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Alpha '17; C. Williams, III. Delta '06; Leonard E. Wise, III. Delta '04; Louis R. Bear, III. Delta '07; Edmund J. Fell, N. Alpha '15; and in theforeground, C. Richard McCullough, Minn. Beta ' Suffice it to say that we haveencountered some serious situations among severalchapters, involving: lack of leadership, sloppy chapteradministration, acute financial conditions, unfriendlycollege administrations, improper chapter attitudes,internal dissensions, and lack of alumni support.
As aresult, a number of chapters will be referred to theCommittee on the State of the Fraternity and to theCommittee on Finance. These committees will beasked to recommend measures to improve these conditions. In one or more cases, we may have reached theend of the road, and the only solution may involve therevocation of the charter s. One chapter will also appearbefore the Grievance Committee. We must allwork diligently to solve these problems within thetime limit of the Grand Arch Council program.
The members of the Council have also attendedthe District Councils and the and EducationalLeadership Conferences. Chapter visitations,which are truly rewarding experiences, have been madeby all members. In the last few years, I have had thepleasure of making seventy-one visits to forty-sevenchapters and colonies, plus seventeen visits to thirteenalumni associations. Daniel, and his hard-working staff for theirdevotion to the best interests of the Fraternity. Year inand year out, a great amount of work is handled inCleveland, and we owe our executive staff a debt ofgratitude for their efforts.
In this fifty-second Grand Arch Council we havemuch work to do. Let us now proceed in fraternalharmony to accomplish everything we can for the goodof our beloved Fraternity. I am very happy to be here. Foreground, Past Presidents W. Mize; background, left to right. Foreground, left to right. Past Presidents Thomas A. Cookson,Charles E. Strickland, Winston R. Tate, and Howard L. Hamilton;background, Atty.
II Okla. Jr Mo. Alpha'30 New Orleans, La. Joseph, Mich. Duncan Pa. Jr Kans. Roger Jr Tenn. Alpha'62 Lubbock, Texas'34 Harrisburg, Pa. Trenton, N. Rye, N. Omena, Mich. Buckhannon, W. Washington, D. Columbus, Ohio'31 Robinson, Grosse Pointe Park, Mich. Battle Creek, Mich. Huntington Park, Calif.
EBY, Hyatt Pa. Kappa '12 Birmingham, Mich. Lambda '64 Pittsburgh, Pa. Alpha '64 Klamath Falls, Ore. Alpha '63 Dearborn, Mich. Beta '63 Pittsburgh, Pa. Delta ' Palos Verdes Est. Beta '62 Indianapolis, Ind. GammaIowa AlphaMich. Tryon Jr Ala. AlphaTexas BetaW. AlphaTexas AlphaN. Bend, Ind. No rth Highlands, Calif.
Newport Beach, Calif. Worth, TexasL. Charles R. Virginia Brown, Mrs. William A. Patricia Henderson, and Mrs. Joan Corson. Robert R. Libby Elliott, Mrs. Sue Urban, and Mrs. Webb M. Gamma '62 Evansville, Ind. F Colo. Alpha '14 Denver, Colo. Beta '63 Palo Alto, Calif. Beta '64 Lake Oswego, Ore. Gamma '93 Indianapolis, Ind. Alpha '62 Nebraska City, Nebr. Iota '63 Manchester, N. Delta '64 Brazil, Ind. Robert E. EpsilonLEE, R. Alpha'62 Haddonfield, N. Claremont, Calif. Colby, Kans.
They are pictured with four members of the initiationteam: I. Earl Knowles Phares Jr. Beta '64; StephenLester Mannschreck, Neb. Alpha '64; and Charles PeterWright, Ariz. Leber, President; Charles R. Brown, Secretary; standing, ArchonRobert W. Chamberlain Jr. VI; Archon Harry M. Young, Dist. V; Archon John R. Shelton, Dist. I; Executive Secretary Ralph D. Daniel; Archon William B. Leahy, Dist. Ill; Archon C. Steven Lumm,Dist.
IV; and Archon Edward C. Laird, Dist. Robert Calif. BetaOhio ZetaN. Hunt Calif. Lauren Md. Edward W. Alpha62 Omaha, Nebr. Vandenberg AFB, Calif. Mississippi City, Miss. Calgary, Alberta, Canada62 Brownston, Ind Elmore, Ohio. New York, N. Albion, Mich. Wayne, Ind. Iota 63 Liverpool, N. Alpha 64 Edgewater, Colo. Eta 64 Buffalo, N. Alpha 18 Morgantown, W. Lambda 63 Camp Hill, Pa. Alpha 63 Chicago, Alpha 63 Kansas City, Mo. Alpha 29 Havertown, Pa. Alpha 63 East No rwalk, Conn.
Alpha 14 Littleton, Colo. Ill Calif. Zeta 64 Ojai, Calif. Alpha 64 Huntsville, Ala. Beta 64 Haslett, Mich. Continued on page 16 Past Pres. Delegates and Faculty, Educational Leadership Conference. Undergraduateleaders of nearly all chapters gathered to discussfinancial responsibility, fraternity education,scholarship, alumni and public relations, and rushing.
Urban was Directorof the leadership school. Friendship—CompanionshipThat's the Order of S. CBy C. Delta "06Secretary-TreasurerHonest men esteem and value nothing somuch in this world as a real friend. Such aone is as it were another self, to whom we impartour most secret thoughts; who partakes ofour joy, and comforts us in our affliction; addto this, that his company is an everlastingpleasure to us. Choice of Friends was written in Sanskrit, about fivecenturies before the birth of Christ, by Pilpay orBidpai, author of fables, and philosopher of note.
Brother Pilpay or Bidpai must have perceived acomposite SCer when he wrote about the value of truefriendship, as exemplified by any one or all of theforty-one members of the Order who gathered August27, , to renew their sacred vows to Phi Kappa Psiand to rekindle friendships and companionships thatin many instances extended well over a half-century. Under the leadership ofDoctor Corson, they enjoyed the twenty-second regulardinner, meeting and initiation of the society.
The initiatory class included the father of one andthe son of another member in attendance. The father:Adam J. Hazlett, Pa. Hazlett, Md. The son, G. Alpha'46, was badged by his father, John J. Yowell, Colo. Alpha '14 SC ' Alpha '29 SC '48 and John R. Donnell, Ohio Epsilon ' The Order of S. Smith and Lloyd L. Cheney, one of three survivingseventeen charter members. The other two:Edward H. Knight and George M. Of the to become members, seventy are living.
The Chicago meeting, in, also attracted 41 SCers. Two of these, Edward H. Knight and George E. Ed Anderson, were at the conclave. Lest contemporary fraternities forget: No otherGreek letter group supports or claims an inner circlecomparable to Phi Psi's Order of the S. To ourknowledge no other fraternity nor fraternity-affiliateclaims a bona fide son-father combination.
Eligibility for membership in the Order of S. Thisnumber includes eight who registered at 20 and moreGACs. Fifty-one with from four to six GACs to their credit,are knocking at the doors of S. C, anxious to cross itssacred portals. Of these an even dozen have signed theGAC register six times. They are: James H. Alpha '29; Dr. Paul E.
Gopher, W. Alpha '39; Dr. Fenton Daugherty, Pa. Homer III, Md. Alpha '20; Howard B. Kerr, Wis. Alpha '23; Hugh C. Leininger, Calif. Delta '29; J. Gamma '34; Marvin A. Simpson, Colo. Alpha '14;Vernon F. Tinsley, N. Gamma '15; Donald K. Weiser, Pa. Epsilon '21; and William Adkins Williams,Miss. Greasy kid stuff, this fraternity business? Sheer nonsense. Members of the Order of S. C, who have attendedfrom seven to thirty-five national conventions, include:preachers, ministers of the gospel, college presidents,administrators and teachers, lawyers, physicians,dentists, bankers, financiers, industrialists, presidentsof railroads, editors, merchants, metropolitan newspaperreporters, stock brokers, engineers, lumber companyexecutives, salesmen, leading oil company officials,commissioned officers of the Army and the Navy,and leaders in religious, civic, educational, fraternal,and social activities.
At a brief business session, Walter Lee Sheppard Jr. Memorial services were conducted for: Homer D. Lininger, N. Theta '91 SC '24 who died April 26, Parenthetically it isreported that notice of the death in Washington, D. Smiley, Pa. Gamma'02 SC '54 was received early in September.
His widow, Catherine M. Smiley, survives. The following were reelected: Dr. Corson,president; Dr. Andrew G. Truxal, vice president; C. Williams, secretary-treasurer. Following are the names, chapter and year of initiationof the forty-one SCers in attendance at the GAC. Alpha '96,Latrobe, Pa. BEAR, L. Delta '07, Ludlow, Alpha '42, Crawfordsville,Ark. Duncan, Pa. Epsilon '34, Harrisburg,Pa. Ernie Jr. Alpha '17,Omena, Mich. Beta '02, Bloomington,Ind. Beta '25, Indianapolis,Ind.
C: ; '38; '40; '42; '46; '48; '50; '52; '54; '56; '58;'60; '62; '64, a total of Dud , Ariz. Alpha '47, Cleveland,Ohio: ; '50; '52; '54; '56; '58; '60; '62; '64,a total of 9, consecutively. Kappa '12, Detroit, Mich. Alpha '15, Buffalo, N. Fort, Tenn. Delta '09, Houston,Texas: ; '16; '22; '24; '26; '28; '30; '34; '38; '40;'46; '48; '50; '52; '54; '56; '58; '60; '62; '64, a total of Iota '23, Indianapolis,Ind.
Gamma '40, New York,N. Delta '27, Los Angeles,Calif. Epsilon '06, Boca Raton,Fla. Alpha '32, Pittsburgh,Pa. Alpha '47, Littleton,Colo. Lyle, W. Alpha '27, Clarksburg,W. Gamma '93, Indianapolis,Ind. Alpha '42,Eatontown, N. Epsilon '46, New York,N. Alpha '30, Mississippi City,Miss. Alpha '49, New York,N. Gamma '23, Lewisburg, Pa. Alpha '18, Morgantown,W. Alpha '29, Havertown,Pa. Gamma '14, SantaMonica, Calif.
Kappa '01, Petersburg,Va. Alpha '11, MasonCity, Iowa: ; '36; '38; '40; '42; '46; '48; '50; '52;'54; '56; '58; '60; '64, a total of Alpha '18, Kansas City,Mo. He is now Chieffustice of that high court, and currently serves as firstvice chairman of the Conference of Chief justices.
Brother Garfield has been a member of the publiclibrary board in. Imes since fitly 1, J, and has beenits chairman since Theodore G. The Chieffustice's brother, Clement 11'. I watched with pride while my three sons were initiated. Each chose our Fraternity of his own volitionwithout dictation from me.
I'm glad my only brotherand two favorite cousins belonged to the same chapterI did. I have known hundreds, perhaps a thousand ormore Phi Psis and, with two exceptions from myown chapter too , I have never known a Phi Psi ofwhom I was ashamed.
Our Fraternity is over years old. Anything thatcan endure so long and still be going strong must havebeen built on a pretty solid foundation. My own, Iowa. Alpha, is the oldest west of the Mississippi. To my personal knowledge it has been ator near the top at the State University of Iowa inscholarship and other important respects for about 48years—since about the time I left there.
White, Iowa Alpha '19, are hiscousins. His daughter, Mrs. Thomas L. Carol Carson,is a member of Kappa. Uplia Theta, and livestiear Concord, X. There are many distinguished names on its chapterroll, men who occupy high government position, atleast one United States Senator, at least one memberof Congress.
But I will mention just one name withwhich I think many of you may be familiar. He gave his life for his countryas a naval aviator in World War II. Iowa Beta was established in September, , whena charter was granted to the Ozark Fraternity whichin turn was founded in During the more than45 years that I have lived in Ames, I have watchedIowa Beta gain in strength and standing until nowit is one of the strong chapters at Iowa State.
No PhiPsi need be ashamed of Iowa Beta. I think it has always cared morefor the standing of the schools in which its chaptersare located, the quality of the chapters and, most importantof all, the character of the men in them. Inthe final analysis, the strength of a fraternity dependson the character of its members, just as the strengthof a nation depends on the character of its people.
I believe our Fraternity has been about the rightsize during my membership in it—45 to 63 chapters. We have enough chapters so we are not inclined to beso exclusive as some of the smaller fraternities, andyet not so many that every time you look over yourshoulder you are apt to see a fraternity Brotherwhether you want to or not.
Doubtless some furtherexpansion is desirable. No twithstanding our lack ofemphasis on numbers, our membership roll containsas many distinguished names as that of any fraternity. I will not take your time to remind you who they are. Suffice to say it is an honor to belong to a Fraternitywith such a distinguished roll of members as ours. The Fraternity honors every man it takes in, honorshim not so much for what he is or has been, but forwhat it expects him to become with the help of theFraternity.
What are some of the ways in which our Fraternitymay help its members? First, I would put the value of lasting friendshipsthat are made in the Fraternity. No friendshipsin life are as true as those made inside theFraternity. If our Fraternity is to justify its existence, itmust improve the scholarship of its members. What was good enough in scholarship, or in anyother worthwhile undertaking, 50 years ago is notgood enough today.
Our standards are and shouldbe higher now than in my era as a student. In myday few students thought it necessary to get advanceddegrees. No w it is commonplace to receiveMasters and Ph. In any event, don't be a dropoutfrom school unless it is unavoidable. The prospectthat you will achieve your goal in life will bemuch enhanced if you graduate.
In the matter ofscholarship, I think much depends upon the characterand good judgment of the chapter officers. Itis important that the chapter have the right kindof leadership. Perhaps this little story will shed some light on howstandards have changed. Little Johnny's mother interruptedhis TV viewing to tell him, "Grandpa andGrandma are taking a trip around the world. Scholarship is very important and I wouldsay nothing to belittle it.
But a college educationincludes more than scholarship. In the public mindscholarship is largely synonymous with book learning. Books are important and it is essential thatwe learn to know them. But more important thanbooks are people and it is more important that welearn to know and get along with people than welearn to know books.
The individual who would attain his goal must beable to get along with others. The fellow who rubsthe fur of others the wrong way has little chance tosucceed. We can learn much of the important art ofgetting along with others from the Fraternity. Let meremind you that if each of two people has a dollarand they exchanged those dollars, each still has only adollar.
But if each of two people has an idea and theyexchange those ideas each has two ideas. If the Fraternity does what it can and shouldfor its members it will instill within them the highideals of its founders and its distinguished membersand the great virtues expressed in its ritual—truth, honor, decency, unselfishness, help to thosein need, nobility of character. Our Fraternitystands for the finest and best in life. No t far from where I live is an area Boy Scoutcamp.
The words above its entrance gate are "CampMitigwa, Maker of Men. Our Shieldwill shine in the future, as it has in the past, only tothe extent present and future members dischargewith intelligence and fidelity their obligations to theFraternity. What are some of these obligations? Let me repeat the familiar injunction, "Neverforget that you are a member of the Phi Kappa PsiFraternity, that as you honor yourself you honor her,and as you disgrace yourself you disgrace her.
Famous words I deem appropriate to this occasiongo back to October 21, , to the greatest navalbattle of all time, near Cape Trafalgar off the coastof Spain. Lord Horatio Nelson, commander of theBritish fleet, as it moved into battle formation againstthe combined fleets of Napoleon and Spain, summonedhis men on deck and spoke to them these immortalwords, "England expects that every man willdo his duty.
Nelson himself was fatallywounded by a sharpshooter's bullet during the battleand died before the victory was fully assured. As hefelt the end approach, his last words are said to havebeen, "Thank God I have done my duty. Devote your entire capacity to everything youundertake. Don't be content just to get by. Don't besatisfied with mediocrity.
When you leave your chapter as an active memberleave your heart behind. Return frequently tothe chapter house at least for Homecomings and Commencements. Recommend the best boys that go fromyour town to any school where we have a chapter.
Letus hope you feel, as I have always felt, that the Fraternityhas done something for you and you welcomethe privilege of doing something for it in return. Avoid snobbishness. The world doesn't takekindly to the snob. To help avoid the appearance ofsnobbishness, I have wondered if it would be not justas well to prevent the wearing of any fraternity jewelryexcept, of course, the Badge. Put into actual practice the high ideals of thefounders of the Fraternity. Like the guarantees in thetreasured Bill of Rights added to our Federal Constitution,those ideals mean little if they exist only onpaper.
Perhaps you will not resent it too bitterly if I offertwo or three more brief suggestions. The Book ofProverbs in the Old Testament, the 12th chapter and15th verse, says: "The way of a fool is right in his owneyes; but he that hearkeneth unto counsel is wise. Devote part of themto the public good, to community betterment, toan attempt to make the world a better place inwhich to live. Interest yourselves in public affairs,take a hand in the doings of the political party ofyour choice, and faithfully discharge the dutiesof citizenship in a free country.
Just as they toldus in World War I, the world is yet to be madesafe for democracy, the peace of the world has yetto be made secure. Don't shy away from the task that is hard. Face upto it. The harder the task and the better it is accomplished,the bigger the thrill of satisfaction that comesfrom the doing. The big thrill doesn't come from doingthe things that are easy. You football playersdon't get much of a thrill out of beating an easyopponent; the big thrill comes from beating the onesthat are tough.
Fighting and winning the battles of life is whatmakes us strong. You won't win every time. Sometimesyou'll lose. When that happens don't let it keep youdown for the count. Come up fighting. We think we knowthere is some force stronger than human force, callit what you will. If that be true, there is within us allsome small part of that force, some small spark of theDivine. I have the idea that what really marks thesuccess from the failure is having the ability to ignitethat spark.
We need faith in our own ability to dothe job at hand. It has helped me clear the hurdlesand pass the rough spots of life to have faith thatthere is a God in heaven. He it is that is our strengthin time of weakness, our help in moments of greatestneed. Never forget that behind the dark clouds of despairthere hovers the Spirit of the Divine preparedto help you over the rough spots of life. No w as you go out from this meeting, to attemptto read the signs at the crossroads of life and choosefor yourselves the road you want to travel, may thatSpirit ever guide you.
John F. Gamma'28, has been named the Universityof Alabama's first "OutstandingProfessor. The history professor wonthe award over 29 other nomineesproposed by students. Brother Ramsey is largely responsiblefor the successful establishmentof. Alabama Alpha chapterwhich was chartered at the Universityof Alabama on February 29, He is advisor to the chapter. Joseph R. Ramsey, Kansas Alpha'01, John's father, was present atboth the pledging and initiationof his son.
In his senior year, Johnbecame president of CaliforniaGamma. He received the. He has been amember of the Alabama historyfaculty since , becoming a fullprofessor in , and teachesfreshman European survey, and advancedcourses in intellectual history,17th century, 18th century,French Revolution, Napoleon, andhistory of Spain. JOHN F. Gamma '28in Spain in the summer of Ramseywas civilian head of the Dept.
Ramsey serves onseveral university committees, and ispresently Executive Secretary ofthe Alabama Council for the SocialStudies. He is the author of twomonographs on French history, andhas written many other articles andreviews. Stone, N. Alpha '26,was recently promoted from vicepresident to senior vice presidentat Harris Trust and Savings Bank,Chicago, Illinois.
Stone graduatedfrom Dartmouth College in He joined Harris Bank in andworked in the securities accounting,loan and discount and bankingadministration departments beforebecoming a member of the personneldepartment in He waselected personnel officer in and vice president in Heads College AssociationDr.
David D. Henry, Pa. You've been told thetechniques of rush, promised new horizons in scholarship,alumni and public relations, and pledge training,if only you heed our advice, and threatened witheconomic disaster if the finances are not kept straight. In short, you are to return to your chapters as leaders,knowledgable and well schooled in the matters whichmake fraternities great.
But let's not kid ourselves. To make it even better, you arepartially subsidized by chapter and Fraternity money. If you are able to glean one morsel of informationfrom this experience all the better. Fraternities ChallengedBut will they survive? At least two anti-fraternitywaves have swept the country since their inception inaddition to the crippling effects of the depression.
We have always had the prophets ofdoom hovering, waiting to pick the bones of brotherhood. We will survive. Obviously, I believe in theFraternity. Likewise, I am sure that you do. Otherwiseyou would have never agreed to spend seven daysworking to improve it.
This does not mean, however,that I am content with it. This does not mean it isRobert W. This does not mean that you, asindividuals, are incapable of directing the forceswhich shape your university and Fraternity existence.. At Arizona State we have a Dean who does believein fraternities and who is one of the nation's foremostwriters on the subject of "Freedom. Last Friday in St.
Louis, he spoke to his Fraternityon "Student Leadership for Freedom. Some are my own. I contend that most of you, like myself, do notknow what you believe in. Most certainly you don'tknow why. It is my hope that these views provoke adegree of introspection. Today in the United States we are at the crossroadswhere each of us faces a choice between a free societyand the "ant hill" type of society.
This obviously isa dogmatic statement. I may be wrong, but it seems tome that this is actually the hard choice we face. Where lies the source of authority:In the laws of man or nature? If one were to pass out labels, I supposeI would be called a conservative.
Of course, most ofFALL, And now with this disposed of we can proceedto our discussion of Fraternity leadership on thecampus. Ideas have consequences. We all act according tothe ideas we have accepted as true. Wrong conduct isthe result of wrong beliefs and not merely a resultof environment. We must assume that the spiritualwhich we can not see is just as real as the physicallaws of nature. The thesis underlying this entire discussionis that our acceptance or denial of the brotherhoodof man under the Fatherhood of God, largelypredetermines whether we make a decision for a freesociety rather than an "ant-hill" type of society.
Thedecision we must make is difficult and the future offreedom in the United States is doubtful, simply becauseso many people have forgotten or have neverknown or understood the nature of the brotherhoodwhich is only possible between people who have adeep and abiding faith in a God.
Most students in colleges and universities havenever had or have lost all interest in the practice oftrue brotherhood during their college careers. However,there does seem to be a trend toward re-examiningour thinking. Otherwise, we would not be discussingthis subject today. Most students honestly love their fellowmen. In fact, some of us even worship our fellow menand thereby begins our story.
We have become a nationworshipping man rather than God. The resultof looking to man rather than to God for authority isa type of brotherhood such as exists in the jungle, orin a bureaucracy. It is safe to conclude that very few of you havegiven much thought and less energy to those numeroussmall but crucial decisions you are makingdaily, which determine the amount of freedom youwill have in the future.
Few of you realize that unlessthe trend toward totalitarianism is reversed, you willhave in the future little or no control of your privateproperty. Even fewer of you realize that whoever controlsyour property controls you. Think for a momentof your own campus. Is your chapter house on privateor university land? If it is on university property, whocontrols the chapter, you or your institution?
Again,few of you realize that once we deny the existence andthe importance of the spiritual in our lives, we willbe living as merely superintelligent animals. Atheismand socialism, if accepted, will make a dictatorship inevitable. It would seem sometimes that many studentsand some others have already accepted much of thephilosophy which is prerequisite to dictatorship. It is also probably safe to suppose that most of youfeel that these remarks are somewhat extreme andperhaps either that they are false or that they areover-simplifications.
Why then should anyone try toenlist your attention to say nothing of trying to enlistyour participation when some of you probably feelthat you never had it so good? The answer to this question is obvious. You areyoung. I am young. We do love our country. We havethe same capacity for spiritual happiness as we havefor sensual pleasure.
You and all the rest of us willrespond to leadership either in the direction of dependenceor independence of spirit. Leadership Is ContagiousLeadership, therefore, like love, hate or the measlesis contagious. Leadership can also be a curse or a blessing. Christ was a leader and so was Hitler. Leaders can lead only by example. We're willing tobe led only when we understand what the leader istrying to say.
We understand what the leaders aretrying to say only if we actively participate in whateverthe leader is trying to accomplish. We learn goodleadership only by being good leaders ourselves. Sowhat can you do as a college student to practice andto learn the kind of leadership which will reverse thetrend in this country from collectivism to individualism,from coercion to self-determination? The only leadership which is effective and the onlyleadership you can ever expect to give is leadershipof yourself.
As soon as you start trying to judge themotives of others and then try to get them to act yourway, you have failed. As soon as you start trying to"con" others into following you, you have failed inleadership. You don't need to sell your leadership ability. Ifyou have something truly worthwhile to say or to give,it will be so rare and so valuable others will ask andeven demand that you say it or give it to them.
If youare to be a campus leader, you must become an expertin something that others need. Eric Hoffer, in the "True Believer," said that peoplewant hope and that they want something worthdying for. Brotherhood provides the essence of hope. Brotherhood is worth dying for. The practice ofbrotherhood is the practice of freedom. So, let's takea look at brotherhood on the campus. My job involves constant contact with the fraternitieson our campus. As a part of this I recentlytoured some of the fraternity houses.
These are relativelynew structures which were beautifully and expensivelybuilt. One can expect evidence of brotherhoodto be paramount in a fraternity house. This tourwas one of my most depressing experiences in theyears I have been connected with the fraternity system. Incumbent ResponsibilityDoors were broken.
Locks were broken. There weregaping holes in the walls. There was little or no evidenceof respect for beauty, order, or property. Thesehouses are the college homes of young men living togetherostensibly in devotion to brotherhood. Thesefraternity men had been given responsibility for thesehouses because of their professed ideals of brotherhood. Why can and doesthis breakdown between theory and practice takeplace?
It certainly happens on other campuses. Ever sincefraternity houses have existed, there has been poormaintenance of fraternity houses. These men are notinherently bad. They just simply have not learnedsome of the most elementary principles of brotherhood. Worse than this, they don't see or understandthat learning these principles would make life forthem much more exciting and pleasant.
The men wholived in the houses I saw neither believe in nor practicethe type of brotherhood which is essential toleadership. In fact, the conduct of these men suggests stronglythat a dictator should take over the management ofthese houses and should convert them into plush barracks. But, unless students accept the fact that selfdisciplineis an essential ingredient of brotherhood,fraternities have no sound basis for continued existence,nor do they have the right to self-government.
Self-discipline is prerequisite to respect for property,and respect for property is an essential aspect of brotherhoodbecause a man without property is a slave, andthe master vs. There is no brotherhood where men donot have the self-discipline to do as they should,rather than just as they wish at the spur of the momentas the men in these fraternity houses had obviouslydone. A study of the conduct record of many fraternitiesand also a study of the financial records of those samefraternities shows that the two conduct and financialmanagement are positively correlated.
It will alwaysbe a mystery to me that some fraternity men will continueto call "brother," those who repeatedly refuseto pay their house dues either promptly or at all. Yet,it is quite common that a fraternity fails to collectfrom a large percentage of its members.
We need tolook no further than these facts for proof that truebrotherhood has vanished from many groups whichclaim to believe in the ideal of brotherhood. On the campus one sees an increasing rejection ofbrotherhood in many other decisions students make orfail to make. Students refuse to live in fraternityhouses and move to apartments where they can have"license"' rather than "freedom. For a fraternity man torefuse to live with his brothers is pure hypocrisy regardingbrotherhood.
Most students refuse even tojoin fraternities or any other group which restrictstheir freedom to do as they please. Those students,the great majority on most campuses, don't even claimto be interested in brotherhood, but they deserve thesame as the fraternity man who is a hypocrite aboutbrotherhood. Yet there never was a time in history when thesolution to the problem of learning to live peacefullyunder crowded situations was more crucial.
As Restonasks, "What is man's place in it all, and how arehis ideals and his values related not only to an increasinglycomplicated and crowded world but to theuniverse? Others contend that harmonious living doesnot have to be learned but will somehow just automaticallyhappen. The existence of an organized anti-fraternity campaignis a fact.
Yet, to be anti-fraternity is by definitionto be pro-dictatorship. Most of you probably don'tknow that Hitler immediately dissolved all organizedgroups. Any dictator must do this. Hitler, or course,immediately reorganized everybody into one biggroup. In a dictatorship, the individualism which ispossible only in a small group cannot be tolerated. The individual must be lost in the mass if dictatorshipis to survive. Brotherhood and dictatorship areincompatible.
It is for these reasons that active membershipin a fraternity or some other organizationdedicated to the ideals of true brotherhood is the patrioticduty of every American student. The experiencein leadership one obtains from membership in agroup dedicated to true brotherhood is the most importantsingle aspect of higher education.
One cannot possibly get this type of leadership experienceexcept in a college or a university. The specific examples of the complete breakdownof brotherhood are numerous and easy to find on anycampus in the United States. Many were killed and 82 prisoners were left behind. More successful was "Commando No. During the attack against the th Army Coastal Battery, which was conducted from all sides and the air, stores of ammunition and gun positions were set afire.
The English destroyed the rest and re-boarded their boats. The brave resistance of the battery, which lost 28 killed and 29 wounded, went unnoticed and unaided. The main attack on Dieppe, which was conducted on a wide front against Puys, the harbour, the casino and near Pourville, failed completely with enormous losses inflicted on the attackers, who were never able to penetrate the defenses at any one location.
The 28 landed tanks were unable to negotiate the high sea wall. The enemy engineers could not blow the wall because of the German fire. If they had succeeded, the situation would have become critical, because the nd Infantry Division had no anti-tank weapons that could take on the "Churchills. But only half of them were able to re-board their boats. Meanwhile the German corps and army staffs were acting. The corps reserve was subordinated to the nd Infantry Division, the 10th Panzer Division was set in march toward Dieppe at hours and the 6th Panzer Division in Brittany was alerted.
The Luftwaffe committed strong fighter and combat elements. General Roberts had to break off the operation. Of the committed enemy ships and boats, the destroyer Berkeley was sunk and the Calpe, Fernie and Brocklesby were damaged. Thirty-three landing craft, aircraft and all 28 tanks were lost. Personnel losses totaled 4, men, of which 1, were killed approximately of them now lie in the Canadian military cemetery at Dieppe and 2, were either severely wounded or taken prisoner.
Of the 4, landed Canadians - the flower of their Army - only 2, returned to England. German losses totaled 48 aircraft and men. Jubilee did not fail due to the lack of bravery of the Canadians, but because of the concentrated defensive fire from all German weapons. The German forces did no more than their duty.
Knight's Crosses, therefore, were not awarded. One instinctively asks how could the British General Staff, which was so experienced in conducting landings, plan a narrow frontal attack on such a fortified Channel harbour, in light of the known strength of the Wehrmacht around Dieppe, without anticipating failure? The reasons subsequently given - as a reconnaissance and a probing raid for the later invasion, in order to gather amphibious and combat experience, test new landing equipment and learn about German armaments - shed little light.
The military catastrophe at Dieppe is only understandable politically. Churchill was responsible for it. As the leader of the British Empire in he was being pressured from all sides to establish a second front in Western Europe.
Stalin in particular increased these pressures after the failure of the Soviet spring operations in the Crimea and the Ukraine and the German summer offensive to the Caucasus and toward Stalingrad was in full swing. He threatened with suing for a separate peace with Hitler. Roosevelt and his military staff discussed with the Russians the possibility of establishing a second front in , Operation Sledgehammer, a projected large-scale landing at Pas de Calais, which hoped for an inner collapse of the Reich, or at least a sacrificial attack to relieve the Soviets.
There was already a mistrust of Churchill in the lower house of parliament. He feared the after effects of a failed major landing in France. Instead, he strove for the defeat of Germany from another direction, where the enemy would least expect it; an Allied landing in French North Africa, Operation Torch. In order to convince his wavering partners and soothe the French, however, he had to take some action.
But the action he chose was more of a sacrifice! Dieppe demonstrated convincingly to the world what the result of a premature large-scale landing in France in would be. I should note, however, that it was inconceivable to us Germans that the British and Canadian generals would agree to submit their troops to such a sacrificial defeat. A successful raid would have been catastrophic for Churchill's politics.
The bloody sacrifice of the Canadians in Dieppe was not guaranteed. They served honorably and admirably, we were impressed. They paved the way for the successful policies of Churchill through North Africa - Sicily Italy until the invasion of France in , unfortunately avoiding the Balkans, which were promised to Stalin.
Because of this oversight, the unfortunate populations living there and all of Europe suffered for over 50 years. In the technical realm, the ingenious idea of artificial supply harbours "Mulberries" - which paved the way for the surprise major landing in Normandy in , resulted from the failure of the attack on Dieppe harbour.
The reconnaissance of possible landing sites along the Brittany coast was a welcome diversion from the constant alert readiness and immobility caused by the fuel shortage. Thus, we came to know St. Malo and Mont St. Michel without tourists at that time , Brest, Quimper, Lorient and La Baule, along with French cuisine, especially in the nearby forests, where King Artus supposedly had dined.
We anxiously followed the manifold events on the far-off fronts in the Wehrmacht comuniques. The nearby airfield made its wellstocked book store available to us. The commander, in the meantime, recommended Marshal Caulaincourt's two volumes "With Napoleon in Russia" and "Under Four Eyes With Napoleon" , whose books were banned from the book market, "because of their defeatist views on Russia.
On 19 August, after our committment battalion returned in unfriendly weather from an alert exercise, we received alert orders, but without any details. An hour later we learned of the landing at Dieppe. The regiment was ready to march at hours.
English transports were sighted near the Isle of Wight and near Brighton. The command group redeployed to St. The commander believed that the attack on Dieppe was a diversion in order to draw off the German reserves, while a second landing with stronger forces had to be anticipated at another location. I had a bottle of Mosel wine, Auslese, Since we could be in combat at anytime, I drank it that evening. But the transport did it no good, it had turned, and was no more than vinegar. A bad omen.
We returned to our old quarters on the following day. Thus the summer passed. The regiment, meanwhile, had almost become completely combat ready. On 25 October the Wehrmacht report noted the start of the British offensive in Egypt. We anxiously followed its course. The fighting in Russia also increased in intensity. On 5 November we learned that the division would be transported to Russia on 12 November, even though we lacked winter equipment. Indeed, the equipment did arrive, but it had to be hastily installed in the panzers.
On 8 November at hours we received an unexpected alert order! The Americans and English had landed in North Africa! We were to redeploy to southern France, tracked elements by rail, wheeled elements by road march. Our transport trains arrived on 9 November. I was able to report the completion of the tank loading operations to the division at hours.
Only the locomotives were missing. However, three hours later this "intermission" was over, as the transfer to Russia was now back on. The transfer to Russia required the re-equipping of our tanks with winter equipment that had just been removed. This caused considerable effort, especially for our maintenance personnel, who had to obtain winter equipment, winter fuel, oil and tracks. Transport orders were then submitted to move one battalion into the Donets Basin and the other to Belgorod.
It was then passed from command post to command post in Russia for the amusement of all. Passing Brest-Litovsk we learned about the offensive towards Stalingrad. Since Casablanca, January , the Allies demanded the "unconditional surrender" of the German Reich and thereby also closed the door to all efforts by the German Resistance to obtain peace without Hitler.
The German strength was wearing out. Several hard blows fell in the space of a few weeks: first Stalingrad and the collapse of the southern portion of the Eastern Front, then the capitulation of the German Africa Army, the capture of Sicily, the defection of the Italians, the loss of Southern Italy, the failure of Operation "Citadel" at Kursk and the subsequent retreat to the Dnepr. German submarine warfare and the Japanese defense in the southern Pacific was no match for the enormous American material superiority and will-towin.
After air superiority in the west shifted to our enemy, the residential areas of all German cities, whether large or middle-sized, collapsed into soot and ashes. Nevertheless German armament production was still increased by concentration of all means. The determination and devotion of the German people and their soldiers remained unbroken.
Hitler's politics needed to be changed from the demand to defend every meter of the vast fronts and the crimes of violence that continued to be committed by small groups, inviting the immense hatred of the rest of the world.
Retreats in the east, southeast and south would not only free-up forces for the formation of strong operational reserves on land and in the air. They would also complicate an attack on Fortress Europe. Under these circumstances, the way would be paved for a tolerable peace, if Hitler had not decided to make the supreme sacrifice as did Napoleon and Kaiser Wilhelm II before him.
Unfortunately, for the deluded Hitler there was only "victory or death! The threat from the East remains, but an even greater danger looms in the West: The Anglo-American landing! In the East the vastness of space will, as a last resort, permit a loss of territory even on a major scale, without suffering a mortal blow to Germany's chance for survival. Not so in the west! If the enemy here succeeds in penetration of our defenses on a wide front, consequences of staggering proportions will follow with For that reason I can no longer justify the further weakening of the West in favour of other theaters of war.
I have, therefore, decided to strengthen the defenses in the West, particularly at places from which we will launch our long-range battle against England. For those are the very points at which the enemy must and will attack; there - unless all indications are misleading will be fought the decisive invasion battle. The anticipated strong attacks by air and sea must be relentlessly countered by Air Force and Navy with all their available resources. In March , much to my deep disappointment, I was posted from a course at the Battalion Commander School in beautiful Paris, not as a battalion commander to my old regiment in the East, but as a company commander to the Panzer Lehr Regiment at Wunsdorf near Berlin.
My new battalion commander was the admired Major Prinz Wilhelm von SchnburgWaldenburg, an aristocrat from head to toe. The officer corps was first-rate, so was my tank company. The battalion exuded discipline and confidence. The training courses at Wunsdorf were mainly for German officers from all branches and our allies. Training was constantly being interrupted by air raids, which necessitated the evacuation of the buildings in the Berlin area.
We were garrisoned at the Fallingbostel Camp. The news of heavy fighting on all fronts grew ever more serious. Italy defected. My former commander, von Hnersdorff, now Generalmajor, was killed at the head of his 6th Panzer Division near Kursk. Even here we frequently had to interrupt training to clear bombing damage in Hamburg and Hannover. A few days before Christmas we unexpectedly received the order to raise the Panzer Lehr Division from the Lehr school units of all Panzertruppen Schools.
For the readers of today a short review may be appropriate as to how Germany's Panzertruppen came into being since the Great War, and how they developed into their final wartime product, the Panzer Lehr Division. The first German tanks, no more than 24 "A7V" tanks, reinforced by captured enemy tanks, were committed on the Western Front in They came too late, as the German High Command had failed to foresee their potential.
By the Treaty of Versailles Germany was one-sidedly disarmed, her army reduced to , men. She was forbidden to produce, import or The new professional army, the Reichswehr, was regarded as an interim force by its C-in-C, General von Seeckt. In regard to training and education of its officers he demanded a high educational standard in and beyond military matters, to enable each soldier to command in a higher post in a future modern unrestricted German army.
This included high morale with discipline, mutual confidence between all ranks, responsibility and initiative. For Seeckt the meaning of war in Germany's Central European situation was decisive, only to be achieved by mobile operations and surprise, not by positional warfare. Thus attack and offensive operations took precedence over the defence. Tanks and motorization would replace horses and cavalry. Contrary to foreign planners he stressed his dogma that the potential of tanks could only be exploited optimally if their cooperating and supporting arms were able to accompany them in respect to speed, cross-country capability and protection everywhere in battle.
During the first three panzer divisions were formed by a small number of ardent tankers and old horse-cavalry units, provisionally equipped with small tanks, Pz I based on British tankettes , later on Pz. II; their infantry and combat engineers were still mounted on small trucks or motorbikes, except for some small armoured cars for reconnaissance.
All the remaining arms and supply units were motorized using commercial vehicles. The entire division, units and all fighting vehicles were in contact by wireless nets, enabling them to fight in closely coordinated teams. The infantry, now called panzergrenadiers, received armoured fighting and transport vehicles SPW enabling them to fight mounted or dismounted.
Self-propelled artillery, antitank, and anti-aircraft guns followed. During the armored warfare of about 30 German panzer divisions were raised, their number limited by industrial and materiel shortages. Their members never forgot the meaning of tradition and the cavalry spirit, now: Panzer Spirit. The two homes of the German panzertruppen were the Panzertruppen With an authorized personnel strength of 14, officers and men; a strong tank regiment with one Panther and one Pz.
IV battalion; two panzergrenadier regiments with a total of four panzergrenadier battalions, fully armored on SPWs, a new type armored reconnaissance battalion, a tank destroyer Panzerjger and a heavy AAA battalion, a field artillery regiment with three battalions one self-propelled as well as the usual combat support troops and supply services. Panzer Lehr Division represented the best balanced and equipped German panzer division, capable of offensive and defensive actions.
It comprised in all 79 Panthers, Pz. IV, 31 Jpz. There their officers and specialists were trained, their tactics and battle methods developed, and their equipment tested. When training at these schools was increasingly threatened by bombing raids on Berlin, in the summer of , both schools were relocated to the Bergen Training Area today Bergen-Hohne. Reequipped with new materiel, it was the only German panzer division fully outfitted with armored fighting vehicles according to the ideas of General Guderian see Diagram 4.
In contrast to its splendid fighting troops were the insufficiently equipped divisional artillery and the supply services, whose stock of wheeled vehicles looked like a vehicle museum. At New Year's Eve we celebrated farewell from our comrades, who had to stay behind, as they were not fit for combat, with Rhubarb wine, which was the best the mess officer would serve us. At the beginning of January our regiment HQ and our battalion assembled at the old Meuse fortress Verdun.
Here the former I Battalion was redesignated as the II. The equipment status required that one battalion be equipped with Panzer IVs, while the I Battalion of the panzer regiment receive "Panthers. At Verdun the battalion was reorganized to a new system.
In order to save personnel and vehicles, all supply and maintenance elements of the four tank companies were concentrated into a new supply company. I appointed a company commander and a deputy battalion commander. Our new Panzer IVs arrived, but no wheeled vehicles yet. We had to temporarily make do with those we had brought from Fallingbostel.
On 2 January the battalion left Fallingbostel by rail, without tanks and with only a few wheeled vehicles. I was permitted to travel by regular train via Paderborn, in order to see my wife. This was not so easy and rather cold, as the passenger trains were no longer heated. At Hamm I boarded an express train called "Ruins Express," it was so-called because it travelled through the ruins of the city of Hamburg.
There I first learned that our new post was not Luneville, as originally assigned, but the old Meuse fortress of Verdun. Delayed by poor connections, I did not arrive until hours, after twelve and a half hours of travelling. In spite of that, I found a room in a good hotel, the Bellevue on the banks of the Meuse. The charming hotel manager spoke German, as he However, he made no secret of the fact that our days in France were numbered and that we had already lost the war.
In case someone hung their pistol in the cloak-room, he brought it in remarking: "We have enough pistols but a theft here would be unpleasant to me! Unfortunately, the rooms were unheated and there was only cold water. Because of the icy weather, one had to stay in bed if he wanted to sit, read or write. Until special officer quarters were assigned in the city, even the most senior officers of the battalion had to accept hotel accommodations here.
The NCOs and junior officers were quartered in crowded conditions in an old, and very primitive, French barracks. A nearby mess and a well-stocked movie theater supplied the soldiers needs. Verdun was not suitable for a large garrison, especially a unit with panzers, as the Meuse bridges were too weak and they had to be strengthened to 60 tons capacity. One day the initial combat ammunition outfit for our tanks arrived by train.
It had to be stored in the magazine of the old citadel in view of the air threat. From the ceiling of the high vault projected the tip of a German heavy shell from into the room. With a little more energy it would have penetrated into the ammunition store and blown up the entire citadel. They were former Soviet prisoners of war, mostly Georgians, in German grey uniforms without insignia or weapons.
They had volunteered to serve in the German Army and were mainly used in supply elements. With their incredible working pace the ammunition was stored much faster than expected. We always treated out HIWIs well, and they proved worthy of our trust.
They stuck with us until the bitter end in - with only one exception - ever loyal and reliable. After the war the Americans delivered them against their will to the Soviets, according to the Yalta agreement. Most of them were executed there. Because of the initial shortage of panzers and vehicles, no regular training was possible at the beginning. The Landsers soldiers were getting completely out of hand.
The old discipline returned only slowly. There were few traces of war in Verdun. Since food rationing in occupied regions was not as inside the Reich, one could still eat and drink well in the numerous restaurants, but for a higher price. The French population were reserved and correct, but by no means hostile. One day a soldier was fished, dead, out of the Meuse, but it was unclear whether he had fallen in accidentally or whether he was thrown in by a rival or a terrorist.
Without concern we went hunting in the large forests, but always in twos and threes. With awe, we visited the old battlefields of the First World War, crawled through the entrances of the The battlefield around the hill 'le Mort Homme' was an excellent training area for tanks. Here we diligently exercised in conjunction with armored infantry. No admonishment by higher authorities was required to keep us going..
In mid-January, I and Hauptmann Reche were assigned private quarters, with central heating. However, we were not issued any coal and, in any case, the heater was broken. Also, the plumbing was very unreliable. We were supplied with gas for the hearth and even the boiler for the bath, which was the reason we always had so many "guests. Then the evening air raid alerts increased. Since our black-out facilities were so poor, I wrapped my only table cloth over our lamp and it suddenly burst into flames.
We anxiously listened to all news, as depressing as it was, from the Eastern Front, from Italy, where the Allies had also landed near Nettuno, and from the homeland, which suffered from heavy bombing. To compensate for that, rumors started flying. A clairvoyant had predicted that the war would be decided in May, in our favour.
This corresponded with Churchill's prophesy that the war would be decided - by landings in France within 90 days. If it did not succeed, then, under the circumstances, we would destroy the invasion forces! This of course was the main topic of conversation! The skeptics and realists separated themselves from the optimists. Our new officers mess, although sparsely furnished, offered compensation and relaxation from the hard duties. We often gathered together for discussion, to find out the latest news or to celebrate one thing or another.
The French champagne elevated our mood from time to time. Prinz Schnburg was temporarily posted and replaced by Major Darius as commander. During the farewell party, we composed an epic "in open hexameter, like Homer. Our two division chaplains would also attend to perform services and discuss individual concerns.
Church attendance was less than desirable. It was pleasantly decorated and staffed. The Landser could buy drinks there, keeping their money in the company, instead of in town. The music of our company band and the beautiful old soldier's songs loosened the tongues and opened the heart. At the beginning of February our new division commander appeared, Generalmajor Bayerlein, Rommel's former chief of staff in Africa.
He made a good impression and exuded trust and confidence. Fourteen days later we were loaded up for Luneville, for a training exercise that was to be conducted before Generaloberst Guderian. On the evening of the firing, we had to Thus, during the night, we struggled with the new firing commands so that we would be familiar with them when we performed in front of the searching eyes of the inspector general.
He divided up all of the officers into panzer commanders and gunners and tested each individually. Naturally, many of them failed. Then it was the unteroffizier's turn. In closing, the Generaloberst gave a class in tank gunnery to everyone. Then he left. We were able to breathe again. The regimental training on the following day, in snow and an icy wind, did not go very well.
Guderian exploded during the briefing and made a classic statement: "This is the worst nonsense I have seen in my entire military career! We consoled ourselves at the officer's mess with a first class dinner.
No air attacks disturbed the return trip to Verdun. Anxiously we followed the fighting around the Nettuno beachhead in the Wehrmacht Reports. If this could be eliminated, then we believed the Allies would avoid an invasion of France.
But the beachhead remained. At the end of February, every night enormous British bomber squadrons flew over us and, as every soldier learned from letters, bombed every part of the Reich. The air war was expanded to more and more cities. Apparently, the enemy deployment in England was completed, they could be set loose at any time.
The Panzer Lehr Division was to be operational by 1 March, but it still lacked formations, weapons and equipment. A completely unexpected order surprised us: "The division will be transferred into the Vienna area. Advance parties will be dispatched by road on the following day. The tracked vehicles will be transferred by rail! I was allowed to take a scheduled train through Paderborn to visit my wife, who was expecting our first child.
Without major delays in unheated, overcrowded trains, I arrived via Vienna, at my company at Bruck in the Leitha training area. Here two of our tank companies had already been entrained. Did this mean commitment on the Eastern Front after the hotly contested battle of Tarnopol? Or, perhaps, deployment to Hungary, but as friend or foe?
At the last minute, the division received weapons, trucks and the majority of the missing units. Only the artillery and the supply troops still had problems. Then it was to be Hungary! In retrospect the five-week stay in Hungary seems like a beautiful dream, a trip to paradise before the anticipated expulsion.
But American bombs were dropped on us and near Budapest, which inflicted losses on the division and terrified the population. The railroad trip to Paderborn and the christening of our first daughter and the return trip was delayed by detours and stops caused by track damage. On the return trip in Vienna, I had to leave the train for an air raid shelter.
The war was also getting close to Vienna. The beautiful days in Hungary came to an end for my company on 4 May. The railroad trip to the west appeared to be endless. We made forward progress only in spurts. Our heavy railroad cars could scarcely be pulled by the weak locomotives that were provided.
The wear and tear and the airstrikes were taking their toll on the railroad stock. While still in Hungary, the section of the train behind the passenger cars broke away and was left coasting behind, but the engineer did not seem to notice. We applied the emergency brakes, which brought the train to a halt.
It took us twenty hours to reach St. Twenty-four hours later we crawled from Nrnberg to Karlsruhe and, after another twenty-four hours, we finally reached Forbach, where my old regiment returned home in after the Western Campaign. Our zig-zag trip through central France took us through a wonderful spring landscape. Unfortunately, the march rations we had taken from Hungary, which were to last five days had long been eaten and everyone had to go hungry; the air threat would not allow any stops at railroad stations.
After five days we finally passed through Orleans into Chartres, where we unloaded and then marched 45 kilometers at night to our new bivouac area located in parks and forests. So that we would not be discovered from the air, vehicles could only move at night or in bad weather and tracks had to be removed immediately. During the past few weeks, the air situation over northern France had changed completely. Thick groups of bombers, reconnaissance aircraft and fighter-bombers flew overhead both day and night.
This was the cause of our many railroad transfers and detours. We heard that all of the Seine bridges were destroyed, so that the crossing had to be temporarily made over the Loire. We wondered if the gentlemen from England would arrive at all as its was wearing, to sit idle in the countryside without being allowed to show ourselves in daylight. The good points were that "Tuerken" fancy exercises for high ranking visitors had to be cancelled.
Every crew set up a tent next to their vehicle and a trench, some were furnished with wooden makeshift tables and chairs. Food and drinks were sufficient, but this life made many soldiers unruly and they could only be disciplined by strenuous sports and long night exercises. Also, pranks were helpful to shorten the time. One day we buried the silver fuel container of a fighter-bomber in front of the prince's quarters, making it appear to be a real bomb. During the racket made by an overflight of bombers we simulated the whistling and detonations of bombs with a whistle signal and a burstingcharge.
This bang woke up and alarmed the residents of the castle, who requested an engineer from the nearby airfield, to discharge the "dud". Only the prince was not disturbed. But the comte with his family preferred to move into the basement. The laughter of the battalion was Homeric. In comparison to the homeland, which was under heavy threat of bombing Fortunately the field post was operating smoothly. The mail also brought concerns about the increasing bomb damage and its results.
Because of the complete cancellation of leave, we could not help those back home, we could only send our consolation. Hungry for news, we followed every detail of the daily Wehrmacht Communique. On 17 May the "Southern Front," Italy , replaced the Eastern Front from its number one position, which it had held since On 18 May the Allied spring offensive led to the evacuation of long contested Cassino and, on 4 June, to the fall of Rome, which the Allies occupied breaching the "Open City" agreement they made with the Vatican.
Nearby, we listened to the forbidden British broadcast in German "Soldatensender Calais" directed by Sefton Delmer regularly. Besides lively music, it carried amusing propaganda, which ranged from slight falsehoods to out and out lies.
Strange to say I never heard a word about the mass murder of Jews or the progress of resistance fighters, etc. I never learned why these themes were tabu for the broadcasts. As everyone knows, England was very particular about the refugees it would accept, never allowing one person in who was seeking asylum, even withholding support from our own "resistance fighters. Since the Germans jammed the broadcast on our side, we misunderstood the name "Kreipe" from Crete for "Keitel.
To our deep disappointment, we were informed of the misunderstanding soon thereafter. At the end of July, the broadcasts were giving a better rendition of the military situation in France than German enemy intelligence, so we accepted its broadcasts at face value.
Mobile combat erupted after the breakthrough at Avranches and, when the broadcasts tried to draw us into the Falaise pocket, they again lost all credibility. The weekly company information classes were difficult for me at that time. I could only report what I had heard from the newspapers or radio. This was very little. The great questions remained whether and where the Allies would cross the Channel.
There seemed to be no doubt that a strike would come. Germany's economic situation became even more serious. With surprise we Every day in France the electricity was being turned off from to hours. The French could only cook with gas from to hours. Film teams appeared regularly and showed news and films to the troops in barns and other shelters. Going out into the nearest villages, towns and pubs was no longer possible. Bombs fell here and there in our area.
We did not let the bombs bother us, as long as we slept in deep trenches that were well-camouflaged. There were also false alarms, because someone would mistake a flak burst for a parachute. The prinz turned over the command of the battalion to me for the duration of his trip home. The long-expected invasion began on 6 June! I was wakened at hours with an alert order: "English landing in the early morning imminent!
Reconnaissance aircraft and fighters circled high above us, looking for targets. Our uncertainty lasted all day, we had to wait. As before, Hitler would not consider voluntary withdrawals in the north, east and southeast, or from Finland to the Dodekanes, in order to free up forces for the West. In spite of spirited equipment production, the enormous losses suffered on the Eastern Front since Stalingrad were not replaced.
Although the number of western divisions was raised from 38 to 54 from December to May , this number, however, was merely eye wash. The newly created units were formed primarily by reorganizing, combing through older units and filling them with old men and foreigners eastern troops and Hiwis. This increased number was only valid on paper. It did not represent any effective reinforcement of the combat strength.
The following map gives a better picture: See Diagram 5. The great majority 33 of the infantry divisions committed to coastal defense consisted of static divisions with very limited combat strength. They were "insufficiently equipped. Because of the lack of primemovers, heavy weapons were immobile and depended upon being supplied by local divisional supply organizations.
They were primarily manned by older men, who were poorly trained and lacked any combat experience. They "were not up to facing the anticipated enemy mobility, if the fighting evolved into mobile warfare" Speidel. Their combat value corresponded to a positional division. Rommel's measures to strengthen the defenses along the coast against attack came in good stead.
But the mobility of an attack reserve was not improved. The few panzer and panzergrenadier divisions were insufficient for mobile combat against armored and motorized formations. The ground battle would depend upon these formations, as long as the Luftwaffe was to secure the airspace over and behind them.
The reinforcement of the Luftwaffe, especially for air reconnaissance and interdiction, was not accomplished, nor were the Navy's coastal defenses improved. The Army stood alone and had to make it without the Luftwaffe. On 6 June the Western Allies landed at an unexpected location, on a 70 kilometer front of the Calvados coast, with three airborne divisions and five infantry divisions supported by tanks in the first wave, under an enormous screen of naval artillery fire.
They immediately broke through the so-called impregnable Atlantic Wall and advanced inland without stopping. The Luftwaffe and Navy failed to detect the approach of the enormous landing flotilla of almost craft. The deception operation "Mandrel" was successful and the deceiving of the Germans was effective. From approximately hours onwards, on 5 June , German radio stations between Cherbourge and Le Havre reported that they had been heavily jammed. At the same time, stations between Fecamp and Calais reported unusually heavy ship movements in the Channel.
These and other reports compelled the 15th Army, which was located in the area northeast of Caen to Calais, to alert its units and commit in the direction of Calais hours. An alerting of the rest of the front to the west was not ordered by either Army Group B or by Oberbefehlshaber West.
The fast boat formations charged with naval reconnaissance in the Channel area could only take to sea during the darkness and in forecasted weather conditions reflecting wind speeds of level 7, because of Allied air superiority. The lack of sufficient coastal batteries for use against naval targets did not allow, as planned, for the destruction of the attackers in the water before they reached the coast.
Typical was the demise of the Longues Naval Coastal Battery. Shortly before the start of the invasion it was constructed on the steep coast between sectors Gold and Omaha, approximately 74 to 60 meters above the sea. It was armed with four mm cannon of German manufacture, and emplaced under concrete shelters still preserved today. Its fire direction post was located about meters in front of these bunkers, on the edge of the steep coast.
It was the only battery on the invasion front to be equipped with the "Parallax Fire Direction System," which permitted firing at mobile naval targets. The firing data was passed to the guns by telephone. The telephone cable, which was buried 1. The battery lacked radio sets. The smoke of battle prevented the battery from direct fire against observed targets. The guns were blind, and they did not have the capability of conducting indirect fire and adjusting it.
They couldn't hit anything. With its firing radius of degrees, the battery could have also been able to place beaches Gold and Omaha under fire, but as the battery had a purely naval mission, it had neither contact with the Army nor a view of the landing beaches. On 6 June, at hours, the battery was hit by tons of bombs, then with artillery fire from the cruisers Ajax and Argonaut. Its own fire conducted against the battleship Arkansas was ineffective. Its next target, the command ship Bulolo, started a smoke screen and shifted its position out to sea.
During another exchange of fire with the above-named cruisers, Ajax achieved hits on the battery's Number 2 and Number 3 guns. The battery went silent after firing rounds. In the afternoon the Battery Commander The command authority for the coastal defense was outlined in Hitler's Directive No.
It did not provide for integrated command and control. The engagement of the enemy before the coast was the mission of the Navy alone, which due to shortage of naval forces before Normandy, could commit only the two coastal batteries, "Marcouf' and "Longues". The sinking of the destroyer Corry by "Marcouf' was the only success enjoyed against the enemy armada. The German Navy and Luftwaffe had long ago been overtaken by the technical progress of the British and Americans with their enormous research and development capabilities.
They had become hopelessly inferior, both technically and numerically. In order to achieve his objective, of repulsing the enemy attack, if not before, then after it reached the coast, Generalfeldmarschall Rommel had only seven battalions of the th Infantry Division to defend the landing sites Gold, Juno and Sword. They had been formed for coastal defense back in and consisted of older soldiers lacking combat experience, who manned an extensive chain of partially concreted nests of resistance and strong points in the neighborhood of the beach.
Some were armed with 50, 75 and 88mm guns. The division was dependent on local logistics because it lacked vehicles and horses. The artillery lacked telephone equipment and prime-movers, so firing missions were limited to battery-size and they could not change their positions. The two battalions that were committed on the beach line were so suppressed from the air, from the sea and by the landing ships that they could seldom fire and could not issue even one report.
Meanwhile, the British and Canadians landed at low tide and overcame the only partially completed beach obstacles and mine-fields and immediately advanced inward, without running into any noteworthy resistance. The weak local reserves, which were on foot, were prematurely destroyed by air strikes and by tanks. Since the command and control nets were failing, the division CP was not aware of the situation, and therefore the senior command was not informed until the following day.
On 6 June the Atlantic Wall was more effectively broken through than was ever achieved in the trench warfare of to In this case, however, there was neither a secondary defensive position nor any effective counter-fire by the artillery; which had been silenced by air strikes. There was no effective response from the Luftwaffe. Generalfeldmarschall von Rundstedt ordered the linear arm of the "Atlantic Wall" - the "thin strip with a couple knots tied into it" - be reinforced by a second defensive belt corresponding to German "Hindenburg Line" preparations for a strong fortified line in This construction did not take place due to the shortage of labor.
Hitler wanted every available man at the Eastern Front and doubted any serious landing on the Channel coast until the inva The overwhelming effect and range of the enemy's naval artillery was completely underestimated due to the lack of our own experience.
All movement was paralyzed under its devastating fire, even that by local, non-armored reserves. Thus, all counter-strikes and counterattacks by forces of the th Infantry Division were nipped in the bud. They were finally overrun by the enemy and had, by evening of D-Day, melted down into one pitiful battalion and several guns.
There was no second defensive position to withdraw to. In spite of their exhaustion from the Channel crossing in high seas, the assault forces were able to advance to the south, almost without resistance, until they reached the Bayeux-Caen rail line with patrols, although utterly exhausted.
Unnoticed by the German command, on 6 June elements of the 7th British Armored Division were landed and, by 9 June, two armored brigades with about tanks were operational in the British sector of the beachhead. The 21st Panzer Division, which was the Army Group B attack reserve, was thrown into the fighting at hours on either side of the Orne. Delayed by confusing orders they attacked with a poorly equipped panzer regiment west of the Orne to the north, in the direction of the coast.
They ran into a superior enemy force near Lebisey in well-prepared defensive positions supported by tanks. The attack stalled after losing 13 panzers. The panzergrenadiers from Group Rauch attacked to the east of the panzers. They attacked Lion-sur-Mer under the personal leadership of the commander, General Marcks, and reached an area of the beach free of enemy forces at hours.
At that time, the attackers watched as about cargo gliders, being towed by transport aircraft and accompanied by numerous fighters, landed east of the Orne to reinforce the 6th British Airborne Division. Impressed by this enormous air fleet, the division commander wrongly expected an airborne landing in his rear and ordered the attack suspended and his units withdrawn to the departure positions.
Only the 1 st Company of the nd Panzergrenadier Regiment withdrew to the Luftwaffe "Distelfink" radar station near Douvres, where the company, together with men from the radar station, was encircled. After the Dieppe raid, this radar station was reinforced with concrete and anti-tank defenses, as well as flak weapons. In fact, it continued to defend bravely against all attacks from the ground and the air until it surrendered on 17 June.
However, already on the first day, the 21st Panzer Division was so splintered into several groups on either side of the Orne and so tied up in sec The enemy's surprise, deception and speed were not properly anticipated. On the evening of 6 June I British Corps occupied a ten kilometer-long strip of coast with sufficient depth. Fresh forces, weapons and supplies were landed during the night. The exhausted remnants of the German defenders waited in vain for reinforcements and supplies.
Confusion dominated at the headquarters of the th Infantry Division in Caen. Now they had to use the operational reserves. It opposed the notion of linear defense to defense in depth, static warfare to mobile operations, the holding of ground to battles of annihilation, the primary dependence of concrete fortification to the primary dependence on armored striking power. Field Marshal Rommel advocated, due to his African experience, static defense, fearing that Allied air power would prevent a timely deployment of operational reserves - today known as "Follow-on Forces.
The weaker the forces, the more flexibility they must have to fight. By sacrificing operational ground and avoiding battle at the area of the enemy's choosing, it is essential to keep the mobile forces concentrated and to strike partial blows. Fighting in static lines without reserves will force armies to retreat, even when there are only small operational break-throughs.
General von Geyr differentiated two phases of the defensive: a. The main effort of a landing operation could hardly be located on the first day. It is more likely that the enemy would determine the main effort only after the course of the first day's fighting; and b.
Now everything depends on throwing all mobile forces even those committed already at secondary fronts - concentrated into the battle. Hitler ended this "Panzer Controversy" with the compromise of dividing up the few operational reserves.
Therefore, their commitment in mass, which It should be explained that Hitler had not intervened, but decided at the request of von Runstedt. The transmission of Eisenhower's orders in the early morning hours confirmed that this was, in fact, the long-awaited D-Day But it was still not clear whether this first attack was meant to tie up our forces, or if it was the actual main attack.
It was surprising that there were no marked increases in sabotage. Therefore, it was possible that the enemy first wanted to slice off the Cotentin peninsula, thereby capturing Cherbourg in order to simultaneously, or subsequently, attack the 15th Army with forces waiting in southeastern England OB West reacted logically, even if the course of events can only be partially reconstructed because numerous war diaries were lost. This division was already arbitrarily subordinated to Army Group B at hours and ordered to move into the th Infantry Division sector east of the Orne at hours in order to engage the air-landed enemy forces.
Churchill's "bodyguard of lies," the exaggerated agent strength reports, radio deception, air landing east of the Orne, etc. Therefore, the 12th SS Panzer Division was sent in the wrong direction. At hours, when the OKW released the two panzer divisions, the situation had been somewhat clarified. They were no longer concerned with the air landing, but the sea landings on the beaches between the Orne and the Cotentin peninsula.
The rest of the division had its arrival delayed for 24 hours due to march difficulties. The corps, which was coming out of St. Germain, had lost many radio stations to air attack and, from the very beginning, had great problems making contact with superiors and subordinates alike.
The corps could neither transmit orders to its subordinates, situation reports to the army, nor receive situation developments from the army. A corps liaison officer, who was sent to the Panzer Lehr Division with signal data for radio documents, was, unfortunately, killed before reaching his objective. The commander of the Panzer Lehr Division, Generalleutnant Bayerlein, could only find the corps command post after a long search.
He found it at hours near Thury-Harcourt. The Panzer Lehr Division remained in its assembly area, as ordered, until hours. The night march went off well, as enemy air reconnaissance discovered it too late. The march objectives were reached without delay. Because of the urgency of the situation, the march into the area south of Villers Bocage was ordered to be continued even in the daytime, so that the division would come under the command of I SS Panzer Corps on the evening of 7 June.
While refuelling, it was discovered and attacked from the air. Fuel trucks and tanks caught fire; there were killed and wounded. Soon pyres of smoke indicated the routes of the three columns to the fighter In spite of increased distances and separation into smaller march groups, this daytime march cost time and losses.
The ALA - almost fully armored - crossed the stretch from Andre de Messey to Roucamps 40 kilometers in over seven and a half hours. Losses of men and vehicles were unavoidable, even though the first loss reports were considered to be inflated - even more in literature - under the principle: "Always double them!
No one had anticipated such delays. The 21st Panzer Division also could not attack on 7 June. The groups fighting east of the Orne could not break contact from the enemy. West of the river, the two battle groups von Oppeln and Rauch were forced onto the defense by a British armored attack near Lebisey.
The division lost the freedom of maneuver. While the 12th SS Armored Reconnaissance Battalion reconnoitered to the west and clarified the situation east of Bayeux for the 7th Army, the reinforced 25th SS Panzergrenadier Regiment alone was prepared to attack on the morning of 7 June. It was ordered to secure the Carpiquet airfield. As the 7th Canadian Brigade set out west of Caen to bypass the city and occupy the airfield, Oberst Meyer decided on his own to counterattack at hours. After initial success he became involved in costly fighting, without any chance of receiving reinforcement, since the 21st Panzer Division was tied up everywhere and other units had still not arrived.
Fighter-bombers and conflicting orders and reports had paralyzed the leadership.
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