Baby Bells II. Military 5. SAIC 6. Contractors 7. Government III. Energy 8. Electricity 9. Oil IV. Finance Banks Private Equity V. Nano-, Bio-, Info-, Cogno- Corporations New Firms VI. Implications Telco Pseudo-Crisis Satellites Law Conclusions Appendices 1. Competitors 2. Telco Statistics 3. Sameness and Diversity 4.
Vaccine, Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Firms Abstract According to the news media, the history of the Internet is straightforward. In the s, sponsored by the US military, the Internet started as an experiment to link scientists. This idea gained a wider audience. He has worked as a consultant in new media for the CEO of Bell Media Linx , and for the director of advanced technologies at Nortel Networks His research began with two historical topics: the history of perspective, and Leonardo da Vinci.
Confronted with the limitations of print media in presenting the results of his research, he began writing on new media with respect to scholarship and culture and on new means of access to knowledge. During the s, he began studying new models of culture which go beyond the limits of euro-centric and asian-centric approaches. This led to lectures, several articles and a major book on Alphabets of Life.
He is author of 4 published books; 12 electronic books; 2 books in press; 82 articles in books; 24 articles in refereed journals; 5 articles; 79 electronic articles, 16 reviews and 10 vision statements. For the past 40 years, he has lectured in five languages on the five continents on possibilities and dangers of new media with respect to cultural and historical dimensions of knowledge organization, semantics and multiple models of culture.
In conjunction with Twinscorp Smolensk , this prototype has been extended to include Perspective, New Media and New Models of Culture, has led to experiments with omnilinks and is leading to new interplay between physical books, electronic books, databases and internet resources.
Cultural heritage is certainly much more than paintings in galleries and objects in museums. As UNESCO has made us aware cultural heritage includes archaeological sites, historical cities and remarkable natural sites e. Plitvice Waterfalls in Croatia. Culture relates to how we see the world differently and is thus closely linked with philosophy, our principles of truth, our theory and practice of society. Culture relates to how we learn and how we transmit what we know in different ways.
Culture and education are thus intimately linked. The Internet is global and all over the world there are efforts to digitize essential aspects of different cultures. In connection with the G7 exhibition on the Information Society Brussels, February , for instance, eleven pilot projects were initiated, including Multimedia Access to World Cultural Heritage.
There are at least four fundamental problems facing such endeavours. First, there is a problem of money. Perhaps if persons become more aware of the inestimable value of culture, even in its purely economic implications through tourism, there will be more support for the approaches here outlined. Ultimately culture is about understanding others.
If this existed there would be no need for senseless wars such as Kosovo, and we could use our scarce resources much more sensibly. Second, there are obvious questions of standards to ensure interoperability of the pipelines, of different hardware and software.
For instance, one of the traditional fields for the study of culture is art history. Most treatments of this field are on a national basis: hence there are studies of Italian, French, German, Chinese, Japanese, Malaysian, Australian, Canadian and American art. Some treatments are in terms of the world's great religions: e. Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Islamic, and Jewish art. Although standard university textbooks such as Janson's History of Art make token efforts to acknowledge major cultures such as India, China Japan and Islam, they remain essentially Eurocentric in their vision.
Indeed, on closer inspection we find that these textbooks are frequently written by scholars in or with access to major centres such as Vienna, Paris, London, Berlin, or New York. The experts cited what was familiar to them. Hence, the paintings of those centres have typically defined our canons of art and culture.
We need new canons, which reflect more universal values. This paper begins by exploring dimensions of culture beyond the fine arts, with particular reference to those in non-European cultures. Two goals of art in non-literate societies are identified.
This leads to a re-examination of fundamental goals of culture in a European context with a view to using these for a more international view of art and culture. Section four addresses briefly some global threats to culture. Section five outlines the need for a world map of cultural values, which leads to consideration of some of the problems concerning meta-data which are implicit in such a quest.
Many of the specific examples will remain those of Western art. No attempt will be made to be comprehensive in our treatment of all cultural objects and expressions. Our concern, rather, is to explore a framework which will allow a balanced study of all cultures in order that we can approach seriously the challenges posed by seeking Multimedia Access to World Cultural Heritage. As noted above, there is a tendency in the West to associate culture particularly with the fine arts, i.
One of the interesting paradoxes of the West is that these two strands of culture, the fine arts and the performing arts often exist as if in competition. At a more subtle level the themes used are also rather different. The fine arts rely heavily on the Bible , the Lives of the Saints and the great classics of literature: the Iliad , the Odyssey , and the Divine Comedy.
The performing arts often rely on different literary sources. The story of Romeo and Juliet inspired Shakespeare to write one of the greatest theatrical plays, and Tschaikovsky to write one of the greatest operas of all time. These Western literary sources for the performing arts inspired none of the greatest paintings of all time.
List of countries in Arab net 12 and their categories for culture. Compare a Chinese network, which lists mass media, education, arts and sports under culture. This seeming co-incidence becomes all the more noteworthy when we realize that the East has very different traditions. In India, Burma, Cambodia, Malaysia and much of South-East Asia, for instance, the greatest literary epics, namely, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, have a fundamental influence on the fine arts painting, sculpture, drawing, illustration and an even greater influence on the performance arts puppets, theatre, opera, dance, folk songs, music.
There is, for instance, a story that Dr. Johnson planned to drop the term civilisation from his dictionary. In German, by contrast there are great debates about the relative values of Kultur and Civilization. To complicate matters, most of what the Germans cover under the idea of Civilization , 16 is covered by the English term culture.
Ergo English culture is not German Kultur. While English refers constantly to other cultures, the nineteenth century Victorians typically frequently assumed that the English tradition offered a model, which all others could try to imitate. While international, this chart is still very much from a Eurocentric and indeed from an Anglo-centric viewpoint.
Once we look to cultures around the world the predominance of the fine arts subsides and a much more complex picture emerges. In the National Museum in Taipei, for instance, there is a more recent attempt to draw parallels among all the major civilisations in both the East and the West on three walls of one of their large rooms, which is quite different from Professor Hull's model.
A simple search through Arab net confirms that their four most basic concepts of culture are people, language, food and drink , media and religion. Other categories include arts, artists, architecture, basketry, beekeeping, blown glass, calendar, ceramics, clothing, education, frankincense, population, pottery, role of women, tradition, and even foreign workers figure 1.
For the purposes of this paper we approach culture in terms of shared experiences, which arise from a small number of different goals for culture and art. At the outset a clear distinction is needed between pre-literate and literate cultures. In pre-literate cultures two goals dominate: connecting and ordering. In pre-literate times, a first stage of culture emerges as basic needs for survival lead to expressions that go beyond survival: food makes its first steps towards cuisine; utensils towards decorative arts and shelter towards architecture.
Precisely because these earliest societies are pre-literate we can have no comprehensive picture of their cultural objects. Indeed our knowledge is limited to materials found in archaeological remains. At this level of culture there is an interesting paradox. On the one hand, these products of food, utensils and shelter serve to connect societies to the earth.
On the other hand, as the society advances this connecting function becomes increasingly obscured, as the products of nature are increasingly changed into products of artifice. Parallel with this linking to the earth what we now call the profane and often integrally linked therewith is another sort of connecting with things beyond the individual what we now call the sacred as defined by myths and customs, which take the forms of music, dance, song, language and later writing.
As the Oxford English Dictionary reminds us, the term culture is etymologically linked with cult: with something that one worships. So called primitive art 21 had a function of connecting a totem in a community with a magical or sacred world beyond it. This connecting function meant that a totem actually became a given deity rather than being a simple representative thereof. A sculpture suited this function much better than a painted representation. Because it served as a bridge between the everyday world of the tribe and a magical world beyond, it had to be sufficiently life-like to be recognizable by its viewers: i.
Yet a fully realistic statue would have linked it too firmly to the present world and thrown into jeopardy its connecting function with a world beyond: i. In such a context perspectival realism would have been more of a threat than a goal. Since these tribal communities were pre-literate there were no canonical texts concerning the shape and meaning of the statue.
And in the absence of these sacred texts to establish a sense of community, the sacred statues acquired proto-canonical functions themselves and forged this sense of community directly. Hence any serious deviation in outward appearance was a threat to its connecting function because it introduced the risk that a specific god would not even be recognized.
Figure 2. Aspects of the goal of connecting, which is one of the basic shared experiences in pre-literate society. Since polytheism was the rule in pre-literate societies these principles usually extended to a number of gods. As the number of gods increased, the powers, which could be attributed to a given god decreased.
Such considerations meant that there were natural controls to keep in check an indefinite extension of these sacred images. In this context the pantheon of images which would have been possible through perspective was necessarily a threat to be avoided rather than a goal to be sought. The connecting function thus precluded an interest in this-worldly, perspectival space, focussing attention instead on a totem, which would ensure contact with a world beyond.
A second goal, which emerged among primitive tribes involved ordering, producing patterns and ornament beginning with simple regular lines and evolving to ever more complex geometrical shapes. In pre-literate societies these patterns were usually restricted in number and had sacred connotations such that they shared partly in the connecting functions of totems.
In some cases, these patterns were applied directly to the totems, such that, both the connecting and ordering functions were contained. A gradual distinction between the two functions was inevitable, however. For whereas the connecting function effectively depended on a pre-literate society, the ordering function did not. The advent of literacy simply extended its repertoire as Sir Ernst Gombrich has so eloquently shown in a Sense of Order. Some patterns could even be given spatial characteristics.
The menander fret could, for instance, be given a three dimensional effect through a clever use of light and shade. Yet although some sense of depth was possible, systematic treatment of space was not. Hence ordering was another goal, which discouraged perspective in its full sense.
Figure 3. Aspects of the goal of ordering, which is another of the basic shared experiences in a pre-literate society. Connecting and ordering are both concerned with making sense of the world, with imposing on the seemingly capricious forces of nature some order and pattern. For this reason they also include a number of basic crafts. And while connecting and ordering inevitably have their origins in pre-literate societies, aspects of these cultural activities continue into literate societies.
The sense making dimensions of connecting and ordering are so fundamental that they continue to the present day. In the Islamic tradition where there is a strong tendency towards iconoclasm, ornament plays a greater role than elsewhere. Here the geometrical patterns in architecture, on ceramics and pottery, in carpets, tapestries, and embroidery often have an overtly religious and metaphysical meaning. In the previous section we outlined briefly two fundamental goals of pre-literate societies.
In this section we shall turn to consider somewhat more closely four further goals in literate cultures: imitating, matching, mixing, exploring. While our examples will rely mainly on the European context, the concepts are of interest for two reasons.
Secondly and more significantly these general goals lend themselves to being extended for a global map of culture. The primitive mind which saw images as connecting with a magical world beyond, believed in an identity of image and god. A next stage in civilization denied this identity and recognized that the two were separate: that the image was at best an imitation or representation of the god involved.
If this distinction between the two mentalities was logically simple, psychologically the distance between them was enormous and occurred gradually during the period between c. The shift from connecting to imitating was closely linked with the emergence of literacy in the cultures of Akkad, Babylon and Egypt.
Thus far the connecting function had been limited to sacred images. Now it spread to sacred texts and those who controlled them. In Egypt, for instance, the Sacred Book of the Dead became a repository of these magical connections as did the pharaoh.
This posed new problems for the production of images. On the one hand, if an image of the pharaoh was to function as a living image rather than a representation, it had to become fully realistic and lifelike. On the other hand, this very realism undermined the statue's connecting function, which linked it with an other-worldly realm. Instead of being recognized as an immortal figure, it now risked being seen as representing an all too mortal figure. One protection against this was to control viewing conditions: placing the statue in a dark place, laden with other-worldly atmosphere under ambiguous conditions, which is precisely what the Egyptians did.
The statue in the doorway of the Mastaba of Mereruka at Saqqara comes to mind. These principles, designed for a supposedly immortal pharaoh, were inevitably extended to others in his midst. As this repertoire of mortal images increased, the need to recognize them as representations rather than living images became more acute. The crisis or so-called revolution came in Greece. In Sir Ernst Gombrich's account:. Narrative art is. It is here, in the context of plays, based on the.
According to this account, an interplay between literature and art sparked the Greek revolution in art, introducing a form of imitation which amounted to matching objects in the visual world, i. Thereafter the Renaissance was little more than ";the return to the classical ideal of the convincing image. Mimesis or imitation meant at least five different things. We shall examine each in turn to show that none of them was synonymous with matching in the perspectival sense.
A first meaning involved imitation of verbal narrative. If we accept Gombrich's fundamental insight that narrative texts inspired much of Greek art, we must also accept the consequences. Representations of verbal descriptions of visual objects were not direct records of the visual world. They were imitations, via a verbal filter, of Greek literature which, as Auerbach 27 has shown, had no clear sense of reality when compared to the Judaeo-Christian tradition.
The resulting art may have had visual effects or the appearance thereof, yet it remained non-visual in terms of its sources. It never aimed at recording visual reality directly and as such was never concerned with perspective.
A second meaning involved imitation of ideal concepts of objects and persons. There is a well-known story of the Greek sculptor commissioned to do a statue of Venus who studied different virgins and the combined their features in producing his ideal statue. Here again there was no interest in recording an individual visual record. This was imitation via the filter of a mental visual image based on a universal concept of Venus which, it will be noted, amounted to much the same thing as a verbal filter.
Both mental visual and verbal filters were universal and ultimately opposed to the individuality of a perspectival record. Hence this second kind of imitation was equally non-visual. A third meaning entailed imitation of objects in isolation. The same principles which had led in Egypt to detailed images of the pharaoh and isolated members of his court were extended in the second millenium B.
It was presumably to this end that Polycleitus developed his famous canon, a statue which served as a model for others. Pliny also recounts the story of illusionistic grapes by Zeuxis, which fooled the birds and the illusory curtain by his competitor, Parrhasius, which in turn fooled Zeuxis.
More significantly we are told that this type of realism represented an early stage: that artists first represented objects as they were and later as they appeared. But as will be shown, this period also had goals inimical to perspective. A fourth meaning involved imitation of objects using optical adjustments. This was a possibility, against which Plato complained in his Sophist. Based on a theory of visual angles, this method imposed on an object a mental concept of how it ought to appear.
For it sought to integrate effects of size and distance in the object and keep the image constant. This was a goal fundamentally different from Renaissance perspective, which began with the premise that objects remained constant and sought to record visually effects of size and distance on images. For this reason the visual angles method was paradoxically non-visual in the Renaissance sense of the image.
It did not visually record, but rather it physically adjusted objects, so that no change in the visual appearances would be noticeable. As we have suggested elsewhere, the same mentality applied in astronomy. Subjective appearances dominated over objective. An important shift had begun. The primitive mind had projected magical qualities onto its images. The semi-civilized mind projected its theory of appearances onto images while the civilized mind has attempted 33 to produce images devoid of these psychological projections.
And the domain of study shifted accordingly from an unseen, magical world beyond to a conceptual world of appearances and finally to a perceptual, visual world of objects. As long as psychological projection onto images continued, study of their perspectival aspects could not yet begin in earnest. A fifth meaning of imitation involved illusionistic effects of stage scenery using optical adjustments methods, which were also affected by this problem of psychological projection of a theory of appearances onto objects.
But here there was also a deeper problem on which we touched in our analysis of the famous Vitruvian passage elsewhere. They involved hypothetical buildings, which never have existed in the physical world. Nor could the space they appeared to represent. Unlike perspective, which permits a measured relation between pictorial space and real space, here the buildings and spaces produced a fictive world closed onto itself. Hence mimesis was many things, and the Greek revolution introduced approaches to art as representation, which resembled matching.
But ultimately these involved imitating distorted by a mental 35 visual or a verbal filter. There existed as yet no systematic quest to record the visible world passively, rather than imposing adjustments on it actively. The subtle shift from imitating to matching became a conscious programme during the Renaissance when, as Vasari noted, artists:. This encouraged. It is important once more to stress how gradual was this process. If, for example, we consider some of the chief themes open to artists we could list at least eight basic visual themes in the natural world: portraits, human figures, persons at work, persons at war, persons at play, animals, landscapes, man-made objects, and four other verbal-visual sources deriving from literature myth, literature, religion, history.
Most images in the Renaissance and the chief instances of perspective were inspired not by the visual themes , but by religion, and specifically, the Bible , and a few books on lives of the saints. Or to put it slightly differently, matching could involve the visual world; the visual world illustrating verbal sources, i. It was the final of these alternatives which inspired the most striking cases of Renaissance perspective. To understand this we must return to the problem of narrative.
In terms of narrative, it was precisely the best known stories which generated the classic examples of perspective. For instance, in the life of Christ, it was particularly the Annunciation e. Why should the best known stories become the most perspectival ones? A contrast with conditions of primitive connecting and Greek imitating is instructive here. In pre-literate societies the statue of a god, as an object which members of a tribe had in common, helped to define the group's communality.
As already mentioned, this limited potential variations since deviations from the norm involved risk that the statue would no longer be recognized. With the advent of literacy, this changed. Texts recorded the characteristics of a given god or Deity, thus providing a corpus of what persons knew and had in common, a sense of communality, and since this burden no longer lay with the image, it could now be varied.
The more famous a story became through texts, the more liberties could be taken with its representation. Perspective was a key to varying images. Hence the best known themes also became the best examples of perspective. With respect to the Greeks, it will seem that we have contradicted ourselves. For if Greek narrative precluded perspective, why then should Biblical narrative involve perspective? As Auerbach has shown 37 the two traditions had fundamentally different approaches to reality.
The Homeric tales were fictions guided by rhetorical ends of story telling, conflating myth and history, leaving no clear relation to reality. The Biblical stories, by contrast, were based on a belief in creatural realism, and were historical, such that their temporal and spatial coordinates were usually clear. The interpretation of Biblical narrative given by the Franciscan movement stressed this creatural realism.
The birth of Christ was not merely treated as a story: a real child was laid in a manger and local peasants re-enacted the role of Mary, Joseph and the shepherds. This was fundamentally different from the Greek theatre, which had developed impossible spaces setting it apart from the physical spaces of real architecture and everyday life. In the Franciscan movement, the story of life became a direct extension of the story of Christ and the narrative space in Christ's story could, and implicitly had to be extended into the space of real life.
As Christian artists of the latter Middle Ages explored this narrative space, these connections with physical space became ever more explicit until the possibility, even the necessity of matching pictorial and physical space became explicit also.
Both primitive connecting and Greek imitating had been constrained by magical and ideal considerations, which acted as filters limiting art to universals of invisible and verbal worlds. The new concept of matching opened the horizons of artistic representation to the particulars of the visible world, which expanded even more through the prospect of varying. In the case of the Annunciation , this process of varying had begun even before the rules of perspective had been formally established, as is evidenced by Pietro Cavallini's Annunciation Rome, Santa Maria in Trastevere , or Ambrogio Lorenzetti's version Siena, Accademia, , generally accepted to be the first painting in which all the lines of the tiles converged to a single vanishing point.
After Alberti's first treatise on perspective , and particularly after the advent of printing in the s, variation increased in scale. Some examples, such as the unknown fifteenth century painter in Santa Maria Novella, continued to produce rough empirical versions. Fra Angelico produced several variants using an open colonnaded space e. Sometimes the scene was inside on a regular pavement, as in the anonymous Annunciation in the Gardner Collection.
Sometimes it was outside on such a pavement, as in the version by Francesco di Giorgio and Naroccio di Landini in the Yale Collection. Crivelli, by contrast, developed a spatial example from Bellini's Sketchbook in his Annunciation London, National Gallery , which was at once symbolic of Christ's coming and at the same time a record of a papal grant by Innocent III to the citizens of Ascoli Piceno concerning certain rights in self government, which reached the town on the feast of the Annunciation, 25 March He thus combined information from a biblical text, a sketchbook and historical record.
More complex textual sources called for a more complex picture, which required complex spatial arrangements made possible by perspective. Any attempt at classifying the full range of variants on the Annunciation would be a large book in itself. For our purposes it will suffice to note how every region developed its own variants on a subject. In Florence, Annunciations inside homes were the exception e. Pollaiuolo's version in Berlin, Staatliche Museum.
By contrast, Flemish versions were normally indoors: sometimes in living rooms, as in Robert Campin's version in the Metropolitan, sometimes in bedrooms, as in Rogier van der Weyden's version in Munich, Alte Pinakothek, or in the apses of churches, as in Jan van Eyck's version in Berlin, Staatliche Museum. Meanwhile, other Flemish versions had combined elements of the living room, bedroom and church interior in a single, rather unlikely space as, for instance, in the Annunciation attributed to Henri met de Bles Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum.
This tradition of using perspective to create unexpected variants of a familiar theme was further developed in the seventeenth century, by which time varying went hand in hand with explorations of scale. In the case of Saenredam, for instance, nine of the eighteen construction drawings for his famous interiors involved a single church, St. Bavo, in Haarlem, which was further studied by De Witte, while Berckheydye depicted its exterior from different points of view.
In terms of narrative, varying had a two edged effect on the story-telling process. On the one hand, it made a theme such as the Annunciation immensely rich in its many representations. On the other hand, in focussing so much attention on a key theme, it undermined, and even prevented interest in other elements of the story.
Perspective which grew out of narrative thus posed a threat to a story's continuity. This was not only due to varying. It was caused also by a second feature of perspective, which we shall term emphasizing. Perspective emphasized scenes in particular ways. It exaggerated the geometry of the man-made environment, thereby drawing a viewer's eye into a spatial scene, while at the same time reducing individual figures therein to a diminutive size.
This was no problem in the case of idealized cities such as the Urbino, Berlin or Baltimore panels, but proved inconvenient in a Christian tradition, which focussed on Christ, Mary and various saints. A compromise thus ensued. Individual figures continued to dominate the main panels while perspectival scenes relating to their lives were relegated to the predellas.
Once the laws of perspective began to be understood in the s, artists gradually discovered means of keeping figures in the foreground of perspectival settings. Domenico Veneziano's Annunciation Cambridge, Fitzwilliam was an early example. In cases such as the Last Supper , there were psychological factors which combined to augment this process of emphasizing. Just as in portraits where eyes looking out of the picture continue to follow a viewer as they move to the side, perspectival pictures with alleys, corridors, rooms or any regular spatial features also follow a viewer as they move to the side.
Michael Kubovy, who has recently explored this phenomenon, has termed this the robustness of perspective. Artists such as Leonardo obviously realized that the Last Supper would work even though its vanishing point was at a height above that of any ordinary observer. Indeed, precisely because it could be looked at without undue distortion from anywhere within the refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie, was a major reason why it was worth emphasizing this painting to the exclusion of others.
Mark in Venice. The fictive depth involved might be small, as in Piero della Francesca's Brera altar , or large, as in Masolino's version of Herod's palace at Castiglione d'Olona. The effects remained the same. And, as in the case of the varying function, the emphasizing function of perspective focussed attention on key episodes of a narrative thus serving also to undermine the continuity of a story. Yet a third factor contributed to this process. In representing a story with many episodes painters were faced with a problem of individuating scenes.
Frames were of some help, but these could not give many clues concerning the order in which scenes were to be read. Here perspectival treatment of certain features helped to relate scenes while at the same time separating them. On the reverse side of the altar, the story begins in the bottom left hand corner with Christ's entry into Jerusalem, moves in an up-down sequence towards the right, then returns to the upper left hand corner again criss-crossing its way to the far right.
Three scenes with Christ and his Apostles Washing of the Feet, Last Supper and Meeting with Apostles all share one type of spatial interior with beams of the ceiling converging towards a central axis. Three scenes with Caiphas and the priests occur in an interior with a type of oblique parallel projection.
A similar oblique parallel method applied to an awning supported by columns connects scenes with Pontius Pilate in the bottom right and top left. These proto-perspectival elements thus relate separate scenes and help us to follow their sequence. In the Scrovegni Chapel at Padua , Giotto uses the same principle. An oblique view of an open fronted house serves for both the Annunciation to Saint Anne and the Birth of the Virgin.
Similarly, a temple with a niche serves as a continuation between three scenes: the Ceremony of the Rods , Prayer for the Miracle of the Rods and Marriage of the Virgin. This function of relating separate scenes in a complex narrative explains why a few proto-perspectival elements became stock images, which improved empirically, while other architectural elements remained spatially awkward and unconvincing. And as we noted earlier it was precisely these stock images which were consolidated and standardized by the early perspective treatises.
Relating took on many forms. In his Profanation of the Host Urbino, Galleria Nazionale delle Marche , Paolo Uccello used two vanishing points going in different directions in order both to separate and relate the two scenes. The same principle was used in the Munich manuscript of Boccaccio, in the organization of the Teatro Olimpico at Vincenza and in the gardens at Versailles. Hence scenes with different vanishing points could be implicitly related by means of perspective.
Scenes physically separated from one another were also explicitly related by means of a single vanishing point. Giotto's Annunciation in the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua was an early attempt in this direction. Masaccio--and Masolino? Eustorgio in Milan. Parronchi has suggested that Ghiberti used it on the doors of the Baptistery at Florence 41 and has shown convincingly that Masaccio employed it a relating the Distribution of the Goods with Saint Peter Curing the Sick in the Brancacci Chapel Florence, Santa Croce, Spatially analogous scenes were related without their sharing a common vanishing point as, for instance, in Piero della Francesca's Annunciation and Dream of Constantine in Arezzo.
Raphael developed these principles of relating in his famous juxtapositions of sacred and profane scenes in the Stanze. Here the situation was complicated by typological and symbolic considerations. The mediaeval period had seen an increasing fascination with parallels between the old and new testaments with minor references to relevant pagan figures such as the sibyls.
This inspired the ceiling at Hildesheim in the eleventh and the great rose windows at Chartres, Paris and York in the thirteenth century. In the next centuries the pagan element 43 gained in significance to the point that Raphael in the Stanze was challenged with finding parallels between Christian and Antique themes such as the Church Fathers versus the School of Athens.
In these and other great cycles it was no longer a question of telling complete stories, but rather of choosing key episodes in stories which could be balanced by others. Hence all three basic functions varying, emphasizing and relating , which made perspective so powerful, had the same effects. While focussing attention on key episodes in a narrative, they simultaneously undermined the continuity of the story telling process.
Indeed as perspective provided more complex frameworks for the organization and comprehension of such scenes, their narrative order became less significant and sometimes disappeared. This helps to explain what would otherwise be two contradictory trends in the history of narrative cycles from the time of the Bayeux Tapestry Bayeux, Town Hall, and the mosaics at Monreale , to the frescoes of Giotto in the Scrovegni Chapel and Raphael in the Stanze As the treatment of space improved, the number of scenes diminished.
Monreale had , the Scrovegni had 53, the Sistine Chapel had 23 scenes. The sequential order of the story telling process also decreased in clarity. To attain a deeper understanding of these phenomena requires examination of contexts and frames. Perspective brought with it a tendency to reduce a number of independent episodes and include these with a single spatial context, as is strikingly illustrated in Memling's Seven Joys of Mary Munich, Alte Pinakothok, c.
Similarly, in his Treatise of Painting , Leonardo recommended that one:. These tendencies towards a single spatial context containing several temporal episodes are of particular interest because they call into question the oppositions between painting and poetry articulated by Lessing. In his Laokoon , he suggested that painting and poetry used completely different means and signs in achieving imitation; that painting used figures and colours in space, while poetry used tones in time.
Painting, he claimed, was concerned with bodies, poetry with actions; 47 painting with a totality, poetry with parts; 48 painting with space, poetry with time. But they do not hold for the whole of art. Indeed, the many scenes integrated into a single spatial context as practiced by Memling, and recommended by Leonardo, show that perspective removed these oppositions and introduced different actions of a body, different parts in a whole and different times in a single space as important new dimensions of representation, which take us directly to some of the richest aspects of art in and since the Renaissance.
For instance, the first of these, the ability to represent different actions of bodies prompted Leonardo to make a list of eighteen basic actions which could be painted 50 and led him to explore kinematic sequences of men at work and play, a principle which has since inspired the development of motion pictures, television and video. The ability to represent different parts in a whole was equally fundamental in its consequences.
For it explains why photographic details of Renaissance paintings can function as if they were photographs of complete paintings. This principle also makes possible the game of imposing imaginary frames in galleries and observing how each of these functions as independent pictures. Art dealers, who sawed off sections of old masters, and then sold these whole-sale were, of course, taking the game a bit too far. The principle, which makes these games possible, is intimately connected with problems of particulars and universals.
A perspectival painting, i. Nature has this same feature which is why we can take any scene, add different lenses to our concern and each time come up with an independent picture. Note the connection between particulars, individuals and independence. Note that these are also a key to creating new frames, focussing on details and changing scales which are three ways of describing this open process.
It is rather important to realize that none of this is possible as long as universals govern representation, as tended to be the case in Greece. Given universals, the goal of representation is perfection, literally putting an end to, a totality, a perfect totality. To remove any part of a totality is to destroy its perfection and to remove its aesthetic potential. Or at least in theory, although some art historians will assure us that gods and goddesses are aesthetically the richer through amputation of arms, legs and other parts.
Hence a commitment to universals generates only parts dependent on a totality, which remain impersonal, static and without a temporal dimension. By contrast, a commitment to particulars leads to individuals independent of the whole, which can be personal, dynamic and with a temporal dimension. Because universals limit attention to the perfection of a totality, any change of frames would leave out some important part of that totality; any focus on a detail would leave the totality out of focus and any change of scale would make no difference: which is why photographs or slides of a three inch statuette or a six foot classical statue sometimes produce exactly the same effect.
When the emphasis is on totality there is no context and no way of inferring scale. Indeed universals, with their commitment to perfection, produced an approach to representation which effectively denied the importance of size, scale, context, frames and time, i. Mention of time brings us to the third of Lessing's oppositions, which we need to consider briefly before returning to the connections between perspective and frames.
Lessing's claim that poetry dealt with time, while painting dealt with space overlooked the ways in which perspective introduced spatio-temporal dimensions into painting. The most obvious examples involved episodes in the lives of saints as in the Memling painting mentioned above. But there were also much more subtle examples as in Carpaccio's St. In the foreground of the painting, just left of centre, we see a scene with a snake looking at a toad which looks in turn at a lizard.
In a second scene, further back, we do not see the toad, while the lizard looks at the decomposing body of a woman obscuring most of the snake except for its tail, which forms an unexpected necklace for the corpse. In scene three, the toad reappears just right of the centre near the corpse of a man while the snake lurks beneath the corpse's left foot.
In scene four, the snake devours the toad, while the lizard looks on. The subject may be unappetizing, but it suggests that Lessing's claims about time, parts and actions in painting were undigested.
There were other subtle ways in which spatio-temporal dimensions came into play. As we have shown the matching function led to a natural extension of the represented space of the painting into the physical space of the environment where it was painted. Hence, as was noted elsewhere, local townscapes inevitably entered as backgrounds in religious paintings.
As these background townscapes became more pronounced they brought into focus unexpected anachronisms, for events in the life of Christ which had occurred fourteen or fifteen centuries earlier now stood in the foreground of a contemporary scene.
By the late fifteenth century, when Ghirlandaio did his cycle on the life of Saint Francis Florence, Sassetti Chapel, , he depicted the saint literally in the squares and streets of Florence. Here, of course, the anachronism involved, only a few centuries but even so Ghirlandaio did nothing to remove it. Perhaps there were problems in learning to see spatio-temporal dimensions in paintings, just as it took a long time before painters became aware of problems of shadows caused by the sun at different times of day in their landscapes.
We might have expected the writings of Machiavelli, Guicciardini and other historians to introduce a greater historical consciousness, which would remove such anachronisms. Instead, the anachronisms persisted throughout the seventeenth, eighteenth and into the nineteenth centuries, until first the camera, and then the impressionists focussed attention on scenes limited to a specific place and time: Paris on a rainy afternoon, Arles on a sunny morning, etc.
But long before this the anachronisms had taken on a subtler form. For as the contemporary background slowly moved forward to dominate even the foreground, the historical event retreated quietly into the background. By the mid seventeenth century with Claude we almost need to be told that the four figures standing in a landscape involve the story of Jacob and Laban London, Dulwich Art Gallery ; a principle that applies equally to mythological scenes such as his Coastal landscape with Apollo and the Cumean sibyl Private collection, These shifts introduced by perspective deserve much more attention.
For it is usually assumed that the development of secular art was largely due to a rejection of the religious tradition. We are suggesting that the reverse was true: that it was paradoxically the Christian tradition of creatural realism that combined with perspective to create frameworks for matching which extended biblical narrative into the physical world and made nature first a background topic and gradually a dominant theme in the history of representation.
We have shown how contradictions between and combinations of spatial and temporal dimensions played a central role in these developments. And Lessing's desire to maintain the simple polarities of painting-space versus poetry-time led him to overlook this, and indeed other fundamental contributions of Renaissance art.
To understand this properly we need to return to the problem of frames. For the whole phenomenon we have been describing of townscapes slowly coming into the foregrounds of religious paintings is very much a question of frames and fully analogous to a zoom lens which focusses on what had been a background detail, frames it and then increases its scale until it dominates the entire scene.
Which is also why perspectival representation leads ineluctably towards a photographic image, where framing is almost the name of the game. We shall show that these connections between a play of perspective and frames go back at least to the time of Giotto in the Scrovegni Chapel at Padua , but before doing so we need to refine an earlier claim.
We have stressed that perspective applies not only to painting but to other arts such as architecture and sculpture involving various media including bronze, marble and wood. This did not always happen. In the case of altars, for instance, it played only a small role. As Heydenryk, in his history of frames has noted, Italian altarpieces imitated architectural features and effectively became cross sections of Gothic churches, 52 while in the North ";the elements of a frame were invariably emulations of architectural elements but no effort was made to create a logical architectural structure as had been done in Italy.
But it had little substantive impact on the function of altar frames. By contrast, in the case of frames in the fresco cycles, 54 perspective had an enormous impact. In the Scrovegni Chapel at Padua, Giotto explored the potentials of using proto-perspectival effects to replace, or rather match architectural structures in his concealed chapels or coretti on the east wall. But while there was play of boundaries between architecture and painted architecture, there was effectively none between architecture and painted narrative, where each scene was neatly separated from the next by clear cut frames.
Giotto experimented with both problems separately in the same building. The early Renaissance pursued both experiments, discovered and formalized the perspectival principles underlying them. The high Renaissance integrated the two experiments into a new synthesis as becomes clear if we turn to Michelangelo's Sistine Ceiling As in the Scrovegni Chapel, there is a narrative cycle.
But whereas Giotto's scenes maintained a certain uniformity in size, Michelangelo plays with their scale. In the central portion four large scenes alternate with five smaller ones which are flanked, in turn, by ten medallion-like scenes. In the corners there are four further scenes making a total of twenty-three episodes from the Old Testament.
Then there are the forebears of Christ in the triangular niches and in the semi-circular niches below these. But the complexity of the Sistine Ceiling begins, in a sense, with the six sibyls alternating with six prophets in painted architectural cubicles enclosed by column-like painted sculptures and topped by painted nudes. The cubicles function as if they were part of a wall, the orientation of which keeps changing as we move through the chapel and constantly contradicts, or rather plays with the curvature of the actual ceiling.
The nude figures seated on top of the columns require us to read the surface three dimensionally, while we remain aware of the ceiling as a flat surface. If we look higher than the nudes our eyes are drawn into an orientation 90 degrees to the side, and if we look higher still, we need to shift our orientation a total of degrees if we are not to read the second set of nudes as falling down.
Perspective continues to play a role in the actual scenes, as in the dramatic positioning of Haman on the cross. But its main function is now in the spaces between scenes, in, with, amongst the frames, provoking a complex interplay between painted, painted sculptural and painted architectural elements which, while continuing to separate the scenes, also integrate them into a new kind of systematic whole. Perspective now creates spatial illusions only seemingly to subvert them, playing with and on them to increase the potential for polyvalent readings of different scenes theoretically separated yet, systematically related.
These polyvalent readings are encouraged by the nudes and other figures whose arms and feet continually reach and step into the neighbouring spaces. At the same time they are held in check by the painted architectural features which maintain some clear linear boundaries between the scenes.
The mannerist period worried less about keeping these boundaries fixed. Already in the Gallery of Francis I at Fontainbleau, boundaries between painted, painted sculptural and painted architectural spaces were rendered more ambiguous a by increasing the extent to which figures reach out beyond their given frame into adjacent spaces and b by deliberate introduction of actual sculptural and architectural elements which overlap with their painted equivalents.
This encroachment of figures and overlapping of art forms and media went ever further until it became difficult and ultimately impossible to know where one stops and the other begins. Hence if the high Renaissance discovered frames and their media as realms of perspective, Mannerism used perspective to play with frameworks, anamorphically distorting them in the process. Baroque art went further, playing with the whole distinction between the forms of frames and their contents. By the late seventeenth century, as Baroque art moved towards Rococo, the actual architectural spaces were manipulated and integrated in order to intensify this playful destruction of distinctions between frames and paintings, between form and content.
The experiments had begun with Giotto's concealed chapels, which played with distinctions between painted and real architecture. By the 's this play between painted and architectural reality had become a major challenge for masters of perspective, particularly in terms of di sotto in su paintings, which involved illusionistic ceilings such as that of Scamozzi and Sansovino in the Marciana library in Venice.
Implications Telco Pseudo-Crisis Satellites Law Conclusions Appendices 1. Competitors 2. Telco Statistics 3. Sameness and Diversity 4. Vaccine, Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Firms Abstract According to the news media, the history of the Internet is straightforward. In the s, sponsored by the US military, the Internet started as an experiment to link scientists.
This idea gained a wider audience. All was well until when there were two great setbacks: 1 the dot. Some link these setbacks largely or even exclusively to the events of September 11, This essay challenges the received wisdom concerning the Internet. During the past decade there has been convergence whereby the telephony and Internet interests of telephone companies have become intertwined with broadband cable and television.
This is linked with trends towards convergence on several other fronts in: a the military; b energy; c finance and d engineering and the life sciences, which some have termed Nanoscience, Biotechnology, Information technology and Cognitive science NBIC.
This book claims that these trends towards convergence are all interlinked. When we stand back to explore the implications of these trends towards convergence, we discover that from a global viewpoint, since , there was no fundamental decline in the telecom markets.
Indeed, although some stockmarket excesses of the so-called bubble needed correction, the unduly severe and prolonged market decline that followed in the U. As a result, satellites, which were essentially owned by public governments have gone bankrupt and are now largely owned by energy companies and military contractors. Some present these trends towards convergence very positively as a world where everything is becoming interconnected and intertwingled.
This book suggests that these developments are complex and pose a number of dangers. In the United States, the military is extending its activities in the civil sphere. Energy companies play a central role in the media domain. Some changes are disturbing: Private investment firms are buying up sections of the entire telecommunications infrastructure from cables to satellites.
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