quite demanding. This article uses nation-wide Swedish survey data from to to explore the potential for achieving those targets.

Earlier findings that socio-economic characteristics such as age, housing type and income are strongly linked to higher propensities to save on heating and hot water usage are confirmed by ordered logistic regression models. However, general environmental attitudes are also found to play a crucial role. When assessing the relative importance of socio-economic factors and environmental attitudes, the effect on energy saving is generally greater for the former than the latter.

In addition, important interaction effects are identified. In relative terms, the effect of environmental attitudes is clearly stronger among households in apartment blocks than among those in detached housing, and stronger among households with higher income than among those with lower income.

We end by discussing the implications for the selection and targeting of policy measures to tap the energy savings potential in the population. Relative importance and interrelations between psychosocial factors and individualized quality of life of hemodialysis patients. Since quality of life QOL of hemodialysis HD patients is low and frequently difficult to improve by medical therapy, it is important to identify psychosocial correlates and life-domains important for HD patients' QOL.

Forty-eight chronic HD-patients identified and rank-ordered life-domains important for QOL and rated their level of satisfaction with those domains. Psychosocial factors included perceived-control PC , social-support and hostility. Demographic and disease- related factors included age, gender, cardiovascular disease CVD , diabetes, hematocrit, albumin and C-reactive protein. The relative importance of water temperature and residence time in predicting cyanobacteria abundance in regulated rivers.

Despite a growing awareness of the problems associated with cyanobacterial blooms in rivers, and particularly in regulated rivers, the drivers of bloom formation and abundance in rivers are not well understood. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical model to assess the relative importance of predictors of summer cyanobacteria abundance, and to test whether the relative importance of each predictor varies by site, using monitoring data from 16 sites in the four major rivers of South Korea.

The results suggested that temperature and residence time, but not nutrient levels, are important predictors of summer cyanobacteria abundance in rivers. Although the two predictors were of similar significance across the sites, the residence time was marginally better in accounting for the variation in cyanobacteria abundance.

The model with spatial hierarchy demonstrated that temperature played a consistently significant role at all sites, and showed no effect from site-specific factors. In contrast, the importance of residence time varied significantly from site to site.

This variation was shown to depend on the trophic state, indicated by the chlorophyll-a and total phosphorus levels. Our results also suggested that the magnitude of weir inflow is a key factor determining the cyanobacteria abundance under baseline conditions.

Relative importance of habitat area and isolation for bird occurrence patterns in a naturally patchy landscape. We tested the relative effects of patch area and isolation for predicting bird occurrence in a naturally patchy landscape in the Bear River Mountains of Northern Utah, USA. We selected focal patches mountain meadows ranging in elevation from 1, to 2, m and in size from 0. Breeding birds were sampled in each focal meadow during the summers of and using variable-distance point transects.

Logistic regression and likelihood-based model selection were used to determine the relationship between likelihood of occurrence of three bird species Brewer's sparrow, vesper sparrow, and white-crowned sparrow and area, isolation, and proximity metrics. We used model weights and model-averaged confidence intervals to assess the importance of each predictor variable. Plots of area versus isolation were used to evaluate complex relationships between the variables.

We found that meadow area was the most important variable for explaining occurrence for two species, and that isolation was the most important for the other. We also found that the absolute distance was more appropriate for evaluating isolation responses than was the species-specific proximity metric. Our findings add clarity to the debate between ecologists regarding the relative importance of area and isolation in species responses to patchy landscapes.

Violence associated with combat- related posttraumatic stress disorder: The importance of anger. The importance of anger with regard to violence among veterans with combat- related PTSD has received little attention. We previously proposed that in PTSD the activation of threat- related cognitive networks strongly potentiates anger in a positive feedback loop and that inhibitory controls on aggression can be overridden when PTSD and anger activation are conjoined.

We predicted that violence would be intensified when combat- related PTSD was conjoined with anger. We used the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study NVVRS public use data set, selecting the male combat theater veterans, which entailed 1, from the main survey Study 1 and from the clinical interview component Study 2.

PTSD was assessed by continuous symptom scores and by clinical diagnostic measures. Conjoined anger and PTSD was associated with greatly increased violence. PTSD was not associated with violence in the absence of anger. This result was obtained using alternative measures of PTSD and of anger in both the main survey and the clinical interview component.

These findings call for reconceptualizing the association of PTSD and violence. Concerted attention should be given to anger as a risk factor for violence in the assessment and treatment of combat- related PTSD, and as an important portal of entry for treatment. The relative importance of different perceptual-cognitive skills during anticipation. We examined whether anticipation is underpinned by perceiving structured patterns or postural cues and whether the relative importance of these processes varied as a function of task constraints.

Skilled and less-skilled soccer players completed anticipation paradigms in video-film and point light display PLD format. Skilled players anticipated more accurately regardless of display condition, indicating that both perception of structured patterns between players and postural cues contribute to anticipation. We also examined anticipation as a function of proximity to the ball. When participants were near the ball, anticipation was more accurate for video-film than PLD clips, whereas when the ball was far away there was no difference between viewing conditions.

Perceiving advance postural cues appears more important than structured patterns when the ball is closer to the observer, whereas the reverse is true when the ball is far away. Various perceptual-cognitive skills contribute to anticipation with the relative importance of perceiving structured patterns and advance postural cues being determined by task constraints and the availability of perceptual information.

Relative importance of natural and anthropogenic factors influencing karst rocky desertification. As the most severe ecological issue in southwest China, karst rocky desertification KRD has both threatened and constrained regional sustainable development.

Comprehensively understanding the relationship between the evolution of KRD and relevant driving data would provide more information to combat KRD in such complex karst environments. Past studies have been limited in quantifying the relative importance of driving factors influencing fine-scale KRD evolution, and have also lacked insight into their interactive impacts. To address these issues, we have used geographical information system techniques and a geographical detector model to explore the spatial consistency of driving factors and their interactions in relation to the evolution of KRD.

Changshun County in China was selected as a representative area for the study. Nine relevant driving factors, including both natural and anthropogenic factors, were studied in regard to their relationships with KRD transformation between and Our results demonstrate the relative importance of driving data in influencing the improvement and deterioration of KRD.

Lithology, soil type and road influence are identified as the leading factors. Interestingly, to our study at least, there is no significant difference between the impacts of natural and anthropogenic factors influencing KRD improvement, and even natural factors have a higher impact on KRD deterioration. Factors were found to enhance the influence of each other for KRD transformation. In particular, the results show a non-linearly enhanced effect between driving factors, which significantly aggravates KRD.

New information found in our study helps to effectively control and restore areas afflicted by KRD. Important characteristics of an entrepreneur in relation to risk taking: Czech Republic case study. Full Text Available New businesses arising at the market usually operate in the sector of small and medium-sized enterprises and account for a significant part of the whole global economy.

Not only the success of a start-up company, but also its sequel within the SME sector are significantly influenced by entrepreneur's personality. The aim of this article is to explore the attitude to financial risk in relation to sociodemographic characteristics gender, education, age and the most important personality traits of entrepreneurs risk-taking, decisiveness, optimism. We have analyzed the data collected from respondents during in 14 regions of Czech Republic.

Empirical results of our paper show that the researched entrepreneurs rather can't manage financial risks in their firms regardless their gender, education, age or personality traits. Most entrepreneurs consider the importance of financial risk to increase during the crisis period. These opinions differed in relation to age, gender and such personality traits as "decisiveness" and "optimism". The results also show that the entrepreneurs try to minimise the financial risk through building-up reserves in relation to such qualities as "risk-taking" and "decisiveness" in comparison to a rather negative attitude to "optimism".

Full Text Available Traditional knowledge, such as knowledge of the use of plants as medicine, influences how indigenous people manage forest resources. Gender and age-associated differences in traditional knowledge may impact forest resource management because of the traditional division of labor. Individuals were interviewed using a tablet that displayed images of 34 plants, which had been cited by traditional healers in the community.

Quantitative analysis provided insight into the relative importance of plants in the sample as well as the distribution of medicinal plant knowledge among members of the community. The most important plants were Tradescantia zanonia and Monolena primuliflora.

These plants should be considered candidates for further investigation. There was a positive correlation between age and knowledge of medicinal plants, but no significant difference between genders. Our results suggest that an interview method that relies on digital images can reveal differences in the importance of medicinal plants as well as provide insight into the distribution of traditional medical knowledge. While men and women are likely to manage forest resources similarly, younger members of the community may not have the same regard for forest resources as their elder counterparts.

Full Text Available This review column is the first in a series of columns that will provide a selective listing of important books by leading publishers on terrorism and counterterrorism- related subjects. Although most of the reviewed books are current, a few were published within the last several years, but are still considered to be important. In this paper, we review evidence from infants, toddlers, and preschoolers to tackle the question of how individuals orient preferences and actions toward social partners and how these preferences change over development.

We aim at emphasizing the importance of language in guiding categorization relatively to other cues such as age, race and gender. We discuss the importance of language as part of a communication system that orients infants and older children's attention toward relevant information in their environment and toward affiliated social partners who are potential sources of knowledge.

We argue that other cues visually perceptible features are less reliable in informing individuals whether others share a common knowledge and whether they can be source of information. The relative importance of language in guiding social preferences through development. Full Text Available In this paper, we review evidence from infants, toddlers and preschoolers to tackle the ques-tion of how individuals orient preferences and actions towards social partners and how these preferences change over development.

We argue that other cues visually per-ceptible features are less reliable in informing individuals whether others share a common knowledge and whether they can be source of information. Examination of the relative importance of hospital employment in non-metropolitan counties using location quotients. At the county level, the health care and social services sector is typically the largest or second largest employer. Hospital employment is often the largest component of the sector's total employment.

Hospital employment is particularly important to non-metropolitan or rural communities. A high quality healthcare sector serves to promote economic development and attract new businesses and to provide stability in economic downturns.

The purpose of this study was to examine the intensity of hospital employment in rural counties relative to the nation as a whole using location quotients and to draw conclusions regarding how potential changes in Medicare and Medicaid might affect rural populations. Estimates for county-level hospital employment are not commonly available.

These estimates were used to generate location quotients for each county which were combined with demographic data to generate a profile of factors that are related to the magnitude of location quotients. Although a very high percentage of rural counties contain medically underserved areas, an examination of location quotients indicates that the percentage of the county workforce employed by hospitals in the most rural counties tends to be higher than for the nation as a whole, a counterintuitive finding.

Further, when location quotients are regressed upon data. On the relative importance of audio and video in the presence of packet losses. In streaming applications, unequal protection of audio and video tracks may be necessary to maintain the optimal perceived overall quality. For this purpose, the application should be aware of the relative importance of audio and video in an audiovisual sequence.

In this paper, we propose Our results show that content poses a significant impact on the preferred compromise between audio Relative importance of food and water pathways in the bio-accumulation of zinc. The relative importance of the food versus water pathway as a source of radionuclides to aquatic organisms is studied through laboratory experiments allowing groups of animals to accumulate 65 Zn from the two pathways simultaneously in the same simulated ecosystem.

Mean whole body concentration factors of 65 Zn and stable zinc in shrimp, crab, fish and mussels are recorded. In shrimp and fish accumulation of 65 Zn through the food pathway is reported more than the water pathway though fluctuations in food quality and feeding rates could alter zinc absorption kinetics.

Measuring the importance of oil- related revenues in total fiscal income for Mexico. Loma Larga, C. Revenues from oil exports are an important part of government budgets in Mexico. A time-series analysis is conducted using monthly data from to examining three different specifications to determine how international oil price fluctuations and government income generated from oil exports influence fiscal policy in Mexico.

The behavior of government spending and taxation is consistent with the spend-tax hypothesis. The results show that there is an inverse relationship between oil- related revenues and tax revenue from non-oil sources. Fiscal policy reform is urgently needed in order to improve tax collection as oil reserves in Mexico become more and more depleted.

The relative importance of relativistic induced interactions in the beta decay of Tm. The log ft-values, the spectrum shape functions, and the beta-gamma angular correlation coefficients of the Tm beta decay are computed in the framework of relativistic formfactor formalism using asymmetric rotor model wavefunctions.

Main vector and axial vector hadron currents being strongly hindered, the relative importance of induced interaction matrix elements is accurately estimated. Good agreement with experiment is obtained for the beta decay observables when the main induced interaction terms were taken into account.

The contribution of the pseudoscalar term was found insignificant. We examine the relative and complementary effectiveness of trust-building strategies in online environments. While prior research has examined various antecedents to trust, we investigated two trust-building mechanisms more in depth: Web site trust and vendor reputation. We tried to understand the relative effectiveness of these two important mechanisms to provide online businesses with a clear recommendation of how to establish trust in an effective and efficient manner.

Drawing from the literature on trust, we proposed vendor reputation to be more effective than Web site trust. Moreover, we examined a potential complementary effect of these mechanisms so as to provide online businesses with a deeper understanding of how to derive superior trust. We hypothesize a small such effect. The study proposes a laboratory experiment to test the model.

The importance of family relations for cannabis users: the case of serbian adolescents. Adolescence is transitional stage of physical and mental human development occuring between childhood and adult life. Social interactions and environmental factors together are important predictors of adolescent cannabis use. This study aimed to examine the relationship between the social determinants and adolescents behavior with cannabis consumption.

A cross sectional study as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs was conducted among 6. Among 6. Well off family, lower education of mother, worse relations with parents were significantly associated with cannabis use P related to cannabis use P study confirmed the importance of family relationship development. Drug use preventive programmes should include building interpersonal trust in a family lifecycle and school culture.

Conceptualisation of ageing in relation to factors of importance for extending working life - a review. The aim of this study was to explore and understand the complexity of ageing in relation to factors of importance for extending working life.

Discourse analysis of documents was used in an integrative review including articles. Relative importance of methylotrophic methanogenesis in sediments of the Western Mediterranean Sea. Microbial production of methane is an important terminal metabolic process during organic matter degradation in marine sediments.

It is generally acknowledged that hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis constitute the dominant pathways of methane production; the importance of methanogenesis from methylated compounds remains poorly understood. We conducted various biogeochemical and molecular genetic analyses to characterize substrate availability, rates of methanogenesis, and methanogen community composition, and further evaluated the contribution of different substrates and pathways for methane production in deltaic surface and subsurface sediments of the Western Mediterranean Sea.

Major substrates representing three methanogenic pathways, including H2, acetate, and methanol, trimethylamine TMA , and dimethylsulfide DMS , were detected in the pore waters and sediments, and exhibited variability over depth and between sites. In accompanying incubation experiments, methanogenesis rates from various 14C labeled substrates varied as well, suggesting that environmental factors, such as sulfate concentration and organic matter quality, could significantly influence the relative importance of individual pathway.

Methyl coenzyme M reductase gene mcrA analysis revealed that the composition of methanogenic communities was generally consistent with the distribution of methanogenic activity from different substrates. This study provides the first quantitative assessment of. Full Text Available Since symbols of early cultural relations between Europe and East Asia are important , we are striving to restore the image of Augustin Hallerstein — in China and earn his legacy its appropriate position in the history of the Qing dynasty next to other great Jesuits like Adam Shall von Bell —, Ferdinand Verbiest —, or Ignatius Kogler — A two-year EU project made possible the publication of a monograph in English, which was translated into Chinese and published in China in February Wider popularization of his achievements should be beneficial to Slovenia as well as to China, where he did his work.

Such common heroes of the past could often be used to promote better understanding and cooperation between China and Slovenia. Through strong connections with Korean scholars he gained a high reputation in Korea as well. The relative importance of information sources in consumers' choice of hospitals. The research presented focuses on an examination of the relative importance of word-of-mouth, expert opinion, external communication, and past experience in the context of hospital choice.

Past research has examined the effect of each individually and various combinations of the four sources, but not all four simultaneously. Results of the present study suggest that past experience plays a greater role in hospital choice than other information sources, including expert opinion. The strength of word-of-mouth as a source of information is also verified.

The implications of this research include the following: 1 health care researchers need to incorporate word-of-mouth when investigating informations sources, and 2 local hospitals need to be aware of "negative perceptions" and strive for consumer satisfaction. Health care delivery systems incorporating consumer-based choice render these findings especially valuable as researchers and practitioners address the challenges that these evolving systems will bring.

Full Text Available The corporate finance literature traditionally abounds in both theoretical discussion and empirical research concerning financing and long-term investment decisions. This article provides insights into the relative importance of the selected working capital determinants from the European Union perspective. The determinants considered in the study include both external and internal factors, specifically the country in which a company operates, its industrial classification and the firm size.

Using more than 10, aggregated observations from a sample of firms from 13 industries, 9 countries and 3 group sizes, covering the period , the findings provide evidence that corporate working capital is most affected by country-specific factors, followed by industrial factors and firm size. Full Text Available We conduct a study of the secondary and tertiary sectors with the goal of highlighting the relative im-portance of services in the Mexican economy.

We consider a time series analysis approach designed to identify the stochastic nature of the series, as well as to define their long-run and-short run relationships with Gross Domestic Product GDP. The results of cointegration tests suggest that, for the most part, activities in the secondary and tertiary sectors share a common trend with GDP.

Interestingly, the long-run elasticities of GDP with respect to services are on average larger than those with respect to secondary activities. Common cycle tests results identify the existence of common cycles between GDP and the disaggregated sectors, as well as with manufacturing, commerce, real estate and transportation. In this case, the short-run elasticities of secondary activities are on average larger than those corresponding to services.

Essential fatty acids EFA , which are primarily generated by phytoplankton, limit growth and reproduction in diverse heterotrophs. The biochemical composition of phytoplankton is well-known to be governed both by phylogeny and environmental conditions. Nutrients, light, salinity, and temperature all affect both phytoplankton growth and fatty acid composition.

However, the relative importance of taxonomy and environment on algal fatty acid content has yet to be comparatively quantified, thus inhibiting predictions of changes to phytoplankton food quality in response to global environmental change.

We compiled published marine and freshwater phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, consisting of species from six major taxonomic groups, cultured in a wide range of environmental conditions, and used a multivariate distance-based linear model to quantify the total variation explained by each variable. Our results show that taxonomic group accounts for times more variation in phytoplankton fatty acids than the most important growth condition variables.

The results underscore that environmental conditions clearly affect phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, but also show that conditions account for relatively low variation compared to phylogeny. This suggests that the underlying mechanism determining basal food quality in aquatic habitats is primarily phytoplankton community composition, and allows for prediction of environmental-scale EFA dynamics based on phytoplankton community data.

These analyses quantify temporal dynamics of algal-derived LCEFA and food quality in a freshwater ecosystem that has undergone large community changes as a result of shifting resource management practices, highlighting diatoms. Relative importance of nitrate and sulfate aerosol production mechanisms in urban atmospheres. The relative importance of the various sulfate and nitrate aerosol production mechanisms is calculated for different atmospheric conditions.

The calculation scheme used to determine the rates of nitrate and sulfate production, based on the concept that vapor transfer to the aerosols and nitrate and sulfate formation within the aerosols are coupled kinetic processes, considers sulfate formation by ozone and hydrogen peroxide oxidation and catalytic oxidation in the presence of soot, iron and manganese of sulfite solutions and sulfuric acid condensation and nitrate formation by the liquid-phase oxidation of dissolved nitrogen oxides for different initial gas concentrations and particle compositions and sizes.

It is found that sulfate production is higher under daytime conditions, primarily proceeding by mechanisms involving sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide, while at night oxidation processes on the surface of the aerosol film are more important.

Nitrate tends to decrease nighttime sulfate production due to an increase in aerosol acidity and nitrate production is found to be higher under nighttime conditions and in the winter. Virulence factors of Escherichia coli in relation to the importance of vaccination in pigs. Bacteria adhesion to the host cell is considered a specific phenomenon among fimbrial and non-fimbrial adhesins with their respective receptors on enterocytes. Immunization of sows with adhesin is important to stimulate the production of antibodies and their subsequent transfer to piglets through colostrum.

The aim of this paper is to illustrate the main impacts of enteric diseases caused by E. Remote Sensing of plant functional types: Relative importance of biochemical and structural plant traits. Monitoring ecosystems is a key priority in order to understand vegetation patterns, underlying resource cycles and changes their off. Driven by biotic and abiotic factors, plant species within an ecosystem are likely to share similar structural, physiological or phenological traits and can therefore be grouped into plant functional types PFT.

It can be assumed that plants which share similar traits also share similar optical characteristics. Therefore optical remote sensing was identified as a valuable tool for differentiating PFT. Although several authors list structural and biochemical plant traits which are important for differentiating PFT using hyperspectral remote sensing, there is no quantitative or qualitative information on the relative importance of these traits.

Thus, little is known about the explicit role of plant traits for an optical discrimination of PFT. One of the main reasons for this is that various optical traits affect the same wavelength regions and it is therefore difficult to isolate the discriminative power of a single trait.

A way to determine the effect of single plant traits on the optical reflectance of plant canopies is given by radiative transfer models. The most established radiative transfer model is PROSAIL, which incorporates biochemical and structural plant traits, such as pigment contents or leaf area index. According to our results some traits, especially biochemical traits, show a weaker separability of PFT on a spectral level than compared to the actual trait measurements.

Overall structural traits leaf angle and leaf area index are more important for. Institutional delivery in rural India: the relative importance of accessibility and economic status. Skilled attendance at delivery is an important indicator in monitoring progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters between and In addition to professional attention, it is important that mothers deliver their babies in an appropriate setting, where life saving equipment and hygienic conditions can also help reduce the risk of complications that may cause death or illness to mother and child.

Over the past decade interest has grown in examining influences on care-seeking behavior and this study investigates the determinants of place of delivery in rural India, with a particular focus on assessing the relative importance of community access and economic status. In this investigation of institutional care seeking for child birth in rural India, economic status emerges as a more crucial determinant than access. Economic status is also the strongest influence on the choice between a private-for-profit or public facility amongst institutional births.

Greater availability of obstetric services will not alone solve the problem of low institutional delivery rates. This is particularly true for the use of private-for-profit institutions, in which the distance to services does not have a significant adjusted effect.

In the light of these findings a focus on increasing demand for existing services seems the most rational action. In particular, financial constraints need to be addressed, and results support current trials of demand side financing in India. Background Understanding the drivers of large-scale vegetation change is critical to managing landscapes and key to predicting how projected climate and land use changes will affect regional vegetation patterns. This study aimed to improve our understanding of the role, magnitude and spatial distribution of the key environmental factors driving vegetation change in southern African savanna, and how they vary across physiographic gradients.

Monthly NDVI was described by cyclic seasonal variation with distinct spatiotemporal patterns in different physiographic regions. Results support existing work emphasizing the importance of precipitation, soil moisture and fire on NDVI, but also reveal overlooked effects of temperature and evapotranspiration, particularly in regions with higher mean annual precipitation.

Critically, spatial distributions of the weights of environmental covariates point to a transition in the importance of precipitation and soil moisture strongest in grass-dominated regions with precipitation mm. The analysis supports known drivers of savanna vegetation but also uncovers important roles of temperature and evapotranspiration. Results highlight the utility of applying the DFA approach to remote sensing products for regional analyses of landscape change in the context of global environmental change.

With the dramatic increase in global change research, this methodology augurs well for. Full Text Available The unique geochemistry of marine shallow-water hydrothermal systems promotes the establishment of diverse microbial communities with a range of metabolic pathways.

In contrast to deep-sea vents, shallow-water vents not only support chemosynthesis, but also phototrophic primary production due to the availability of light. However, comprehensive studies targeting the predominant biogeochemical processes are rare, and consequently a holistic understanding of the functioning of these ecosystems is currently lacking. To this end, we combined stable isotope probing of lipid biomarkers with an analysis of the bacterial communities to investigate if chemoautotrophy, in parallel to photoautotrophy, plays an important role in autotrophic carbon fixation and to identify the key players.

Analysis of the bacterial diversity revealed Anaerolineae of the Chloroflexi as the most abundant bacterial class. Furthermore, the presence of key players involved in iron cycling generally known from deep-sea hydrothermal vents e. Relatively increased 13C-incorporation in the dark allowed the classification of aiC, C, and iC as potential lipid biomarkers for bacterial chemoautotrophy in this ecosystem. Highest total 13C-incorporation into fatty acids took place at the sediment surface, but chemosynthesis was found to be active down to 8 cm sediment depth.

In conclusion. The relative importance of physical and biological energy in landscape evolution. Landscapes are formed by the interplay of uplift and geomorphic processes, including interacting and competing physical and biological processes. For example, roots re-inforce soil and thereby stabilize hillslopes and the canopy cover of the forest may mediate the impact of precipitation.

Furthermore, plants and animals act as geomorphic agents, directly altering landscape response and dynamics by their actions: tree roots may crack rocks, thus changing subsurface water flows and exposing fresh material for denudation; fungi excrete acids that accelerate rates of chemical weathering, and burrowing animals displace soil and rocks while digging holes for shelter or in search of food.

Energetically, landscapes can be viewed as open systems in which topography stores potential energy above a base level. Tectonic processes add energy to the system by uplift and mechanically altering rock properties. Especially in unvegetated regions, erosion and transport by wind can be an important geomorphic process. Advection of atmospheric moisture in high altitudes provides potential energy that is converted by water fluxes through catchments.

At the same time, the conversion of solar energy through atmospheric and biological processes drives primary production of living organisms. If we accept that biota influence geomorphic processes, then what is their energetic contribution to landscape evolution relative to physical processes?

Using two case studies, we demonstrate that all components of energy input are negligible apart from biological production, quantified by net primary productivity NPP and potential energy conversion by water that is placed high up in the landscape as rainfall and leaves it as runoff. Assuming that the former is representative for biological energy and the latter for physical energy, we propose that the ratio of these two values can be used as a proxy for the relative importance of biological and physical processes in landscape evolution.

All necessary. Enhancing Reading Skills of Engineering Students. Sanjeev, Katta Manoj, T. Sampath Kumar Reddy, T. Karthikeyan, S. Krishna Chythanya. N, Krishna Bhargavi. Mohammad Kazim Hooshmand, Doreswamy. Sanjeev Kumar Sukalikar, S. Yatty Maryati. Sujith A S, Asha John. Balambigai Subramanian. Detection of Microbial Activity in Raw Milk. Humaidi, Ayad Q. Priyadharshini C, S. Chitti Babu. K, Sethukarasi.

Geeta Kumari, Varsha, K. Delhi Babu, S. Ganesh, V. Dhanalakshmi, M. Suresh, A. Ravinthiran, P. Pradeep kumar, A. Antony Vinoth, T. Syamala, G. Surekha, Prabhu Mydukuri. Wahyu Sardjono, Muhammad Savin. Wahyu Sardjono, Mohammad Savin. Divya Goel. Mrutyunjaya, Sarika Raga.

C, Sundaresan. R , Nagaraja. M, Sivahari Shankar. S , Karthikeyan. Bio-Oil from Coconut Shells. Suresh, P. Rajeswari, A. Chandrasekar, Nasiya PM. Krunalkumar J. Gandhi, Nitin J. Shajitha Begum, A. Lalitha, C. Sashidhar, C. Uma Rani. Sarala, S. Rukmani Devi, M. Suganthy, S. Jhansi Ida. Rafikov A. Alzahrani, Fokrul A. Sudhakar, H.

Hannah Inbarani. Meerasharif Sheik, Bobba Basaveswara Rao. Raja Priya, V. Sree Ram, M. Krishna Prasad, K. Satya Prasad. Roslan, A. Shaiful, A. Beleed, M. Omar, S. Amitabha Nath, Lalhmingliana, Goutam Saha. Usha Dinakaran, Sushil Dwarkanath. Culinary Influence on Bengaluru as a Tourism Destination. Anuja Bokhare, P S Metkewar. Benchmarking of Graph Partitioning Tools and Techniques. Nidhi Rani, Abhishek Kumar Singh.

Mini Agrawal, K. Manne Neelima Chaudhary, A. Khalifa, Amyia Bhaumick. Emelita C. Vipin Kumar Mishra, Ritula Thakur. Neha Ajit Kushe, Ganesh M. Gangadhar, K. Mohana Sundari, Challapalli Praseeda. S C Jain. Anil Kumar, Sonal Chawla. Nishad Sandilya, P Vinoth Kumar. Srinivas Rao, CH. Anil, E. Vijaya Kumari , Y. Vulnerability Tracking in Cloud using Encryption. Raja M. A, Sophia M. Yadaiah, Vijayalaxmi Biradar. Kavita, Gagandeep. Srinivasarao, Ch.

Raghava Prasad. Usha Kiruthika, Dinesh Kumar. S, Anish. S, Kabilesh. Judy Simon, S. M Shyni, M. Mayuri, R. S Rajam. Thulasikanth, T. Geethapriyan, R. Deepak, K B. Puranjay, K. Hemanth Reddy. Arshdeep Singh, Gurjit Singh Bhathal. Ketki P. Kshirsagar, Rajeshree Rokade, Dhanapal Kamble. Manisha R. Dhage, Srikanth Vemuru.

Chandrasekaran, A. D Apps. Bambang Leo Handoko, Mahdi Kusuma. Tiroutchelvame, M. Pragalyaashree, Dayanand Peter. Manohar Dingari, D. Mallikarjuna, Reddy V. Jaideep Atri, Shuchita Upadhyaya. Zaki, Naeem Ahmad, Marwa I. Ghonamy, F. Abd El-Salam, A.

Topology Optimization of Automotive Gear using Fea. Abdullah Haredy. Preethi, D. Ayushi Raichoudhury. Manoj Kumar Gupta, Pravin Chandra. Dasari Siloyam, Rajesh C. Sivapprakash, S. Hilda Malar, R. Venkatraman and J. Amutha Monica. Wahid, Waleed Mugahed Al-Rahmi. Doaa Wafik Nada, Assem Tharwat. Murugan, S. Kishore Kumar K, Balaji S.

Imam Korabu, Chetan Pise. Revati P. Sawant, Sudhanshu Pathak, Sachin Mane. Sigo, Indulekha K. Dhanalakshmi, I. Samuel Sundar Singh. Dega Rajaji, K. Chandra Sekhar. Jayant H. Bhangale, Ajay L. Aniket Kumar, R. Munendra Kumar, Anuj Kumar. Marcelin Vasantha, V. Selvaperumal, D. Nitish Gupta. Eugenia Jambolana Lam. Kathirvel, S. Selvakumar, S. Dhamotharan, G. Bharath, M. Vikram Kumar Kamboj.

Acep Maksum, Muchlis R. Luddin, Fahmi Idris. Sivarajan, S. Rajeshkumar, R. Ranadheer Reddy. Mohammad Abu-Arqoub, Ghassan F. Issa, Wael M. Antoni Wibowo, Filbert Ivander. Steve Michael, Amalia Zahra. Bharti Sharma, Rakhi Arora.

Ashish P. Ramdasi, K. Chandra Prakash Patidar, Meena Sharma. Mutual Browser Conflicts Disclosure. Shyni S. Satish Kumar, M. Sonar, R. Antecedents of Offline Impulsive Buying Behaviour. Natanael Alamas, Marcelina Anggraeni. Ashok Kumar Popuri, Bangaraiah Pagala. Pagala Bangaraiah, Popuri Ashok Kumar. Krishnaprabha, K.

Sudheer, N. Ranasalva, S. Rajani, P. Rahul Kumar, Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao. Sandeep Singh Rana, K. Madhuri, N. Siva Jagadish Kumar, B. Venkatesh, Ch. Govardhana Rao, M. Ramesh Naidu. Subbaiah, H. Gunti, N. Krishnajyothi, T.

Rama Krishna, P. B, Venkat Narayana. A, Ch. Raja Babu, Divya Sruthi. P, Rohith. Dhritiman Chanda, D. Service Design Inputs for Hotel Businesses. Gitanjali Simran T, Sasikala D. Iwan sandi Panggarso, Ismi Rajiani. Dodi Jaya Wardana, Ismi Rajiani. Shanice Anne Thomas, S. Sushma Raj, Ganeswara Rao. Shivani S. Kale, Preeti S. Raghuvaran, S. Consumer Neuroscience and its Application in Marketing. Priyanka Diggavi, R. Revanna C R, Keshavamurthy C.

Vignesh Janarthanan, A. Viswanathan, M. M K Azwan, H Salleh. Amsaveni M, Duraisamy S. Binu Thomas. Hiren Prajapati, Bhavesh Patel. Navaneethan, S. Avanish Kumar, Dharamdas Kumhar. Margaret Mary. T, Hanumanthappa. M , Sangamithra A. Jayasheela M, Gomathi E. Souidi, L. Ouadif, L. Bahi, N. Aizan Yaacob, Aspalila bt. Dmarany, M. Hassanien, Alaa-Eldin Adris. Khajavali Kovvuru, D. Jaya Kumar, S. Nanda Kishore. Electronic Braille Alphabet Reader for Multilanguage.

Vijayaraman P, P Jesu Jayarin. Karadbhajne, V. Thakare, N. Kardile, S. Ganesh, A. Ravinthiran, S. Santhosh, M. Kannan, B. Dinesh Kumar. Swathi, Manchalla. Kumar, G. Marlin Sheeba, M. Kiran, Y. Sudarsana Reddy. Maheswari S, K. Ertie C. Self-Service Checkout System for Groceries. Abana, Ariel M. Abana, Rolando A. Bitagun Jr. Abana, May Z. Valdez, Jeromie S.

Salas, Analiza M.

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FOREX FOREIGN CURRENCY EXCHANGE RATE CHARTS

Factors were found to enhance the influence of each other for KRD transformation. In particular, the results show a non-linearly enhanced effect between driving factors, which significantly aggravates KRD. New information found in our study helps to effectively control and restore areas afflicted by KRD.

Important characteristics of an entrepreneur in relation to risk taking: Czech Republic case study. Full Text Available New businesses arising at the market usually operate in the sector of small and medium-sized enterprises and account for a significant part of the whole global economy. Not only the success of a start-up company, but also its sequel within the SME sector are significantly influenced by entrepreneur's personality. The aim of this article is to explore the attitude to financial risk in relation to sociodemographic characteristics gender, education, age and the most important personality traits of entrepreneurs risk-taking, decisiveness, optimism.

We have analyzed the data collected from respondents during in 14 regions of Czech Republic. Empirical results of our paper show that the researched entrepreneurs rather can't manage financial risks in their firms regardless their gender, education, age or personality traits.

Most entrepreneurs consider the importance of financial risk to increase during the crisis period. These opinions differed in relation to age, gender and such personality traits as "decisiveness" and "optimism". The results also show that the entrepreneurs try to minimise the financial risk through building-up reserves in relation to such qualities as "risk-taking" and "decisiveness" in comparison to a rather negative attitude to "optimism".

Full Text Available Traditional knowledge, such as knowledge of the use of plants as medicine, influences how indigenous people manage forest resources. Gender and age-associated differences in traditional knowledge may impact forest resource management because of the traditional division of labor.

Individuals were interviewed using a tablet that displayed images of 34 plants, which had been cited by traditional healers in the community. Quantitative analysis provided insight into the relative importance of plants in the sample as well as the distribution of medicinal plant knowledge among members of the community. The most important plants were Tradescantia zanonia and Monolena primuliflora.

These plants should be considered candidates for further investigation. There was a positive correlation between age and knowledge of medicinal plants, but no significant difference between genders. Our results suggest that an interview method that relies on digital images can reveal differences in the importance of medicinal plants as well as provide insight into the distribution of traditional medical knowledge.

While men and women are likely to manage forest resources similarly, younger members of the community may not have the same regard for forest resources as their elder counterparts. Full Text Available This review column is the first in a series of columns that will provide a selective listing of important books by leading publishers on terrorism and counterterrorism- related subjects.

Although most of the reviewed books are current, a few were published within the last several years, but are still considered to be important. In this paper, we review evidence from infants, toddlers, and preschoolers to tackle the question of how individuals orient preferences and actions toward social partners and how these preferences change over development. We aim at emphasizing the importance of language in guiding categorization relatively to other cues such as age, race and gender.

We discuss the importance of language as part of a communication system that orients infants and older children's attention toward relevant information in their environment and toward affiliated social partners who are potential sources of knowledge. We argue that other cues visually perceptible features are less reliable in informing individuals whether others share a common knowledge and whether they can be source of information. The relative importance of language in guiding social preferences through development.

Full Text Available In this paper, we review evidence from infants, toddlers and preschoolers to tackle the ques-tion of how individuals orient preferences and actions towards social partners and how these preferences change over development. We argue that other cues visually per-ceptible features are less reliable in informing individuals whether others share a common knowledge and whether they can be source of information.

Examination of the relative importance of hospital employment in non-metropolitan counties using location quotients. At the county level, the health care and social services sector is typically the largest or second largest employer. Hospital employment is often the largest component of the sector's total employment. Hospital employment is particularly important to non-metropolitan or rural communities.

A high quality healthcare sector serves to promote economic development and attract new businesses and to provide stability in economic downturns. The purpose of this study was to examine the intensity of hospital employment in rural counties relative to the nation as a whole using location quotients and to draw conclusions regarding how potential changes in Medicare and Medicaid might affect rural populations.

Estimates for county-level hospital employment are not commonly available. These estimates were used to generate location quotients for each county which were combined with demographic data to generate a profile of factors that are related to the magnitude of location quotients. Although a very high percentage of rural counties contain medically underserved areas, an examination of location quotients indicates that the percentage of the county workforce employed by hospitals in the most rural counties tends to be higher than for the nation as a whole, a counterintuitive finding.

Further, when location quotients are regressed upon data. On the relative importance of audio and video in the presence of packet losses. In streaming applications, unequal protection of audio and video tracks may be necessary to maintain the optimal perceived overall quality. For this purpose, the application should be aware of the relative importance of audio and video in an audiovisual sequence.

In this paper, we propose Our results show that content poses a significant impact on the preferred compromise between audio Relative importance of food and water pathways in the bio-accumulation of zinc.

The relative importance of the food versus water pathway as a source of radionuclides to aquatic organisms is studied through laboratory experiments allowing groups of animals to accumulate 65 Zn from the two pathways simultaneously in the same simulated ecosystem.

Mean whole body concentration factors of 65 Zn and stable zinc in shrimp, crab, fish and mussels are recorded. In shrimp and fish accumulation of 65 Zn through the food pathway is reported more than the water pathway though fluctuations in food quality and feeding rates could alter zinc absorption kinetics. Measuring the importance of oil- related revenues in total fiscal income for Mexico. Loma Larga, C. Revenues from oil exports are an important part of government budgets in Mexico.

A time-series analysis is conducted using monthly data from to examining three different specifications to determine how international oil price fluctuations and government income generated from oil exports influence fiscal policy in Mexico. The behavior of government spending and taxation is consistent with the spend-tax hypothesis.

The results show that there is an inverse relationship between oil- related revenues and tax revenue from non-oil sources. Fiscal policy reform is urgently needed in order to improve tax collection as oil reserves in Mexico become more and more depleted. The relative importance of relativistic induced interactions in the beta decay of Tm. The log ft-values, the spectrum shape functions, and the beta-gamma angular correlation coefficients of the Tm beta decay are computed in the framework of relativistic formfactor formalism using asymmetric rotor model wavefunctions.

Main vector and axial vector hadron currents being strongly hindered, the relative importance of induced interaction matrix elements is accurately estimated. Good agreement with experiment is obtained for the beta decay observables when the main induced interaction terms were taken into account. The contribution of the pseudoscalar term was found insignificant.

We examine the relative and complementary effectiveness of trust-building strategies in online environments. While prior research has examined various antecedents to trust, we investigated two trust-building mechanisms more in depth: Web site trust and vendor reputation. We tried to understand the relative effectiveness of these two important mechanisms to provide online businesses with a clear recommendation of how to establish trust in an effective and efficient manner.

Drawing from the literature on trust, we proposed vendor reputation to be more effective than Web site trust. Moreover, we examined a potential complementary effect of these mechanisms so as to provide online businesses with a deeper understanding of how to derive superior trust. We hypothesize a small such effect.

The study proposes a laboratory experiment to test the model. The importance of family relations for cannabis users: the case of serbian adolescents. Adolescence is transitional stage of physical and mental human development occuring between childhood and adult life. Social interactions and environmental factors together are important predictors of adolescent cannabis use. This study aimed to examine the relationship between the social determinants and adolescents behavior with cannabis consumption.

A cross sectional study as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs was conducted among 6. Among 6. Well off family, lower education of mother, worse relations with parents were significantly associated with cannabis use P related to cannabis use P study confirmed the importance of family relationship development. Drug use preventive programmes should include building interpersonal trust in a family lifecycle and school culture.

Conceptualisation of ageing in relation to factors of importance for extending working life - a review. The aim of this study was to explore and understand the complexity of ageing in relation to factors of importance for extending working life. Discourse analysis of documents was used in an integrative review including articles.

Relative importance of methylotrophic methanogenesis in sediments of the Western Mediterranean Sea. Microbial production of methane is an important terminal metabolic process during organic matter degradation in marine sediments. It is generally acknowledged that hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis constitute the dominant pathways of methane production; the importance of methanogenesis from methylated compounds remains poorly understood.

We conducted various biogeochemical and molecular genetic analyses to characterize substrate availability, rates of methanogenesis, and methanogen community composition, and further evaluated the contribution of different substrates and pathways for methane production in deltaic surface and subsurface sediments of the Western Mediterranean Sea.

Major substrates representing three methanogenic pathways, including H2, acetate, and methanol, trimethylamine TMA , and dimethylsulfide DMS , were detected in the pore waters and sediments, and exhibited variability over depth and between sites. In accompanying incubation experiments, methanogenesis rates from various 14C labeled substrates varied as well, suggesting that environmental factors, such as sulfate concentration and organic matter quality, could significantly influence the relative importance of individual pathway.

Methyl coenzyme M reductase gene mcrA analysis revealed that the composition of methanogenic communities was generally consistent with the distribution of methanogenic activity from different substrates. This study provides the first quantitative assessment of. Full Text Available Since symbols of early cultural relations between Europe and East Asia are important , we are striving to restore the image of Augustin Hallerstein — in China and earn his legacy its appropriate position in the history of the Qing dynasty next to other great Jesuits like Adam Shall von Bell —, Ferdinand Verbiest —, or Ignatius Kogler — A two-year EU project made possible the publication of a monograph in English, which was translated into Chinese and published in China in February Wider popularization of his achievements should be beneficial to Slovenia as well as to China, where he did his work.

Such common heroes of the past could often be used to promote better understanding and cooperation between China and Slovenia. Through strong connections with Korean scholars he gained a high reputation in Korea as well. The relative importance of information sources in consumers' choice of hospitals.

The research presented focuses on an examination of the relative importance of word-of-mouth, expert opinion, external communication, and past experience in the context of hospital choice. Past research has examined the effect of each individually and various combinations of the four sources, but not all four simultaneously.

Results of the present study suggest that past experience plays a greater role in hospital choice than other information sources, including expert opinion. The strength of word-of-mouth as a source of information is also verified. The implications of this research include the following: 1 health care researchers need to incorporate word-of-mouth when investigating informations sources, and 2 local hospitals need to be aware of "negative perceptions" and strive for consumer satisfaction.

Health care delivery systems incorporating consumer-based choice render these findings especially valuable as researchers and practitioners address the challenges that these evolving systems will bring. Full Text Available The corporate finance literature traditionally abounds in both theoretical discussion and empirical research concerning financing and long-term investment decisions.

This article provides insights into the relative importance of the selected working capital determinants from the European Union perspective. The determinants considered in the study include both external and internal factors, specifically the country in which a company operates, its industrial classification and the firm size.

Using more than 10, aggregated observations from a sample of firms from 13 industries, 9 countries and 3 group sizes, covering the period , the findings provide evidence that corporate working capital is most affected by country-specific factors, followed by industrial factors and firm size. Full Text Available We conduct a study of the secondary and tertiary sectors with the goal of highlighting the relative im-portance of services in the Mexican economy.

We consider a time series analysis approach designed to identify the stochastic nature of the series, as well as to define their long-run and-short run relationships with Gross Domestic Product GDP. The results of cointegration tests suggest that, for the most part, activities in the secondary and tertiary sectors share a common trend with GDP. Interestingly, the long-run elasticities of GDP with respect to services are on average larger than those with respect to secondary activities.

Common cycle tests results identify the existence of common cycles between GDP and the disaggregated sectors, as well as with manufacturing, commerce, real estate and transportation. In this case, the short-run elasticities of secondary activities are on average larger than those corresponding to services. Essential fatty acids EFA , which are primarily generated by phytoplankton, limit growth and reproduction in diverse heterotrophs. The biochemical composition of phytoplankton is well-known to be governed both by phylogeny and environmental conditions.

Nutrients, light, salinity, and temperature all affect both phytoplankton growth and fatty acid composition. However, the relative importance of taxonomy and environment on algal fatty acid content has yet to be comparatively quantified, thus inhibiting predictions of changes to phytoplankton food quality in response to global environmental change.

We compiled published marine and freshwater phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, consisting of species from six major taxonomic groups, cultured in a wide range of environmental conditions, and used a multivariate distance-based linear model to quantify the total variation explained by each variable.

Our results show that taxonomic group accounts for times more variation in phytoplankton fatty acids than the most important growth condition variables. The results underscore that environmental conditions clearly affect phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, but also show that conditions account for relatively low variation compared to phylogeny.

This suggests that the underlying mechanism determining basal food quality in aquatic habitats is primarily phytoplankton community composition, and allows for prediction of environmental-scale EFA dynamics based on phytoplankton community data. These analyses quantify temporal dynamics of algal-derived LCEFA and food quality in a freshwater ecosystem that has undergone large community changes as a result of shifting resource management practices, highlighting diatoms. Relative importance of nitrate and sulfate aerosol production mechanisms in urban atmospheres.

The relative importance of the various sulfate and nitrate aerosol production mechanisms is calculated for different atmospheric conditions. The calculation scheme used to determine the rates of nitrate and sulfate production, based on the concept that vapor transfer to the aerosols and nitrate and sulfate formation within the aerosols are coupled kinetic processes, considers sulfate formation by ozone and hydrogen peroxide oxidation and catalytic oxidation in the presence of soot, iron and manganese of sulfite solutions and sulfuric acid condensation and nitrate formation by the liquid-phase oxidation of dissolved nitrogen oxides for different initial gas concentrations and particle compositions and sizes.

It is found that sulfate production is higher under daytime conditions, primarily proceeding by mechanisms involving sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide, while at night oxidation processes on the surface of the aerosol film are more important. Nitrate tends to decrease nighttime sulfate production due to an increase in aerosol acidity and nitrate production is found to be higher under nighttime conditions and in the winter. Virulence factors of Escherichia coli in relation to the importance of vaccination in pigs.

Bacteria adhesion to the host cell is considered a specific phenomenon among fimbrial and non-fimbrial adhesins with their respective receptors on enterocytes. Immunization of sows with adhesin is important to stimulate the production of antibodies and their subsequent transfer to piglets through colostrum.

The aim of this paper is to illustrate the main impacts of enteric diseases caused by E. Remote Sensing of plant functional types: Relative importance of biochemical and structural plant traits. Monitoring ecosystems is a key priority in order to understand vegetation patterns, underlying resource cycles and changes their off. Driven by biotic and abiotic factors, plant species within an ecosystem are likely to share similar structural, physiological or phenological traits and can therefore be grouped into plant functional types PFT.

It can be assumed that plants which share similar traits also share similar optical characteristics. Therefore optical remote sensing was identified as a valuable tool for differentiating PFT. Although several authors list structural and biochemical plant traits which are important for differentiating PFT using hyperspectral remote sensing, there is no quantitative or qualitative information on the relative importance of these traits. Thus, little is known about the explicit role of plant traits for an optical discrimination of PFT.

One of the main reasons for this is that various optical traits affect the same wavelength regions and it is therefore difficult to isolate the discriminative power of a single trait. A way to determine the effect of single plant traits on the optical reflectance of plant canopies is given by radiative transfer models.

The most established radiative transfer model is PROSAIL, which incorporates biochemical and structural plant traits, such as pigment contents or leaf area index. According to our results some traits, especially biochemical traits, show a weaker separability of PFT on a spectral level than compared to the actual trait measurements. Overall structural traits leaf angle and leaf area index are more important for.

Institutional delivery in rural India: the relative importance of accessibility and economic status. Skilled attendance at delivery is an important indicator in monitoring progress towards Millennium Development Goal 5 to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters between and In addition to professional attention, it is important that mothers deliver their babies in an appropriate setting, where life saving equipment and hygienic conditions can also help reduce the risk of complications that may cause death or illness to mother and child.

Over the past decade interest has grown in examining influences on care-seeking behavior and this study investigates the determinants of place of delivery in rural India, with a particular focus on assessing the relative importance of community access and economic status.

In this investigation of institutional care seeking for child birth in rural India, economic status emerges as a more crucial determinant than access. Economic status is also the strongest influence on the choice between a private-for-profit or public facility amongst institutional births. Greater availability of obstetric services will not alone solve the problem of low institutional delivery rates. This is particularly true for the use of private-for-profit institutions, in which the distance to services does not have a significant adjusted effect.

In the light of these findings a focus on increasing demand for existing services seems the most rational action. In particular, financial constraints need to be addressed, and results support current trials of demand side financing in India. Background Understanding the drivers of large-scale vegetation change is critical to managing landscapes and key to predicting how projected climate and land use changes will affect regional vegetation patterns.

This study aimed to improve our understanding of the role, magnitude and spatial distribution of the key environmental factors driving vegetation change in southern African savanna, and how they vary across physiographic gradients. Monthly NDVI was described by cyclic seasonal variation with distinct spatiotemporal patterns in different physiographic regions. Results support existing work emphasizing the importance of precipitation, soil moisture and fire on NDVI, but also reveal overlooked effects of temperature and evapotranspiration, particularly in regions with higher mean annual precipitation.

Critically, spatial distributions of the weights of environmental covariates point to a transition in the importance of precipitation and soil moisture strongest in grass-dominated regions with precipitation mm. The analysis supports known drivers of savanna vegetation but also uncovers important roles of temperature and evapotranspiration.

Results highlight the utility of applying the DFA approach to remote sensing products for regional analyses of landscape change in the context of global environmental change. With the dramatic increase in global change research, this methodology augurs well for. Full Text Available The unique geochemistry of marine shallow-water hydrothermal systems promotes the establishment of diverse microbial communities with a range of metabolic pathways.

In contrast to deep-sea vents, shallow-water vents not only support chemosynthesis, but also phototrophic primary production due to the availability of light. However, comprehensive studies targeting the predominant biogeochemical processes are rare, and consequently a holistic understanding of the functioning of these ecosystems is currently lacking. To this end, we combined stable isotope probing of lipid biomarkers with an analysis of the bacterial communities to investigate if chemoautotrophy, in parallel to photoautotrophy, plays an important role in autotrophic carbon fixation and to identify the key players.

Analysis of the bacterial diversity revealed Anaerolineae of the Chloroflexi as the most abundant bacterial class. Furthermore, the presence of key players involved in iron cycling generally known from deep-sea hydrothermal vents e. Relatively increased 13C-incorporation in the dark allowed the classification of aiC, C, and iC as potential lipid biomarkers for bacterial chemoautotrophy in this ecosystem.

Highest total 13C-incorporation into fatty acids took place at the sediment surface, but chemosynthesis was found to be active down to 8 cm sediment depth. In conclusion. The relative importance of physical and biological energy in landscape evolution. Landscapes are formed by the interplay of uplift and geomorphic processes, including interacting and competing physical and biological processes.

For example, roots re-inforce soil and thereby stabilize hillslopes and the canopy cover of the forest may mediate the impact of precipitation. Furthermore, plants and animals act as geomorphic agents, directly altering landscape response and dynamics by their actions: tree roots may crack rocks, thus changing subsurface water flows and exposing fresh material for denudation; fungi excrete acids that accelerate rates of chemical weathering, and burrowing animals displace soil and rocks while digging holes for shelter or in search of food.

Energetically, landscapes can be viewed as open systems in which topography stores potential energy above a base level. Tectonic processes add energy to the system by uplift and mechanically altering rock properties. Especially in unvegetated regions, erosion and transport by wind can be an important geomorphic process.

Advection of atmospheric moisture in high altitudes provides potential energy that is converted by water fluxes through catchments. At the same time, the conversion of solar energy through atmospheric and biological processes drives primary production of living organisms. If we accept that biota influence geomorphic processes, then what is their energetic contribution to landscape evolution relative to physical processes?

Using two case studies, we demonstrate that all components of energy input are negligible apart from biological production, quantified by net primary productivity NPP and potential energy conversion by water that is placed high up in the landscape as rainfall and leaves it as runoff. Assuming that the former is representative for biological energy and the latter for physical energy, we propose that the ratio of these two values can be used as a proxy for the relative importance of biological and physical processes in landscape evolution.

All necessary. Value change in oil and gas production: V. Incorporation of uncertainties and determination of relative importance. The influence of two fundamentally different types of uncertainty on the value of oil field production are investigated here. First considered is the uncertainty caused by the fact that the expected value estimate is not one of the possible outcomes. To correctly allow for the risk attendant upon using the expected value as a measure of worth, even with statistically sharp parameters, one needs to incorporate the uncertainty of the expected value.

Using a simple example we show how such incorporation allows for a clear determination of the relative risk of projects that may have the same expected value but very different risks. We also show how each project can be risked on its own using the expected value and variance. This uncertainty type is due to the possible pathways for different outcomes even when parameters categorizing the system are taken to be known.

Second considered is the risk due to the fact that parameters in oil field estimates are just estimates and, as such, have their own intrinsic errors that influence the possible outcomes and make them less certain.

This sort of risk depends upon the uncertainty of each parameter, and also the type of distribution the parameters are taken to be drawn from. In addition, not all uncertainties in parameters values are of equal importance in influencing an outcome probability. We show how can determine the relative importance for the parameters and so determine where to place effort to resolve the dominant contributions to risk if it is possible to do so.

Considerations of whether to acquire new information, and also whether to undertake further studies under such an uncertain environment, are used as vehicles to address these concerns of risk due to uncertainty. In general, an oil field development project has to contend with all the above types of risk and uncertainty.

It is therefore of importance to have quantitative measures of risk so that one can compare and contrast the various effects, and so that. The relative importance of seed competition, resource competition and perturbations on community structure. Full Text Available While the regional climate is the primary selection pressure for whether a plant strategy can survive, however, competitive interactions strongly affect the relative abundances of plant strategies within communities.

Here, we investigate the relative importance of competition and perturbations on the development of vegetation community structure. To do so, we develop DIVE Dynamics and Interactions of VEgetation, a simple general model that links plant strategies to their competitive dynamics, using growth and reproduction characteristics that emerge from climatic constraints. The model calculates population dynamics based on establishment, mortality, invasion and exclusion in the presence of different strengths of perturbations, seed and resource competition.

The highest levels of diversity were found in simulations without competition as long as mortality is not too high. However, reasonable successional dynamics were only achieved when resource competition is considered. Under high levels of competition, intermediate levels of perturbations were required to obtain coexistence.

Since succession and coexistence are observed in plant communities, we conclude that the DIVE model with competition and intermediate levels of perturbation represents an adequate way to model population dynamics. Because of the simplicity and generality of DIVE, it could be used to understand vegetation structure and functioning at the global scale and the response of vegetation to global change.

Quantifying relative importance : Computing standardized effects in models with binary outcomes. Scientists commonly ask questions about the relative importances of processes, and then turn to statistical models for answers. Standardized coefficients are typically used in such situations, with the goal being to compare effects on a common scale.

Traditional approaches to obtaining standardized coefficients were developed with idealized Gaussian variables in mind. When responses are binary, complications arise that impact standardization methods. In this paper, we review, evaluate, and propose new methods for standardizing coefficients from models that contain binary outcomes.

We first consider the interpretability of unstandardized coefficients and then examine two main approaches to standardization. One approach, which we refer to as the Latent-Theoretical or LT method, assumes that underlying binary observations there exists a latent, continuous propensity linearly related to the coefficients.

A second approach, which we refer to as the Observed-Empirical or OE method, assumes responses are purely discrete and estimates error variance empirically via reference to a classical R2 estimator. We also evaluate the standard formula for calculating standardized coefficients based on standard deviations. Finally, we implement all of the above in an open-source package for the statistical software R.

A brief introduction to reactor core configuration and important systems related to physics tests of Daya Bay NPP is given. In addition, that the adjustment and evaluation of boron concentration related to other systems, for example the reactor coolant system RCP , the chemical and volume control system RCV , the reactor boron and water makeup system REA , the nuclear sampling system REN and the reactor control system RRC , etc.

Analysis of these systems helps not only to familiarize their functions and acquires a deepen understanding for the principle procedure, points for attention and technical key of the core physics tests, but also to further analyze the test results. Incubation period for campylobacteriosis and its importance in the estimation of incidence related to travel.

Differentiation between travel- related and domestic cases of infectious disease is important in managing risk. Incubation periods of cases from several outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada, Europe, and the United States with defined exposure time of less than 24 hours were collated to provide information on the incubation period distribution. The incubation period distribution was incorporated into a model for the number of travel- related cases presenting with symptom onset at given dates after return to their country of residence.

Using New Zealand notification data between and for cases who had undertaken foreign travel within 10 days prior to symptom onset, we found that When cases with symptom onset prior to arrival were included, the probable domestic cases represented Diabetes and oral health: the importance of oral health- related behavior.

The objective of this study was to explore oral health- related behavior, how patients with diabetes differ from patients not diagnosed with diabetes in their oral health and whether oral health- related behavior moderates the oral health status of patients with diabetes. They also had more decayed, missing and filled surfaces due to caries vs.

Educating patients with diabetes about the importance of good oral self care needs to become a priority for their oral health care providers. Assessing the relative importance of health and conformation traits in the cavalier king Charles spaniel. The selection of a future breeding dog is a complicated task, in which disease characteristics and different traits have to be combined and weighed against one another. Truncation selection, that is the exclusion of affected animals, may be very inefficient when selecting on a large number of traits, and may result in a reduction of the genetic diversity in a population or breed.

Selection could be facilitated by the use of a selection index that combines multiple traits or breeding values into one score. This however requires a consideration of their relative value according to their economic weight, which is difficult to express in monetary units for health traits. The use of a choice experiment to derive non-market values might be a solution to this problem.

This is a pilot study to assess the potential use of choice experiments to ascertain the public preference and relative importance attached to health- and conformation traits in the selection of a Cavalier King Charles spaniel. The focus was on two prevalent disorders, mitral valve disease and syringomyelia, and on several important conformation traits such as muzzle length and eye shape.

Based on available prior information, a Bayesian D-optimal design approach was used to develop a choice experiment and the resulting choice sets. Every participant breeder or owner in the choice experiment was presented with a total of 17 choice sets, in which at most four traits could vary to reduce the cognitive burden.

This approach identifies the value breeders and owners attach to certain traits in the breeding objective. The resulting relative weights, represented as the logworths obtained from the choice experiment, could be an alternative to economic weights.

The relative dietary importance of haem and non-haem iron. Bezwoda, W. A study was undertaken to find out the relative amounts of haem and non-haem iron absorbed from meals in which varying amounts of these substances were present. Four meals, each containing 6 mg of iron but with varying ratios of haem and non-haem iron, were fed to two groups of subjects, each group receiving two meals. The amount of haem iron absorbed was thus a linear function of the amount of haem iron in the meal.

Two points emerged from the study. Firstly, the relative importance of haem iron in overall iron nutrition was confirmed. Secondly, the fact that the pattern of absorption in relation to dosage was so different from haem iron and non-haem iron suggested that a controlling mechanism for non-haem iron absorption may be located at the mucosal surface. This conclusion is based on the fact that haem iron, the percentage absorption of which was found to be independent of the size of the dose, is absorped into the mucosal cell when still contained within the porphyrin ring and the iron thus bypasses some controlling mechanism at the mucosal border.

The relative importance of regional, local, and evolutionary factors structuring cryptobenthic coral-reef assemblages. Factors shaping coral-reef fish species assemblages can operate over a wide range of spatial scales local versus regional and across both proximate and evolutionary time. Niche theory and neutral theory provide frameworks for testing assumptions and generating insights about the importance of local versus regional processes.

Niche theory postulates that species assemblages are an outcome of evolutionary processes at regional scales followed by local-scale interactions, whereas neutral theory presumes that species assemblages are formed by largely random processes drawing from regional species pools. Indo-Pacific cryptobenthic coral-reef fishes are highly evolved, ecologically diverse, temporally responsive, and situated on a natural longitudinal diversity gradient, making them an ideal group for testing predictions from niche and neutral theories and effects of regional and local processes on species assemblages.

Furthermore, species of cryptobenthic fishes have distinct microhabitat associations that drive significant differences in assemblage community structure between microhabitat types, and these distinct microhabitat associations are phylogenetically conserved over evolutionary timescales.

The implied differential fitness of cryptobenthic fishes across varied microhabitats and the conserved nature of their ecology are consistent with predictions from niche theory. Neutral theory predictions may still hold true for early life-history stages, where stochastic factors may be more.

Relative importance and interactions of furan precursors in sterilised, vegetable-based food systems. Mitigation strategies aimed at an intervention in the reaction pathways for furan formation e. As a first step towards product reformulation, the aim of the present study was to determine the relative importance and interactions of possible furan precursors in these types of foods.

Significant correlations were observed between furan concentrations after thermal treatment and starting concentrations of ascorbic acid and monosaccharides i. Ascorbic acid had a clear furan-reducing effect as an antioxidant by protecting polyunsaturated fatty acids against oxidative degradation.

Fructose and glucose were the main precursors, which can most probably be attributed to their high, but realistic, concentrations in the product. Based on the results of this study, reducing the amount of monosaccharides or adjusting the redox conditions of the matrix are suggested as two possible approaches for furan mitigation on the product side. Age- related macular degeneration: the importance of family history as a risk factor.

Family history is considered a risk factor for age- related macular degeneration AMD. With the advent of effective therapy for the disease, the importance of family history merits further investigation. This study quantifies the risk associated with family history, first, by a case-control study of reported family history and, second, by examining the siblings of AMD cases. The authors recruited cases with advanced AMD, spouses and siblings. All subjects were carefully phenotyped.

Clinical findings in the siblings were compared with spouses. Information about family history was collected. Analyses were adjusted for age, smoking and genotype. Those at risk need to be made aware of this and AMD patients should advise siblings and children to seek prompt ophthalmological advice if they develop visual symptoms of distortion or reduced vision.

Quality of life related to health chronic kidney disease: Predictive importance of mood and somatic symptoms. To compare the predictive capacity of self-reported somatic symptoms and mood depression and anxiety on health- related quality of life HRQOL in patients with chronic renal disease.

Data were obtained from 52 patients undergoing haemodialysis. Multiple regression was the main method of statistical analysis. Patients exhibited HRQOL levels below normative values, with anxiety and depression prevalence at These results indicate that mood is a superior predictor of the physical and mental components of HRQOL in patients compared with the number and severity of physical symptoms.

The data underline the importance of assessing negative emotional states depression and anxiety in kidney patients as a basis for intervention, which may facilitate reduction of the impact of chronic renal disease on HRQOL.

Adhesive systems: important aspects related to their composition and clinical use. Full Text Available This literature review article addresses the types and the main components of different etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems available in the market, and relates them to their function, possible chemical interactions and infuence of handling characteristics.

Scanning electron microscopy SEM images are presented to characterize the interface between adhesives and dentin. Adhesive systems have been recently classifed according to their adhesion approaches in etch-and-rinse, self-etch and glass ionomer. The etch-and-rinse systems require a specifc acid-etch procedure and may be performed in two or three steps. Self-etch systems employ acidic monomers that demineralize and impregnate dental substrates almost at the same time.

These systems are separated in one or two steps. Some advantages and defciencies were noted for etch-and-rinse and self-etch approaches, mainly for the simplifed ones due to some chemical associations and interactions.

The SEM micrographs illustrate different relationships between adhesive systems and dental structures, particularly dentin. The knowledge of composition, characteristics and mechanisms of adhesion of each adhesive system is of fundamental importance to permit the adoption of ideal bonding strategies under clinical conditions. Relative importance of social status and physiological need in determining leadership in a social forager. Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence.

Theory suggests that initiation of foraging should be determined by physiological demand in social foragers, thereby resolving the dilemma of group coordination. However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership social status, experience or personality , or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered.

Here, we examine which females initiated foraging in eider Somateria mollissima brood-rearing coalitions, characterized by female dominance hierarchies and potentially large individual differences in energy requirements due to strenuous breeding effort. Several physiological and social factors, except for female breeding experience and boldness towards predators, explained foraging initiation. Initiators spent a larger proportion of time submerged during foraging bouts, had poorer body condition and smaller structural size, but they were also aggressive and occupied central positions.

Initiation probability also declined with female group size as expected given random assignment of initiators. However, the relative importance of physiological predictors of leadership propensity active foraging time, body condition, structural size exceeded those of social predictors aggressiveness, spatial position by an order of magnitude. These results confirm recent theoretical work suggesting that 'leading according to need' is an evolutionary viable strategy regardless of group heterogeneity or underlying dominance structure.

Full Text Available Group decisions on the timing of mutually exclusive activities pose a dilemma: monopolized decision-making by a single leader compromises the optimal timing of activities by the others, while independent decision-making by all group members undermines group coherence.

However, empirical support is scant, perhaps because intrinsic qualities predisposing individuals to leadership social status, experience or personality, or their interactions with satiation level, have seldom been simultaneously considered. The relative importance of rapid evolution for plant-microbe interactions depends on ecological context.

Evolution can occur on ecological time-scales, affecting community and ecosystem processes. However, the importance of evolutionary change relative to ecological processes remains largely unknown. Here, we analyse data from a long-term experiment in which we allowed plant populations to evolve for three generations in dry or wet soils and used a reciprocal transplant to compare the ecological effect of drought and the effect of plant evolutionary responses to drought on soil microbial communities and nutrient availability.

Plants that evolved under drought tended to support higher bacterial and fungal richness, and increased fungal : bacterial ratios in the soil. Overall, the magnitudes of ecological and evolutionary effects on microbial communities were similar; however, the strength and direction of these effects depended on the context in which they were measured.

For example, plants that evolved in dry environments increased bacterial abundance in dry contemporary environments, but decreased bacterial abundance in wet contemporary environments. Our results suggest that interactions between recent evolutionary history and ecological context affect both the direction and magnitude of plant effects on soil microbes.

Consequently, an eco-evolutionary perspective is required to fully understand plant-microbe interactions. Assessing the relative importance of dispersal in plant communities using an ecoinformatics approach. Ozinga, W. Increased insight into the factors that determine the importance of dispersal limitation on species richness and species composition is of paramount importance for conservation and restoration ecology. One way to explore the importance of dispersal limitation is to use seed-sowing experiments, but.

The relative importance of different types of rewards for employee motivation and commitment in South Africa. Research purpose: The study sought to establish the relationship between intrinsic and different extrinsic rewards with intrinsic motivation and affective commitment. Motivation for the study: South African organisations are grappling with employee retention. Literature shows that employees who are more motivated and committed to their organisation are less likely to quit.

Rewards management strategies serve to create a motivated and committed workforce. Using the correct types of rewards can thus provide a competitive advantage. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional, correlational study was conducted. Questionnaire data of South African employees were analysed using bivariate correlations and multiple regression. Main findings: Three main findings emerged. Firstly, there is a relationship between all types of rewards investigated and the two outcome variables.

Secondly, this relationship is stronger for intrinsic than for extrinsic rewards and thirdly, monetary rewards do not account for the variance in intrinsic motivation above that of non-monetary rewards. The insights gained from this study can promote organisational effectiveness. Suggestions of how to expand on and refine the current study are addressed.

The relative importance of topography and RGD ligand density for endothelial cell adhesion. Full Text Available The morphology and function of endothelial cells depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of the extracellular environment.

Here, we designed silicon surfaces on which topographical features and surface densities of the integrin binding peptide arginine-glycine-aspartic acid RGD could be independently controlled. We used these surfaces to investigate the relative importance of the surface chemistry of ligand presentation versus surface topography in endothelial cell adhesion. Only on surfaces with micro-scaled pyramids did the topography hinder cell migration and a lower average RGD density was optimal for adhesion.

In summary, our data suggest that the size of pyramids predominately control the number of endothelial cells that adhere to the substratum but the average RGD density governs the degree of cell spreading and length of focal adhesion within adherent cells. The data points towards a two-step model of cell adhesion: the initial contact of cells with a substratum may be guided by the topography while the engagement of cell surface receptors is predominately controlled by the surface chemistry.

The relative importance of the adsorption and partitioning mechanisms in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. The new model allows to determine the analyte concentration in rigid and diffuse W layer from the experimentally determined retention factor and intra-particle diffusivity and thus to distinguish the retentive contributions from adsorption and partitioning.

Whereas NA and CYT retention factors increase monotonously from W to n-hexane as third solvent, NT retention reaches its maximum with polar aprotic third solvents. The involved equilibrium constants for adsorption and partitioning, however, do not follow the same trends as the overall retention factors.

NT retention is dominated by partitioning and NA retention by adsorption, while CYT retention is controlled by adsorption rather than partitioning. Our results reveal that the relative importance of adsorption and partitioning mechanisms depends in a complex way from analyte properties and experimental parameters and cannot be predicted generally. Self-efficacy is clearly important for learning. Research identifying the most important sources of self-efficacy beliefs, however, has been somewhat limited to date in that different disciplines focus largely on different sources of self-efficacy.

Whereas education researchers focus on Bandura's original sources of "enactive mastery,"…. Relative importance of dissolved and food pathways for lead contamination in shrimp. The relative importance of dissolved and food pathways and the influence of food type in the bioaccumulation and retention of lead in the shrimp Palaemonetes varians were examined using a radiotracer method.

Shrimp were exposed to Pb-labelled seawater or fed two types of Pb-labelled food, viz. The amount of radiotracer accumulated by shrimp was examined over a 7-day period, followed by a 1-month and a 7-day depuration period for the dissolved and food source, respectively. Transfer factors following ingestion of contaminated mussels and worms were lower than unity for both food types, with lead transfer from worms being significantly higher than that from mussels.

Accumulation of dissolved Pb by shrimp was found to occur mainly through adsorption on the exoskeleton with a minor accumulation in the internal tissues probably resulting from the intake of seawater for osmoregulation. In contrast, lead taken up from contaminated food was readily absorbed and bound in the internal tissues of P.

Although the transfer of lead to P. This study aims to investigate the impacts of expensive food and luxury goods import tariff adjustment on Chinese economy and related measures. The double-deck train carried more than 1. Bridal salon fire: Actress charged TAIPEI prosecutors have brought charges of negligence and endangering the public against Taiwanese actress Chin Su-mei and her business partner after a fire at their bridal centre in late July killed six people and injured 11 others.

Ms Chin was herself overcome by fumes and. Tel: ORGAN BANK Vietnam will open its first human organ and tissue bank for graft and transplant by the end of next month, an official in charge of the project said yesterday. Antara said the victims were buried as they slept in their homes early yesterday in the Bengkong Indah area of the island, 80 km. The village of Samlot, home of a major Khmer Rouge weapons dump about 25 km south-east of the renegade base. Secretary of State for Health Dy Narongrith said that the faulty or expired drugs were sold in hundreds.

Saudi authorities arrested them for homosexual behaviour but not for engaging in sex which had a stronger punishment- AFP. Health Secretary Carmencita Reodica said on Tuesday that she. Mr Ramos said consensus among Asean foreign ministers remained that the group may eventually admit Myanmar.

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Price , See The Rolex Collection at:. The Australian Financial. Reuter picture. Government approvals of applications by foreigners to buy shares last month. SinoPac will sign an agreement with the US bank in Taipei today to finalise the deal. The acquisition is in line. Angkor is now available only in Cambodia and Japan, where Cambrew has been exporting 13, cases annually since Its net profit declined It announced the As2 million Ss3.

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