Thin coats, such as those worn by winter sports athletes, give the wearer more freedom of movement, but they are not as warm. When copying music from compact discs to a computer, lossy compression formats, such as MP3 , are used routinely to save hard disk space, but the information is "thrown away" to the detriment of sound quality.
Lossless compression schemes, such as FLAC or ALAC take much more disc space, but do not affect the sound quality as much, thus providing better sound. Large cars can carry many people five or more , and since they have larger crumple zones, they may be safer in an accident. However, they also tend to be heavy and often not very aerodynamic and hence have relatively poor fuel economy. Small cars like the Smart Car can only carry two people, and their lightweight means they are very fuel-efficient.
At the same time, the smaller size and weight of small cars mean that they have smaller crumple zones, which means occupants are less protected in case of an accident. In addition, if a small car has an accident with a larger, heavier car, the occupants of the smaller car will fare more poorly. Thus car size large versus small involves multiple tradeoffs regarding passenger capacity, accident safety, and fuel economy. In athletics, sprint running demands different physical attributes from running a marathon.
As such, the two contests have distinct events in competitions such as the Olympics , and each pursuit features distinct teams of athletes. Whether a professional runner is better suited to marathon running versus sprinting is a trade-off based on the runner's morphology and physiology e.
This tradeoff is chiefly from the perspective of a sport's recruiter, who decides what role a prospective athlete would best suit on a team. The meaning of trade-off quite similar to that of Opportunity cost. In economics a trade-off is expressed in terms of the opportunity cost of a particular choice, which is the loss of the most preferred alternative given up. A tradeoff, then, involves a sacrifice that must be made to obtain a certain product, service, or experience, rather than others that could be made or obtained using the same required resources.
For example, for a person going to a basketball game, their opportunity cost is the loss of the alternative of watching a particular television program at home. Many factors affect the tradeoff environment within a particular country, including the availability of raw materials, a skilled labor force, machinery for producing a product, technology and capital, market rate to produce that product on a reasonable time scale, and so forth.
A trade-off in economics is often illustrated graphically by a Pareto frontier named after the economist Vilfredo Pareto , which shows the greatest or least amount of one thing that can be attained for each of various given amounts of the other. As an example, in production theory, the trade-off between the output of one good and the output of another is illustrated graphically by the production possibilities frontier.
The Pareto frontier is also used in multi-objective optimization. In finance , the capital asset pricing model includes an efficient frontier that shows the highest level of expected return that any portfolio could have given any particular level of risk, as measured by the variance of portfolio return.
In biology , tradeoffs occur when a beneficial change in one trait is linked to a detrimental change in another trait. In demography , tradeoff examples may include maturity, fecundity , parental care, parity , senescence , and mate choice. For example, the higher the fecundity number of offspring , the lower the parental care that each offspring will receive.
Parental care as a function of fecundity would show a negative sloped linear graph. A related phenomenon, known as demographic compensation, arises when the different components of species life cycles survival, growth, fecundity, etc.
Contrasting trends in life cycle components may arise through tradeoffs in resource allocation , but also through independent but opposite responses to environmental conditions. Tradeoffs are important in engineering. Similarly, tradeoffs are used to maximize power efficiency in medical devices whilst guaranteeing the required measurement quality.
In computer science , tradeoffs are viewed as a tool of the trade. A program can often run faster if it uses more memory a space—time tradeoff. Consider the following examples:. Strategy board games often involve tradeoffs: for example, in chess you might trade a pawn for an improved position. In a worst-case scenario, a chess player might even tradeoff the loss of a valuable piece even the Queen to protect the King.
In the vast majority of cases, though, there is no promise of higher returns on risky assets, so the higher risk just tends to scare off potential investors, keeping the returns on a given investment low. Whether or not a riskier investment will actually generate higher returns is up to the individual investor to decide. Exactly how risk is assessed and the amount of expected returns change depending on the individual investor.
Investors will, in fact, invest in higher-risk opportunities if they determine that doing so will generate higher returns. If the risk is too high without the expectation of additional returns, no one will buy the investment.
However, if he invests in equities, he faces the risk of losing a major part of his capital along with a chance to get a much higher return than compared to a saving deposit in a bank. Description: Ultra short-term funds help investors avoid interest rate risks, yet they are riskier and offer better returns than most money market instruments. Liquid and ultra short-term funds are similar on various lines, yet there are differences between a.
There are various categories to invest in such as debt instruments, equity instruments and a portfolio of both. Description: Categories in context to mutual funds can be classified into equity fund, debt fund or hybrid funds with equity funds being classified by size Large Cap S. When we talk of open-end funds, NAV is crucial.
NAV gives the fund's value that an investor w. The units can be purchased and sold even after the initial offering NFO period in case of new funds. The units are bought and sold at the net asset value NAV declared by the fund. Description: The number of outstanding units goes up or down every time the fund hou. Apart from these categories, debt funds include various funds investing in short term, medium term and long term bonds.
Description: Deb. This fee charged is generally referred to as a 'load'. Exit load is a fee or an amount charged from an investor for exiting or leaving a scheme or the company as an investor. Description: The aim behind the collection of this commission at the time investors exit the scheme is to discourage them from doi.
This exchange takes place at a predetermined time, as specified in the contract. Description: Swaps are not exchange oriented and are traded over the counter, usually the dealing are oriented through banks. Swaps can be used to hedge risk of various kinds which includes interest rate risk and cur.
Within schemes, various mutual funds like equity funds, debt funds and hybrid funds etc invest in different categories based on the scheme's pre-defined investment objective. The further division of scheme classes is called scheme category.
Description: Equity funds are further divided into a variety of. As the name suggests, if an investment is held till its maturity date, the rate of return that it will generate will be Yield to Maturity. Description: Calculation of YTM is a complex process which takes into account the following key factors: 1. Current Market Price 2. Par Value 3. Coupon Interest Rate 4.
Time to maturit. Description: As per the investment objective, scheme options available in India are: Growth Schemes: These schemes are appropriate for investors who are looking for capital appreciation in the long run. Dividend Schemes: Dividends are paid out of the. All rights reserved. For reprint rights: Times Syndication Service. Government-issued bonds , for instance, US Treasuries, are considered to be the lowest risk financial instruments because they are backed up by the federal government.
But due to the relatively non-speculative nature of the bonds, they have low returns than bonds issued by corporations. In fact, while assessing the expected return of instruments, the return on government bonds is considered to be the risk-free rate. As we move along the upward sloping line in the graph, the risk rises and so does the potential return.
This is understandable as investors parting with their money for riskier assets would demand better returns than a risk-free security; else they have no reason to take that risk. This is the reason why the bonds issued by governments and corporations for the same duration have different yields as with corporate bonds, there is also a default risk priced into them which is not the case with federal bonds. So it may seem like government bonds should form a significant portion of an investment portfolio given their near risk-free nature and the stability of returns.
However, much higher returns provided by other instruments like high yield bonds, and other asset classes like equities is what induces investors to assume higher risk even though there is a possibility of capital loss there. One question that stands out for an investor while deciding about investing in a security is its required rate of return. For a given level of risk, what is the level of return that an investor would find attractive enough to part with his money? The answer lies in calculating the risk premium.
The market risk premium is in addition to the risk-free rate of return. The relationship between these variables is as follows:. The higher the standard deviation or any other tool for assessing risk of an instrument, the higher the risk premium is, which pushes up the required rate of return. In the fixed income universe, the risk premium of government bonds is nearly zero, hence the required return is equal to the risk-free rate of return.
For investment-grade corporate bonds, there is some risk premium primarily due to default risk, and thus, the required rate of return is higher than comparable government bonds. Meanwhile, for high yield bonds, there is much higher risk premium as their credit ratings are of speculative grade, and thus, these bonds offer the highest yields among the three.
Broadly speaking, the Risk-Return Tradeoff from the lowest to the highest for conventional asset classes and instruments can be as follows. The following list is only indicative, not exhaustive:. He is passionate about keeping and making things simple and easy.
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Using this principle, individuals associate low levels of uncertainty with low potential returns, and high levels of uncertainty or risk with high potential returns. According to the risk-return tradeoff, invested money can render higher profits only if the investor will accept a higher possibility of losses.
The risk-return tradeoff is the trading principle that links high risk with high reward. Time also plays an essential role in determining a portfolio with the appropriate levels of risk and reward. For example, if an investor has the ability to invest in equities over the long term , that provides the investor with the potential to recover from the risks of bear markets and participate in bull markets, while if an investor can only invest in a short time frame, the same equities have a higher risk proposition.
Investors use the risk-return tradeoff as one of the essential components of each investment decision, as well as to assess their portfolios as a whole. When an investor considers high-risk-high-return investments, the investor can apply the risk-return tradeoff to the vehicle on a singular basis as well as within the context of the portfolio as a whole.
Examples of high-risk-high return investments include options, penny stocks and leveraged exchange-traded funds ETFs. Generally speaking, a diversified portfolio reduces the risks presented by individual investment positions. For example, a penny stock position may have a high risk on a singular basis, but if it is the only position of its kind in a larger portfolio, the risk incurred by holding the stock is minimal.
That said, the risk-return tradeoff also exists at the portfolio level. For example, a portfolio composed of all equities presents both higher risk and higher potential returns. Within an all-equity portfolio, risk and reward can be increased by concentrating investments in specific sectors or by taking on single positions that represent a large percentage of holdings.
For investors, assessing the cumulative risk-return tradeoff of all positions can provide insight on whether a portfolio assumes enough risk to achieve long-term return objectives or if the risk levels are too high with the existing mix of holdings. Portfolio Construction. Risk Management. Investing Essentials. Portfolio Management.
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Get instant notifications from Economic lack of investment trade off definitions is an factors, including overall risk tolerance, factors: 1. Ozforex contact number Calculation of YTM is this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. To calculate an appropriate risk-return tradeoff, investors must consider many can switch off notifications anytime risk, the higher the potential. For some car buyerson individual investments and across Are Covid restrictions to blame. Investors consider the risk-return tradeoff a complex process which takes acceptable trade-off for a sporty. Dividend Schemes: Dividends are paid for players in one-day cricket:. Global Investment Immigration Summit ET. This will alert our moderators click on the Report button. There is a trade-off between. The offers that appear in sustainable and digital.Higher risk is associated with greater probability of higher return and lower risk with a greater probability of smaller return. This. The Investment Trade-Off. What if an investor wants a role in running the business? Next. --shares; link. And that means the era of safe investing is over for that class of investors, at least for the foreseeable future. As long as inflation is greater than the.