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Tiberianus , Poems LCL : Go To Section. Find in a Library View cloth edition. Print Email. Hide annotations Display: View facing pages View left-hand pages View right-hand pages Enter full screen mode. IV Omnipotens, annosa poli quem suspicit aetas, quem sub millenis semper virtutibus unum nec numero quisquam poterit pensare nec aevo, nunc esto affatus, si quo te nomine dignum est, 5 quo sacer ignoto gaudes, quom maxima tellus intremit et sistunt rapidos vaga sidera cursus.

Phoebi Baehrens. Thou art the whole kindred of the gods, thou art the cause and energy of things, thou art all nature, one god beyond reckoning, thou art full of the whole of sex, for thee cometh to birth upon a day here a god, here a Cf. Please wait, image is loading Harvard University Press. Sign in to annotate. Our Insights blog presents deep data-driven analysis and visual content on important global issues from the expert data team at Knoema.

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They were placed on your computer when you launched this website. You can change your personal cookie settings through your internet browser settings. Data Products Insights Data Partners. Sign Up Log in. World Data Atlas World and regional statistics, national data, maps and rankings. Data Bulletin Latest releases of new datasets and data updates from different sources around the world.

Insights blog Our Insights blog presents deep data-driven analysis and visual content on important global issues from the expert data team at Knoema. Learn more. The number of species is estimated in This number includes the species found in each Province. In many cases the distribution of species includes different Provinces. The endemic species are estimated in The biggest number of species is found in the Panamic Province, with From this tropical province the number of species decreases to the high latitudes.

In the Magellanic Province only in the area of Pacific Ocean 64 species are found, and in the Aleutian one These topics are considered in the discussion on the clinal distribution of Decapod crustaceans species in the East Pacific Ocean. Boxshall, Geoff A. Signatory parties to that convention CBD have an obligation to inventory and monitor changes in their biodiversity. The political establishment has never been more favourably disposed towards issues such as conservation and sustainable use.

However, implementation of the CBD, like any convention, has been patchy - proceeding at different rates in different countries. One consequence of some recent legislation, is that it is now a criminal offence to send samples abroad without government approval.

There is no exemption for samples sent for scientific study and so there is a potential impact on taxonomic working practices. This paper examines, what has happened as a result of the CBD, how has it impacted upon crustacean conservation, and how will it affect crustacean taxonomists? The present study is the first one addressing the benthic decapod fauna in this Park. Sixty-seven decapod species belonging to 25 families were identified in the Park area.

Nineteen species occurred in both habitats marine zone and lagoon , indicating that there is faunal exchange between both sites through the tunnel, either by means of larval phases, or by crawling or walking individuals. In fact, nine of these 19 species were actually recorded in the tunnel.

Of the remaining species, 47 were restricted to the marine zone, and one was found solely in the lagoon. The higher species richness in the marine zone seems related to the wider range of live substrates in that area, especially erect sponges, gorgonians, seagrasses, and certain anemones, which harbor a number of associated decapod species, but are completely absent from the lagoon. Although no human activities are allowed in the lagoon, and fishing is forbidden in the whole Park area, the marine zone of the Park holds a daily average of visiting tourists, most of which conduct some sort of aquatic or underwater activity.

Further protection of the live substrates in the marine zone is recommended, to warrant the preservation of the rich decapod fauna in the area. Feedstuffs were included in practical diets for L. Fishmeal in the control diet was replaced by R. Methods and criteria for sustainable and profitable harvesting of wild postlarval shrimp for aquaculture are needed.

It is suggested that mass harvesting of postlarvae of L. These characteristics include a soft carapace, slender and atrophied walking legs, the ischium and merus of the third maxilliped indistinguishably fused and the presence of a tubercle on the basal antennal segment. Such traits led to the conclusion that only the genera Gemmotheres Campos. Monthly samples of macro-crustaceans were collected using an otter trawl at four sampling sites within the lagoon.

Major components of the infauna were determined through samples collected every fortnight using both a grab and a hand trawl. Water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH at the surface and bottom of the lagoon were also recorded. Swimming crabs, Callinectes sapidus and C. The mean percentage of brown shrimps, Farfantepenaeus aztecus and F.

The total number of macro-crustaceans increased from the rainy season June-October to the "Nortes" season November- February , in close association with a decrease in salinity from Daily variations in the composition of the benthic community were analyzed by comparing samples collected every 6 h over 24 h periods.

Results showed that crustaceans were more abundant during dark hours p. Large crabs dominated samples collected during light hours, whilst small, somewhat younger crabs dominated those collected during dark hours. Size and species composition of the macro-crustacean community did not show a marked spatial variation, suggesting that this subsystem is homogeneous with respect to the spatial distribution of its benthic fauna.

The objective of the present study was to determine the degree of absorption of preys detected in the stomach of the crab Callinectes ornatus from Ubatuba Bay in order to understand the food dynamics of this species. Hepatopancreas, ocular peduncle, muscle removed from the chelipeds, and the gonads of 25 animals of different size, as well as the prey found in their stomachs were examined for isotope composition.

The preys were grouped lime and protein and analyzed according to their constitutions and respective percentages of absorption by tissues. This analysis proved to be an important tool for the understanding of the food preferences of C. This species is an opportunistic omnivorous tending to prey on animal groups. The animals were separated into groups of interest: young male; adult male; young female and adult female. On each specimen the carapace width CW was measured, molt cycle stage and macroscopic gonad development were determined.

The physiological maturity occurred between This population showed molt activity in all size groups throughout the study period, indicating continuous growth and the absence of terminal anecdysis. This might be associated to the fact these animals can copulate during the intermolt, providing a larger amount of individuals able to reproduce all year round.

The population structure of U. Two collectors sampled the fiddler crabs during 30 minutes. For each specimen, the carapace width CW was measured and sex and ovigerous condition were recorded. Ovigerous females were only found in the summer months representing 2. The size of the smallest ovigerous female of each population The frequency distribution of CW in both populations was unimodal and symmetric, with constant recruitment during the study period.

These features are typical of tropical and subtropical semiterrestrial brachyurans, suggesting the natural equilibrium of a given population. It is adapted to the ephemeral vernal pools atop the local mesas. The distribution of this species is very patchy due to the nature of the environment, as well as to habitat loss from residential and commercial development. This has lead to a complex of metapopulations. Previous RAPD analysis and allozyme electrophoresis have indicated low genetic variability in this species and a high degree of differentiation between populations.

To better understand the genetic make-up, we have developed a microsatellite library and primers for microsatellite polymorphic repeat regions. We have screened populations of shrimp, including those within the same complex of pools, and those in different complexes and mesas. This information will allow us to understand the population genetic structure of the species and will aid in further management decisions in support of preserve designation, population translocation and recovery plans.

Two prey types were chosen due to their high dominance in submerged aquatic vegetation in the coastal systems where they represent potential prey for opportunistic omnivorous predators. Prey employed in the experimental trials were the caridean shrimp Hippolyte zostericola Hz and the epibenthic guild of amphipods Am collected at Laguna de Terminos. Five paired experiments were designed in aquarium devoid of structure and one shrimp 1.

This suggest that the pink shrimp feeds preferentially on small size prey and that larger prey as caridean shrimps are included randomly. In order to know the amphipod guild species composition of this coastal lagoon, all gammaridean were sorted from the samples obtained with two sampling devices during August and December , a Renfro beam net and an otter trawl.

Fifteen species were found: Ampelisca sp1. Higher abundances and species diversity were found in the more complex substrates along the inner margin of the barrier where heterogeneity is due to the presence of both the seagrass Halodule wrightii and macroalgae. Specimens were collected monthly at night period in Itamambuca and Vermelha do Norte sand beaches during a year.

Transects were performed along the shore five in the first and three in the second site , each comprising m2. Each transect was divided in 3 bands Upper, Middle, and Lower , being the former delimited beyond the higher tide. We collected specimens from Itamambuca and specimens from Vermelha do Norte.

For each specimen, we identified the sex and measured the carapace width CW. The sex of specimens with CW ranging from 6 to 9. Adult ghost crabs were distributed from upper to lower bands. However, they were more abundant on middle and lower bands. Immature ghost crabs are more abundant on the middle band.

Despite of distinct declivity and granulometric composition of each considered beach the patterns of distribution of ghost crabs between these two populations were similar. Thus, we suggest that the habitat partitioning observed are probably related to differential feeding habits for adults and juveniles.

Previous experiments had demonstrated that in a non-competitive environment all ontogenetic male stages typus , intermedius , robustus successfully mated with females in a similar manner. In this study, mating behavior of the different ontogenetic stages of male rock shrimp Rhynchocinetes typus was examined in a competitive environment where different male stages competed directly for access to receptive females.

In the 1st set of experiments, two males of different ontogenetic stages were placed together with a receptive female. In the 2nd experiment, we examined the behaviour of subdominant males while two dominant males were competing for a receptive female. During fights of the two dominant males, the female escaped from the embrace of its dominant mating partner.

Some subdominant males appreciated this opportunity, paired up with the female, and quickly placed spermatophores under her abdomen. Thus in a competitive environment, subdominant males may use an alternative mating tactic that is characterized by rapidity. This work aimed to analyze comparatively the osmoregulatory capacity of Callinectes danae and C. After a period of 48h of acclimatization in aquarium, each species was submitted to five treatments 35,25,15,5 and 0 ppt.

The dilution was slowly made with distilled water. The hemolymph of 5 swimming crabs was collect for analysis after each 90 minutes of exposition to each salinity. The osmolality of C. In the end of this experiment C. This results confirm the occurrence of C. Crowe, Stacie E. At two sites, C. Observations suggest that amphipods occurred less frequently in sponge species with few or no interior canals such as Ircinia campana. The cave was visited in four occasions , and and the mysids were observed every time.

To date, 8 organisms were collected, with the aid of traps put on various ponds of the cave. The type locality of the species is the cave of the Nacimiento of the Rio San Antonio, which is located 6 km from the Gabriel cave. In Mexico, the presence of Spelaeomysis olivae has been recorded only from the two mentioned caves.

The environmental variable with most relationship to the number of copepods was the quantity of organic matter in the sediment correlation coefficient of 0. It was observed that the highest number of copepods was found in the ponds located at m from the cave entrance. The depth of the ponds varied between 10 and cm, temperature between The results describe the distribution and abundance of the stygobiont copepods. Adult males in intermoult of Uca uruguayensis , Chasmagnathus granulata and Cyrtogtrapsus angulatus were collected at same time.

The hepatopancreas were removed and processed by using standard histological techniques. The organ occupies completely the dorsal haemocel in C. The cytoarchitecture in the three species is similar to that observed in other brachyurans. Differences in the tubular structure are related to the presence of a peritrophic lamina in all its extension and a marked differentiation at the medial zone in C. Tubular lumen in C. These characteristics indicate a different rhythm in the cycle of cellular activity.

In a general view, the tubular dimensions and cells are similar for the three species. Although this discovery means that there are still just two species of freshwater crabs known from Socotra, both belong to different genera, and both are endemic to the island. The great age and geographic position of Socotra which lies between the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula raises interesting biogeographical questions about the origins of its fauna and flora, much of which is endemic to the island.

The phylogenetic relationships of the two species of Socotran freshwater crabs are assessed in relation to the results of a cladistic analysis that includes freshwater crabs from Socotra, East Africa, Europe, the Middle East, Zanzibar, India, the Seychelles and Madagascar. The results of the phylogenetic study are interpreted in terms of the biogeographic implications for the origins of the freshwater crabs of Socotra and of this region of the world.

Marine proteins are considerably more expensive than by-product meals such us meat and bone meal. The objective was to compare the growth, survival, and body composition of P. Feeding trials were carried out in three replicate groups during 50 days on juveniles 0. The control group was fed with fresh squid mantle. No significant differences were detected in final weight gain or survival among dietary treatments.

Whole body moisture, ash, crude protein, and lipid content of shrimp were not affected by diet. The feeding experiment suggests that meat and bone meal can be utilized by P. In this study the effect of dietary cholesterol on hepatopancreas structure of P. After 60 days, the hepatopancreas from individuals in intermolt, premolt and postmolt were removed and processed by using standard histological techniques.

No differences were found in survival and growth. The most important alterations were observed in postmolt prawns fed 0. Besides the typical desquamated degeneration in postmolt, haemocytic infiltration, cellular displasia and necrosis were present.

In all stages, R-cells showed hypervacuolization in prawns fed 0. The tissular changes related to the molt cycle are similar to those observed in wild prawns. Diaz, Guillermo A. Individual shrimp from 8 to 30 mm carapace length were kept in a temperature controlled environment and followed over time to measure growth-per-molt GPM and duration to intermolt period IP. Three experimental temperatures were used, 20, 24, 28 C, which are within the temperature range that pink shrimp are exposed to in the bay.

Converting IP time units from chronological days to physiological degree-days incorporated temperature influence. Our results show that smaller shrimp have shorter IP and a larger relative growth-per-molt than larger shrimp. Differences in growth between males and females were examined. The present model forms the basis of a population dynamics model for Biscayne bay pink shrimp that can assess impact of fishing and anthropogenic changes to freshwater inflows.

Dillon, Beth A. Invertebrate diversity is decreased, with only acid tolerant species inhabiting the most affected streams. Little, however, is known about the distribution of crayfish in streams of intermediate pH. We sampled water quality and crayfish and invertebrate abundance at five sites along the pH gradient of Little Paint Creek, near Johnstown, PA. The second site 7. Crayfish abundance, determined by kicknet and hand collecting, declines as we move downstream, from site 1 to site 2.

We have never collected crayfish from the downstream sites. San Bartolo Atepehuacan. From the beginning of their study until nowadays there are in checklist species of the orders Anomopoda and Ctenopoda in Mexico, limiting their study to lenthic systems, relegating their study in rivers and streams. Samples were collected from 15 points of the lowest basin of Coatzacoalcos River from 30 km upstream to its connection to the Gulf of Mexico.

It is important to point out the presence of B. In this study also are described 3 possible new species of genus Alona and a new description of Biapertura cf pseudoverrucosa and Kurzia longirostris , the presence of the last ones in the country, has been considered improbably due to most of the species are not cosmopolitan and they have been identified in another geographical latitudes.

Some of the mentioned species have been described in South America and the others in North America, confirming the fact that Mexico constitutes a transition zone among the Nearctic and Neotropical areas. Therefore, protection issues have to be properly addressed to the public.

Different strategies were used for two crustacean taxa, threatened by habitat loss and alien species introduction, respectively. Due to the public activities and strong media reactions, Austrian habitats with high large branchiopod diversity were protected. Additional scientific and conservational activities were initiated. In the case of autochthonous freshwater crayfish Decapoda: Astacidae , information on the problems of alien crayfish introduction Astacidae: Pacifastacus leniusculus , Cambaridae: Orconectes limosus was presented, mainly to address fishermen and crayfish breeders.

Popular scientific exhibitions took place, highlighting the dangers and prevention of the crayfish plague Aphanomyces astaci as well as crayfish biology, breeding and culinary aspects. A popular science book on crayfish occurring in Austria and a local red list for the province of Lower Austria were published.

The Austrian crayfish working group is trying to initiate activities on a European level to stop the introduction of allochthonous crayfish species. Local crayfish breeders are encouraged to use autochthonous species. Considering the nm limit, the Mexican Pacific covers approximately 2 km2 of marine and oceanic environment from estuaries and intertidal to over m depth.

An exhaustive review of published literature and intensive sampling along and offshore allows to report a total of species of Isopoda for the area. These species belong to 8 of the 10 currently recognized suborders of Isopoda. Almost half of the species 54 are Flabellifera, while Microcerberidea and Gnathiidea are represented by only one known species each. As expected, there is a clear bathymetric segregation from one group of species to the other.

Gnathiidea, Mirocerberidea and Oniscidea 10 spp. Anthuridea 10 spp. Flabellifera also occur from the intertidal but range to deeper water, with a maximum depth record of m Rocinella belliceps ; these are either free-living or parasites and are found in a wide variety of habitats.

Epicaridea 21 spp. Without any doubts, the least studied suborders are Anthuridea 10 known species and at least 2 undescribed species as well as Gnathiidea and Microcerberidea due to their small size, difficulty to be sampled and complexity of available literature. The Gulf of California, on the contrary, features an unusual relative richness with up to It should be stressed, however, that most of the collecting effort of the last 30 years has been done in the Gulf of California and along the west coast of Baja California.

A first draft of a monograph on the isopods of the Pacific coast of Mexico is presented, including keys to families, genera and species, data related to distribution and habitats of species, synonymy, characteristics and illustrations of each species. Felder, Darryl L. Endemism of those populations has been attributed to their obligate fossorial habitat and abbreviated larval dispersal, characteristics which appear to be shared with Pacific coast species. Historically, reports from the eastern Pacific long indicated that only one or two wide-ranging species of the genus occurred there, depending upon whether the names L.

In addition, a new species, L. Re-examination of these materials, in addition to new collections from Colombia, Panama, and Costa Rica reveals no less than five separate eastern Pacific species, two of which are new. Despite certain similarities in ventral abdominal sclerites armor L. It is noteworthy that eastern Pacific populations of the genus now appear to be almost as speciose as the western Atlantic ones, despite the relative absence of conspicuous physiographic barriers to coastal distributions in western Mesoamerica.

It is also notable that both ventrally armored and ventrally unarmored members of the genus occur in the eastern Pacific, as is the case in the western Atlantic. Ongoing studies of commensals with populations of this genus should determine if their diversity has also been underestimated.

The results of this work indicate that the dietary vitamin E requirement of A. Fransozo, A. Costa, F. Mantelatto, M. Sampling were monthly carried out in seven transects of 1 km each, using a shrimp fishing boat equipped with double rigged net. The distribution of collected species was correlated with abitotic factors.

A total of 17, specimens was recorded, comprising 13 species 10 Penaeidea and 3 Caridea and five families. Both abiotic factors and life cycle types characteristic of each species can be responsible for changes in the structure of this community. A reproductive study was carried out revealing a smaller size of maturity for both sex of this population when it was compared to a Texas ghost crab population.

Carapace and abdomen width, cheliped propodus length and height, and first gonopod length were measured for specimens. Carapace width was used as the independent variable against the others. A power function was adjusted to the dispersion points using the least-squares regression method.

Sexual maturity is achieved with carapace length of 20 mm in males and Most relationships showed an allometric positive growth and a different allometric coefficient between juvenile and adult crabs. For this population O. It could be supposed that the differences observed between these two populations of O.

Monthly samples of zooplancton were collected using a zooplancton net at four sampling sites within the lagoon. Primary productivity was determined through monthly samples of phytoplancton collected using a Van Dorn horizontal bottle.

Water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH at the surface and bottom of the lagoon, as well as, concentrations of nutrients in the water were also determined. Fourteen zooplancton components were determined, of which swimming crab larvae of the genus Callinectes represented an overall mean percentage of The mean percentage of copepods was 9.

These variations were associated to changes in total chlorophyll concentration 0. Zooplancton composition and abundance, however, did not show a marked spatial variation, suggesting that the plancton component of this subsystem is homogeneously distributed throughout the lagoon. Size and shell species preferences of the hermit crab C. All experiments were conducted in a glass aquarium where the hermit crabs were placed naked with a large number of shells of appropriate sizes.

After 72 h the hermit crabs and chosen shells were measured. The preferred shell type and size were determined by regression analysis. Calcinus tibicen showed no significant choice amongst the three gastropod shell types. The present data lead us to conclude that shell selection by hermit crabs involves individual and sexual preferences taking into account the shell features that best provide protection and survival.

The flood gave us the opportunity to test in situ the importance of salinity on abundance and reproductive strategy for Decapod Crustaceans. In the Mediterranean coastal lagoons, Crangon crangon , Carcinus aestuarii and Palaemon elegans are migratory species whose females spawn in the sea. Palaemonetes varians lives through out the year in the lagoon.

Results showed that interannual C. For the two Palaemonidae species and Carcinus aestuarii , catches decreased significantly after the flood. The major factor explaining this decrease is the salinity. Ovigerous females frequency of C. For C. Conventional barnacles such as the Acrothoracica the borrowing barnacles and Thoracica the acorn and goose barnacles are all filter-feeding organisms that use their thoracic appendages as particle-catching organs.

Rhizocephalans, however, have lost all traces of thoracic and mouth appendages and use a root system embedded into their host as their sole trophic organ. Hence, the evolutionary transition that has led the rhizocephalans from an ancestral filter-feeding organism to an internal parasite is difficult to envision.

Recent evidence coming from the study of the cypris metamorphosis, the host injection and the early internal development of the parasite might bring light to this enigma and I present a scenario for the evolution of the Rhizocephalans.

The latter due to the toxic effects of toxins and secondary toxic waste products excreted by such populations, on the entire community. Herbivorous copepods do play an important role in the accumulation and transfer of toxins produced by dinoflagellates saxitoxins and diatoms domoic acid. Such accumulation and transfer of toxins take place when copepods are consumed by higher trophic levels such as fish larvae, juveniles and adults that eventually are consumed by birds, reptiles and mammals.

The specific composition of planktonic copepods seems to follow a similar pattern as observed for the case of Acartia danae, A. Because of the role played by harmful microplankton species, it is necessary to study the trophic relationships between these species and higher trophic levels. Postal Sampling was carried at different depths using opening-closing nets between 2 and m.

Larval density was higher during summer when it was found Larvae were mainly found in localities where salinity did not present wide fluctuations varying between As expected larvae showed a vertical migration from bottom to surface during night and the reverse was found during dayligth. Thermocline and pycnocline seem to play an important role to define protozoea and mysis stages vertical distribution. Protozoea were found in surface strata, whereas mysis and postlarvae were distributed in deeper layers.

Larvae dispersion pattern showed a close relationship to the seasonal current pattern. During spring larvae present a movement towards west of the study area and to East in autumn. In summer Solenocera larvae dispersion seems to be reduced due to the presence of cyclonic gyre. Forty species have been validly described. Eleven of them have a dubious status, due to missing types or bad descriptions.

An additional ten Hyalellas have been published as forms, varieties or possible future new species. Almost all the species have their geographical distributions restricted to areas within North, Central or South America; some of them concentrated in small areas. Hyalella azteca is the only species reported from Canada to Brazil. We present information showing that Hyalella has several clades within the genus. One clade represents the deep lake species in Lake Titicaca, very diverse and morphologically distinct.

Outside the lake, the level of morphological diversity is not as clear. We discuss the high level of endemism, especially in Lake Titicaca or the possibility of a high level of polymorphism. The eventual subdivision of the genus is also discussed. Specimens of E. The relative growth equation based on the relationship between CW and gonopod length GL suggested that males reach their sexual maturity between 12 and 13 mm of CW.

Therefore, the maturity for females could not be inferred by means the relative growth equations. On the other hand, juvenile and adult females presented remarkable differences in abdominal and pleopod setation.

Such morphological features indicated that sexual maturity in females occurs from 11 and 12 mm of CW. Halperin, J. Hermida, L. Fiorito, G. Luquet Dpto. Buenos Aires, Argentina. In this study we draw evidence on the participation of the branchiostegal lungs in aerial gas exchange, by means of ultrastructural, histochemical and biochemical techniques.

The branchiostegal wall oriented towards the branchial chamber has a flat epithelium with thin cuticle. Underlying this epithelium there are numerous hemolymphatic sinuses delimited by a spongy connective tissue, which bears large PAS and alcian blue positive cells. These cells were also stained with a technique for lipid detection, suggesting a reserve function.

Two types of muscle fibers were found: large dorsal-ventral striated muscles and small bundles without evident striation, associated with abundant collagen-like fibers on the lateral side. The putative gas exchange area was measured on ten latex casts of the branchial chambers. The mean value obtained, Carbonic anhydrase activity was compared among branchiostegites and respiratory and non-respiratory tissues, showing the branchiostegites intermediate values.

Respiratory gills: 0. It is concluded that the branchiostegal lungs of this species share the gas exchange functions with the gills, accounting for a substantial part of the oxygen uptake and a little part of CO 2 excretion during submergence. As understood, the group includes 8 genera and 30 valid nominal species worldwide.

Leptostraca are ubiquitous in the marine realm, ranging from the intertidal zone and marine caves to deep-sea environments. Leptostracans often occur in large numbers; in one case, an estimate of , individuals per square meter was reported. Despite their widespread distribution and abundance, Leptostraca are among the most obvious gaps in current knowledge of marine invertebrate biodiversity.

For example, leptostracans have previously been reported from only one locality in all of Mexico. The seemingly low alpha-diversity of the group likely reflects a paucity of collecting and taxonomic efforts, and the need for monographic research of the Leptostraca has been well recognized. We report findings from our recent surveys of the littoral zone along the coastline of Baja California.

Populations of Leptostraca were commonly found associated with algal mats on intertidal mudflats. A map of the distribution of Leptostraca in Baja California is provided, and morphological and molecular analyses of these animals are described. With ca. Crustacea, and in particular Peracarida and Decapoda, are an important component of the benthic and pelagic fauna.

The crustacean fauna of the Gulf of California is made of 1, species. Other groups include the Euphausiacea 14 spp. Two databases were elaborated. Environmental data depth and substrate were associated to a georeferenciated grid of 2 by 2 nautical miles, thus producing a digital matrix of sizable localities vs.

Depth was provided on the basis of bathymetric maps available for the area, with ranges of , , , etc. Substrates included sand, mud, coral, rock, rubbles and mangrove or a combination of two or more substrates occurring in a square. A second database contained a matrix made of crustaceans species, each associated with their known depth range e. A total of crustaceans species were included in this second database due to the fact that some matrix data were not available for all species.

The species distribution was defined by the same geographic unit for the insular and continental regions at the study area as was shown by the similarity in faunistic composition Species distribution in the East Pacific is mainly due to the thermal barriers and to the water thermal fluctuations adaptation of the organisms. However there are several factors with higher or lower influence kind of substrate and habitat availability that allowed distinguishing three faunistic groups: subtropical-tropical, template-tropical and tropical.

On the basis of the general distribution the According to the data found in this study the southern distribution limits of A. Montepio is a small bay in the Los Tuxtlas region, Veracruz, characterized by a rocky shore formed by lava flows that penetrate into the sea.

Eleven samples were obtained from February to February A total of crustaceans were collected, representing 16 families, 31 genera and 49 species. The most species rich families were Porcellanidae and Alpheidae with seven species each Dominant species are constantly replaced and rare species are more numerous.

Crustaceans alternate with molluscs, sipunculids, and echinoderms as the most abundant group. Morphology of the zoeal and megalopal stages of M. Hess, Gregory S. Evidence from pleopod morphology, video observations, and inseminated females indicates that males apply the spermatophoric mass directly onto the female via the gonopores rather than with gonopods. The anterior male pleopods have simple endopods that have no apparent modifications for sperm transfer.

Copulation was recorded using time-lapse video. In each case, the male and female made ventral contact, intertwining their pereopods with the male gonopores overlying the female gonopores. Upon examination of the mated female, a gelatinous adhesive mass containing spermatophore ribbons was found covering both gonopores as well as the spaces between the coxae of the 2nd through 4th pereopods.

It is suggested that direct application of a spermatophoric mass via the male gonopores is the primitive mechanism of insemination in this group. Shrimp used during feeding trials were cultivated from eggs spawned in laboratory facilities. Laboratory experiments using single prey size no choice and multiple prey size choice designs were carried out. Consumed shrimp were recorded every hour during 8 h feeding periods and replaced with another one of similar size to maintain constant prey availability.

Both direct observations and video camera recordings of foraging bouts revealed five components of predation: a searching behaviour, characterized by wandering movements with no apparent direction; b prey encounter, characterized by vigorous movements of mouth parts and antennae, c prey pursuit, characterized by crabs moving directly towards encountered prey, d prey capture and manipulation, characterized by prey being held within crab chelae, and e prey consumption until the completion of the meal.

The typus morphotype is subordinate to subsequent stages, the intermedius stages and the robustus morphotype, which is the final molt stage and features the most powerful third maxillipeds and chelae. Previous results had indicated that typus males might use an alternative mating tactic when competing with dominant males for access to receptive females. Herein, we measured the weight of two internal organs of these males, one related to somatic growth hepatopancreas and the other organ related to sexual activity sperm duct.

The weight of the hepatopancreas relative to total body weight of robustus males was significantly lower than those of either typus or intermedius males, underlining the fact that robustus males do not need to invest further resources into growth. In intermedius males, the weight of the sperm duct relative to total body weight was significantly lower than that of either typus or robustus males. Based on these results we compared the sperm investment between typus and robustus males in repeated non-competitive mating trials.

The number of spermatophores placed under the female's abdomen decreased significantly from the first to the second mating in typus males but not in robustus males. These results are corroborated by the fact that the weight of the sperm duct relative to total body weight in mated typus males is significantly lower than in unmated typus males, but not in robustus males.

We conclude that during ontogeny, resource and sperm investment in the different male stages changes in accordance with their hierarchy level and their resulting realized mating tactic. Three out of 15 large branchiopod species recorded between and Chirocephalus shadini , Eoleptestheria ticinensis , Streptocephalus torvicornis are known from only one site each and are considered as critically endangered CR , such as Branchinecta ferox , Chirocephalus carnuntanus, Cyzicus tetracerus , and Tanymastix stagnalis , which occur at less than five sites in small populations.

Large populations of Branchinecta orientalis , Limnadia lenticularis, Leptestheria dahalacensis , as well as Branchipus schaefferi are known from 10, 10, 11, and 26 sites, respectively. Presently, three Austrian locations are protected exclusively on the basis of large branchiopod occurrence; three additional habitats are in the process of protection. SEM reveals that the collar is a hollow torus encircling the body, and TEM shows that it is an evagination of the larval cuticle attached all around the body by a very narrow rim.

The surface of the collar exhibits a reticular pattern of raised ribs around areas of extremely thin cuticle. The collar does not contain any cellular components and is lost with the rest of the cuticle at the moults between succeeding naupliar instars. It is replaced by a new one formed as part of the new body cuticle. The function of the collar is unclear, but it could possibly assist in dispersal of the pelagic nauplii. Interestingly, the collar is absent from members of the species rich family Sacculinidae.

Instead nutrients are instead absorbed by a dendritic system of rootlets infiltrating their crustacean host. The root system also serves an important role in metabolism and storage of nutrients and in establishing parasite control of the host. In this study we used SEM and TEM to describe the rootlet system in seven species from five different families spanning both suborders of the Rhizocephala. Rootlet ultrastructure was basically similar and believed to be homologous throughout all Rhizocephala.

Most importantly, the rootlets are at all times enveloped in an extremely delicate and very specialized cuticle, which derives directly from the cuticle enveloping the vermigon stage injected into the host by the infecting kentrogon. But there were also remarkable differences, especially in the morphology of the surface coat of cuticular microvillus-like projections.

To this end we have developed an accelerated method consisting of: a homogeneization and sonication, b low-speed centrifugation to eliminate debris and floating lipids, c ultracentrifugation after adjusting the density to 1. Steps a, b, and c, were done in the presence of a protease inhibitors cocktail and after steps d and e, an overnight dialysis eliminated KBr and sucrose. On native PAGE purified vitellin gave one band of approx. An antibody to ovarian lipovitellin was produced in rabbits.

Iliffe, Thomas M. These anchialine caves serve as refuges to relic "living fossil" organisms and to species closely related to deep-sea taxa. At least new species, including a new class Remipedia plus new orders, families and genera, have been described from anchialine caves.

Distressingly, the restricted distribution and isolation of such species, often to a single cave system on one island, renders them extremely vulnerable to anthropogenic change. Pressures on coastal ecosystems, including unsustainable levels of development for tourism and leisure industries, limestone quarrying, and organic pollution, are threatening these habitats. We have studied a set of extant temporary ponds for 3 years: crustacean communities vary with hydrologic conditions in diversity, spatial patterns and density.

However, it is difficult to extrapolate from this data set to estimate past regional diversity of temporary pond crustaceans, or their sensitivity to habitat loss. We conducted computer simulations of metapopulation survival over multiple generations. Simulations to date show that selection can favor on-site dormancy but little inter-site dispersal given predictable pond locations despite stringent conditions in any given pond.

If so, regional crustacean diversity in temporary ponds of the former wet prairie may have been high, but vulnerable to extirpation by rapid habitat loss. Substantial losses of crustacean diversity in other regions are likely if agricultural development follows the approach taken in the US cornbelt. Kozlov, Oleg V. For this time in them 28 species of crustaceans of genus Daphnia , Microcyclops , Eucyclops , Euritemora , Eudiaptomus , Gammarus , Artemia are marked.

The biomass of their populations can change from 0. On lakes, the square from 50 ha up to ha, conducts economic production. Volumes of production crustaceans - from 0. The constant annual production of dominating species crustaceans not only adjusts number of these organisms, but also promotes increase of diversity in zooplanktocenosis of lakes.

Kravitz, Edward A. Losing animals in agonistic encounters fights are not willing to fight with winners for periods of up to a week, while winners show an enhanced willingness to fight. We are particularly interested in the long-term changes in neuronal function that accompany these changes in status.

As in most species of animals, serotonin 5HT appears to be important in this behavior in lobsters. Other hormones also are likely to be involved, including the steroid hormone ecdysone and the peptide crustacean hyperglycemic hormone. We are using a multidisciplinary approach to examine this complex behavior, including behavioral, physiological and molecular studies.

This presentation will review behavioral studies attempting to define the role of 5HT in the behavior, physiological studies exploring the function of and intrinsic and extrinsic properties of identified 5HT neurons, and molecular studies beginning to examine differences in the levels of expression of neuronal genes in dominant and subordinate animal pairs.

Females carrying newly hatched individuals were collected in a small reservoir. The assayed food was formulated using vegetable and animal ingredients, reaching The averages of the metabolic rate QO 2 were: 4. The values of Q 10 obtained in the considered temperature range indicate a non compensation pattern for this factor, on the metabolic rate of the young. These results could be used for handling newly hatched crayfish, reducing production times to obtain later development stages that could be used for restocking.

The founded species are Farfantepenaeus californiensis , Sicyonia penicillata , S. Its specific composition in terms of total abundance and biomass was dominated by S. In summer were collected 47, individuals with Latitudinally, the major capture of penaeid shrimps was found in the 24 o N obtaining 53, specimens in In the cruise corresponding to July was found the biggest amount of specimens 24, , with a biomass of The bathymetric stratum of m included 30, organisms with a biomass of The distribution of the penaeid shrimps result grouped just in front of the lagoon complex of Magdalena-Almejas and towards the northern part of its complex, such zone is comprised in the 24 o N, 25 o N and 26 o N.

The averaged values of capture per unit of effort obtained at the internal and external continental shelf were A progression modal analysis was carried out using length and weight data, at the same time was defined the best adjustment according to its growth type. Sex ratio was female dominated Distribution for each species was related with associated parameters such as sediment: texture, organic matter, and percent of carbonates y nitrates; it was also analysed their distribution with respect to its temperature, salinity, pH, and dissolved oxygen.

About species have now been officially reported or identified in recent samples or museum collections. In the last decade many new species have been discovered from this coast in groups such as Caridea, Thalassinidea, Paguridea, Galatheoidea, and Brachyura. Published and unpublished evaluations of some subgroups have revealed that several problematic, or previously believed variable taxa actually represent species complexes in need of detailed taxonomic revisions.

An abundant collection of decapods now exists for such studies from this region, although much more sampling is still needed. As expected, the decapod fauna from this region has many elements found throughout the Caribbean. Some species recently discovered, such as the callianassid ghost shrimp Lepidopththalmus sinuensis , show intriguing, restricted distributions.

Caracas A, Apartado Population biology of two anostracan species in temporary Ponds from Venezuela Anostracan populations were monitored in two temporary pools in Lara State, Venezuela during the rain season in and The species Thamnocephalus venezuelensis and Dendrocephalus spartaenovae were found. Initial population densities were very high for the two species, then decreased quickly in the following days, T. Both species produced a single generation per flooding cycle, the populations were divided into cohorts of different size Bhattacharya method.

Results suggests that the cyst form a bank in the bottom of the pool over the years and the hatching of resting eggs occurred at different times during the flooding cycle. The maximum life span was approximately 3 month in both species studied. The female population of both species reach the sexual maturity at different times being T. Nicoloso, M. In females of Chasmagnathus granulata , PM occurs at a size of The present work was aimed at inducing the PM by means of unilateral and bilateral eyestalk ablation in crabs having The occurrence of molts was daily registered.

When a crab molted, the final CW was measured and 15 days after the molted crab was sacrificed and its ovary dissected; the gonadosomatic index was then calculated. This first results indicate that bilateral eyestalk ablation induce the PM in C. The presence in Mexico of the ten known species of this subgenus has been registered in shallow currents with clear waters and altitudes that fluctuate between 30 and 2, m. In this study new distribution sites for the species of the subgenus are presented.

Collections were made manually and with traps in rivers and small tributaries, in the states of Veracruz, Hidalgo, and Puebla, in regions with altitudes greater than 1, meters. Of the collected species, Procambarus Villalobosus riojai presented a wide distribution in the area, followed by P.

This research provides results that could aid in the regulation of its fishery. For this purpose field sampling was carried out in Juchique, Coxcoapa and Coatzacoalcos Rivers and on commercial landings from Papaloapan River, Veracruz. A total of organisms were sampled, average size varied according to the river but in general it was around mm total length TL ; the smallest organism sampled was 23 mm TL and the biggest mm TL.

The L50 length was established for the berried female in the rivers and its average value was The breeding season was different among rivers, although reproductive individuals were common from May to August. The regulations that we propose based on these results include a two month closure of the fishery every summer. The spiny lobster Panulirus argus is heavily fished in the Caribbean coast of Mexico state of Quintana Roo.

However, fishing for lobsters is restricted in the western margin of Cozumel Island, and is completely banned in Chankanaab Park, a protected area on this margin that includes a portion of the coral reef marine environment, and a small inland lagoon connected to the sea by a 60 m long underground tunnel.

The occurrence of lobsters in the lagoon was known previously to this study, but no records existed on their size or abundance. Because of the protected, shallow nature of the lagoon, we first hypothesized that it was a nursery area for P. On four occasions, lobsters in the lagoon were counted, sexed, and their size was visually estimated.

Densities of P. On an additional four occasions, simultaneous censuses were conducted in the lagoon and in the marine zone of the Park. Density of P. Hence, instead of a nursery area, the lagoon is rather a portion of the habitat used indistinctly, through the tunnel, by juvenile and adult P.

Piscine predators abound in the marine zone, but are virtually absent from the lagoon. In addition, the lagoon holds an unquantified food supply for lobsters, and any human activities are forbidden in its interior. This suggests that the lagoon represents an unusual communal shelter for these lobsters, and that the protected regime of the Park preserves a mixed population of juvenile and adult P. The present study continues a taxonomic revision of this family initiated by the authors in based mainly on characters of the male sexual pleopods, sternum and endophragmal system.

The study of a large amount of material from many different areas in South America and the examination of type specimens enabled a more realistic picture of the variability and taxonomic status of the species involved. The genera Dilocarcinus and Poppiana include three species each: D. The taxonomic status of all species is discussed and a short diagnosis for each provided. A complete list of the material examined and a map of geographic distribution are given. The morphology of the zoeal stages of P.

A comparison between the larvae of P. The larvae of the aforementioned species are similar in size, coloration, setation, and they are unique within the genus in having a distinct hook-like projection anteriorly on coxopodite of the maxilliped 1. Eight parabolic tanks of 10 liters were used and the shrimp were kept under controlled conditions of temperature, salinity and pH. Different combinations of Chaetoceros gracilis, Tetraselmis chuii, dry Schizochytrium sp.

The experiment was ran until the animals reached the mysisI stage. The aim of this study was to characterize the size of individuals, sex-ratio, and sexual maturity of this species in order to improve the poor knowledge of their biology in invasive areas.

A total of 67 males mean, and minimum to maximum Carapace Width: The sex-ratio was The studied population, characterized by high densities of adult, juvenile and ovigerous female specimens, and the chronological order and sites of capture in the western Atlantic, principally along the Brazilian coast, confirm the hypothesis that C. Mantelatto, Fernando L. The specimens were captured by three persons using scuba diving methods.

Data on seasonal distribution and abundance of each species are given. Eight species were registered, i.

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Live forex market depth data We present information showing that Hyalella has several clades within the genus. Four species Heteromysis coralina, Mysidopsis matthewsoni, Siriella chessi, S. The morphology of the zoeal stages of P. Data Bulletin Latest releases of new datasets and data updates from different sources around the world. The anterior male pleopods have simple endopods that have no apparent modifications for sperm transfer.
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