Vertical color, and color-infrared, aerial photography obtained from altitudes between m and m provide a cost effective method of determining tree survival and height growth in pine plantations on the North Carolina Coastal Plain. All interpretations were performed by professional forestry personnel from the original 70 mm color transparencies. Prompt assessment of tree survival is necessary if failed spots are to be successfully replanted. Counts of living trees made after the third growing season, and sometimes only two growing seasons after planting, are accurate enough to permit planning of replanting operations without extensive ground surveys.
Processed aerial photography for selected areas of the lower Colorado River, southwestern United States. Norman, Laura M. In this report, we present summary information on accomplishments under a USGS task for the Department of the Interior's Landscapes in the West project. We discuss our preliminary results in compiling a digital database of geospatial information on the Lower Colorado River and acquisition of data products, and present a geospatial digital dataset of aerial photography of the river valley.
USGS authors scanned and mosaicked the photographs, registered the photo mosaics, and created metadata describing each mosaic series, all 15 of which are presented here. Use of mm color aerial photography to acquire mallard sex ratio data. A conventional mm camera equipped with an f2. Prelight focusing for a distance of This technique has broad application to the problem of determining sex ratios of various species of waterfowl concentrated on wintering and staging areas.
The aerial photographic method was cheaper than the ground ocular method when costs were compared on a per bird basis. Application of aerial photography to the study of small scale upper ocean phenomena. The industrial waste dumped n. The plume of the waste diffused vertically and horizontally.
Photodensitometry of aerial photos of the plume showed lateral dispersion of the plume in agreement with two other methods: acoustic tracking of the waste suspensoid and transmissometer sampling. In addition, the method showed small scale features like the lateral and longitudinal variations in the photodensity, indicating the waste concentration.
This waste concentration showed periodic changes in its axial distance, with the spectral peak at about m wave length. It shows a sharp increase at the windward edge of the plume as do the acoustic records. This phenomenon is explained in terms of the shearing current near the surface together with vertical diffusion. The periodic change along the axis is explained in terms of the Langmuir circulation and in terms of internal ship waves. Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Calcasieu Lake, Louisiana, to Brownsville, Texas, September , Geological Survey USGS , as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project, conducts baseline and storm-response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms Morgan, On September , , the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Calcasieu Lake, Louisiana, to Brownsville, Texas, aboard a Cessna C aircraft at an altitude of feet ft and approximately 1, ft offshore.
This mission was flown to collect baseline data for assessing incremental changes of the beach and nearshore area, and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change. ExifTool was used to add the following to the header of each photo: time of collection, Global Positioning System GPS latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist photographer , caption, copyright, and contact information.
The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft at the time the photograph was taken and do not indicate the location of any feature in the images see the Navigation Data page. Pages containing thumbnail images of the photographs, referred to as contact sheets, were created in 5-minute segments of flight time.
These segments can be found on the Photos and Maps page. The KML file was created using the photographic navigation files. The KML file can be found in the kml folder. Identification of irrigated crop types from ERTS-1 density contour maps and color infrared aerial photography. The author has identified the following significant results. The crop types of a Great Plains study area were mapped from color infrared aerial photography. Each field was positively identified from field checks in the area.
Enlarged 50x density contour maps were constructed from three ERTS-1 images taken in the summer of The map interpreted from the aerial photography was compared to the density contour maps and the accuracy of the ERTS-1 density contour map interpretations were determined. Changes in the vegetation during the growing season and harvest periods were detectable on the ERTS-1 imagery.
Density contouring aids in the detection of such charges. Peppa, M. Understanding and protecting cultural heritage involves the detection and long-term documentation of archaeological remains alongside the spatio-temporal analysis of their landscape evolution. Archive aerial photography can illuminate traces of ancient features which typically appear with different brightness values from their surrounding environment, but are not always well defined.
This research investigates the implementation of the Structure-from-Motion - Multi-View Stereo image matching approach with an image enhancement algorithm to derive three epochs of orthomosaics and digital surface models from visible and near infrared historic aerial photography. The enhancement algorithm uses decorrelation stretching to improve the contrast of the orthomosaics so as archaeological features are better detected.
The study also discusses the merits and difficulties of the process involved. This research is based on a European-wide project, entitled "Cultural Heritage Through Time", and the case study research was carried out as a component of the project in the UK.
Baseline coastal oblique aerial photographs collected from Breton Island, Louisiana, to the Alabama-Florida border, July 13, Geological Survey USGS conducts baseline and storm response photography missions to document and understand the changes in vulnerability of the Nation's coasts to extreme storms. On July 13, , the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Breton Island, Louisiana, to the Alabama-Florida border, aboard a Cessna flying at an altitude of feet ft and approximately 1, ft offshore.
ExifTtool was used to add the following to the header of each photo: time of collection, Global Positioning System GPS latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist photographer , caption, copyright, and contact information.
The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft and do not indicate the location of any feature in the images see the Navigation Data page. These photographs document the configuration of the barrier islands and other coastal features at the time of the survey. These segements can be found on the Photos and Maps page.
Table 1 provides detailed information about the GPS location, name, date, and time each of the photographs taken along with links to each photograph. The photography is organized into segments, also referred to as contact sheets, and represent approximately 5 minutes of flight time. Also see the Photos and Maps page. In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language KML file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then.
On August 8, , the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey from Dauphin Island, Alabama, to Breton Island, Louisiana, aboard a Cessna at an altitude of feet ft and approximately 1, ft offshore. Exiftool was used to add the following to the header of each photo: time of collection, Global Positioning System GPS latitude, GPS longitude, keywords, credit, artist photographer , caption, copyright, and contact information.
In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language KML file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then clicking. The remote sensing of aquatic macrophytes Part 1: Color-infrared aerial photography as a tool for identification and mapping of littoral vegetation. Part 2: Aerial photography as a quantitative tool for the investigation of aquatic ecosystems. Research was initiated to use aerial photography as an investigative tool in studies that are part of an intensive aquatic ecosystem research effort at Lake Wingra, Madison, Wisconsin.
It is anticipated that photographic techniques would supply information about the growth and distribution of littoral macrophytes with efficiency and accuracy greater than conventional methods. The use of color infrared aerial photography in determining salt marsh vegetation and delimiting man-made structures of Lynnhaven Bay, Virginia. Color infrared aerial photography was found to be superior to color aerial photography in an ecological study of Lynnhaven Bay, Virginia.
The research was divided into three phases: 1 Determination of the feasibility of correlating color infrared aerial photography with saline wetland species composition and zonation patterns, 2 determination of the accuracy of the aerial interpretation and problems related to the aerial method used; and 3 comparison of developed with undeveloped areas along Lynnhaven Bay's shoreline.
Wetland species composition and plant community zonation bands were compared with aerial infrared photography and resulted in a high degree of correlation. Problems existed with changing physical conditions; time of day, aircraft angle and sun angle, making it necessary to use several different characteristics in wetland species identification.
The main characteristics used were known zonation patterns, textural signatures and color tones. Lynnhaven Bay's shoreline was Oblique aerial photographs are commonly collected to document coastal landscapes. Here we show that these historical photographs can be used to develop topographic models with Structure-from-Motion SfM photogrammetric techniques if adequate photo-to-photo overlaps exist.
Focusing on the m high cliffs of Fort Funston, California, photographs from the California Coastal Records Project were combined with ground control points to develop topographic point clouds of the study area for five years between and Uncertainties in the results were assessed by comparing SfM-derived point clouds with airborne lidar data, and the differences between these data were related to the number and spatial distribution of ground control points used in the SfM analyses.
With six or more ground control points the root mean squared error between the SfM and lidar data was less than 0. The time-series of topographic point clouds revealed many topographic changes, including landslides, rockfalls and the erosion of landslide talus along the Fort Funston beach.
Thus, we concluded that historical oblique photographs, such as those generated by the California Coastal Records Project, can provide useful tools for mapping coastal topography and measuring coastal change. This paper compares two methods for enumerating salmon redds and their application to monitoring spawning activity. Aerial photographs of fall chinook salmon spawning areas in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River were digitized and mapped using Geographic Information Systems GIS techniques in and as part of an annual assessment of the population.
The number of visible redds from these photographs were compared to counts obtained from visual surveys with fixed wing aircraft. The proportion of the total redds within each of five general survey areas was similar for the two monitoring techniques. The divergence in redd counts was most evident near peak spawning activity when the number of redds within individual spawning clusters exceeded Aerial photography improved our ability to monitor numbers of visible salmon redds and to quantify habitat use.
Using aerial photography for mapping giant reed infestations along the Texas-Mexico portion of the Rio Grande. Giant reed Arundo donax L. The objective of this study was to use aerial photography to map giant reed infestations and Mapping giant reed Arundo donax infestations along the Texas-Mexico portion of the Rio Grande using aerial photography.
Giant reed is an invasive weed throughout the southern half of the United States with the densest stands growing along the coastal rivers of southern California and the Rio Grande in Texas. The objective of this study was to use aerial photography to map giant reed infestations and estimate infested Accuracy assessment of vegetation community maps generated by aerial photography interpretation: perspective from the tropical savanna, Australia.
Aerial photography interpretation is the most common mapping technique in the world. However, unlike an algorithm-based classification of satellite imagery, accuracy of aerial photography interpretation generated maps is rarely assessed. Vegetation communities covering an area of km2 on Bullo River Station, Northern Territory, Australia, were mapped using an interpretation of , color aerial photography. Manual stereoscopic line-work was delineated at , and thematic maps generated at , and , Multivariate and intuitive analysis techniques were employed to identify 22 vegetation communities within the study area.
The overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient for both thematic maps was Our findings highlight the need for appropriate scales of mapping and accuracy assessment of aerial photography interpretation generated vegetation community maps.
Monitoring lava-dome growth during the Mount St. Helens, Washington, eruption using oblique terrestrial photography. We present an analysis of lava dome growth during the — eruption of Mount St. Helens using oblique terrestrial images from a network of remotely placed cameras. This underutilized monitoring tool augmented more traditional monitoring techniques, and was used to provide a robust assessment of the nature, pace, and state of the eruption and to quantify the kinematics of dome growth.
Eruption monitoring using terrestrial photography began with a single camera deployed at the mouth of the volcano's crater during the first year of activity. From May through September , imagery from multiple cameras deployed around the volcano allowed determination of 3-dimensional motion across the dome complex.
The ability to measure spatial and temporal rates of motion of the effusing lava dome from oblique terrestrial photographs provided a significant, and sometimes the sole, means of identifying and quantifying dome growth during the eruption, and it demonstrates the utility of using frequent, long-term terrestrial photography to monitor and study volcanic eruptions.
Estimation of walrus populations on sea ice with infrared imagery and aerial photography. Population sizes of ice-associated pinnipeds have often been estimated with visual or photographic aerial surveys, but these methods require relatively slow speeds and low altitudes, limiting the area they can cover. Recent developments in infrared imagery and its integration with digital photography could allow substantially larger areas to be surveyed and more accurate enumeration of individuals, thereby solving major problems with previous survey methods.
We conducted a trial survey in April to estimate the number of Pacific walruses Odobenus rosmarus divergens hauled out on sea ice around St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. The survey used high altitude infrared imagery to detect groups of walruses on strip transects. Low altitude digital photography was used to determine the number of walruses in a sample of detected groups and calibrate the infrared imagery for estimating the total number of walruses.
We propose a survey design incorporating this approach with satellite radio telemetry to estimate the proportion of the population in the water and additional low-level flights to estimate the proportion of the hauled-out population in groups too small to be detected in the infrared imagery. We believe that this approach offers the potential for obtaining reliable population estimates for walruses and other ice-associated pinnipeds. In hardly accessible areas, the collection of 3D point-clouds using TLS Terrestrial Laser Scanner can be very challenging, while airborne equivalent would not give a correct account of subvertical features and concave geometries like caves.
To solve such problem, the authors have experimented an aerial photography based SfM Structure from Motion technique on a 'peninsular-rock' surrounded on three sides by the sea at a Pacific coast in eastern Japan. As a result, high-resolution aerial orthophotographs and a 3D model were obtained. The results have shown that it was possible to survey the sea cliff and the wave cut-bench, which are unobservable from land side. In details, we could observe the complexity of the sea cliff that is nearly vertical as a whole while slightly overhanging over the thinner base.
The wave cut bench is nearly flat and develops extensively at the base of the cliff. Although there are some evidences of small rockfalls at the upper part of the cliff, there is no evidence of very recent activity, because no fallen rock exists on the wave cut bench. This system has several merits: firstly lower cost than the existing measuring methods such as manned-flight survey and aerial laser.
The use of large-scale aerial color photography for assessing forest tree diseases. Basal canker of white pine: a case study. This paper discusses the use of aerial color photography to discern symptoms of the disease as it developed over time, the factors contributing to disease development, and the patterns of disease development. Looking into the water with oblique head tilting: revision of the aerial binocular imaging of underwater objects.
It is a well-known phenomenon that when we look into the water with two aerial eyes, both the apparent position and the apparent shape of underwater objects are different from the real ones because of refraction at the water surface. Earlier studies of the refraction-distorted structure of the underwater binocular visual field of aerial observers were restricted to either vertically or horizontally oriented eyes.
We investigate a generalized version of this problem: We calculate the position of the binocular image point of an underwater object point viewed by two arbitrarily positioned aerial eyes, including oblique orientations of the eyes relative to the flat water surface.
Assuming that binocular image fusion is performed by appropriate vergent eye movements to bring the object's image onto the foveas, the structure of the underwater binocular visual field is computed and visualized in different ways as a function of the relative positions of the eyes. We show that a revision of certain earlier treatments of the aerial imaging of underwater objects is necessary.
We analyze and correct some widespread erroneous or incomplete representations of this classical geometric optical problem that occur in different textbooks. Improving the theory of aerial binocular imaging of underwater objects, we demonstrate that the structure of the underwater binocular visual field of aerial observers distorted by refraction is more complex than has been thought previously.
Using aerial photography to estimate riparian zone impacts in a rapidly developing river corridor. Riparian zones are critical for protecting water quality and wildlife, but are often impacted by human activities. Ongoing threats and uncertainty about the effectiveness of buffer regulations emphasize the importance of monitoring riparian buffers through time.
We developed a method to rapidly categorize buffer width and landuse attributes using leaf-on aerial photography and applied it to a 65 km section of the Toccoa River in north Georgia. We repeated our protocol using leaf-off aerial photographs to assess the utility of our approach for monitoring.
Field verification indicated that our method overestimated buffer widths and forested land use and underestimated built-up land use and the number of buildings within ft of the river. Our methodology can be used to rapidly assess the status of riparian buffers. Including supplemental data e. Our results on the Toccoa River reflect historic impacts, exemptions and variances to regulations, and the ongoing threat of vacation home development.
We recommend additional monitoring, improvements in policy, and efforts to increase voluntary protection and restoration of stream buffers. Early aerial photography and contributions to Digital Earth - The case of the Halifax air survey mission in Canada. This paper presents research into the military and civilian history, technological development, and practical outcomes of aerial photography in Canada immediately after the First World War. The collections of early aerial photography in Canada and elsewhere, as well as the institutional and practical circumstances and arrangements of their creation, represent an important part of remote sensing heritage.
It is argued that the digital rendition of the air photos and their representation in mosaic form can make valuable contributions to Digital Earth historic inquiries and mapping exercises today. An episode of one of the first urban surveys, carried out over Halifax, Nova Scotia, in , is highlighted and an air photo mosaic and interpretation key is presented. Using the almost one hundred year old air photos and a digitally re-assembled mosaic of a substantial portion of that collection as a guide, a variety of features unique to the post-war urban landscape of the Halifax peninsula are analysed, illustrated, and compared with records of past and current land use.
The pan-chromatic air photo ensemble at a nominal scale of , is placed into the historical context with contemporary thematic maps, recent air photos, and modern satellite imagery. Further research opportunities and applications concerning early Canadian aerial photography are outlined. This paper proposes a two-stage method for the reconstruction of city buildings with discontinuities and roof overhangs from oriented nadir and oblique aerial images. To model the structures the input data is transformed into a dense point cloud, segmented and filtered with a modified marching cubes algorithm to reduce the positional noise.
Assuming a monolithic building the remaining vertices are initially projected onto a 2D grid and passed to RANSAC-based regression and topology analysis to geometrically determine finite wall, ground and roof planes. If this should fail due to the presence of discontinuities the regression will be repeated on a 3D level by traversing voxels within the regularly subdivided bounding box of the building point set.
For each cube a planar piece of the current surface is approximated and expanded. The resulting segments get mutually intersected yielding both topological and geometrical nodes and edges. These entities will be eliminated if their distance-based affiliation to the defining point sets is violated leaving a consistent building hull including its structural breaks.
To add the roof overhangs the computed polygonal meshes are projected onto the digital surface model derived from the point cloud. Their shapes are offset equally along the edge normals with subpixel accuracy by detecting the zero-crossings of the second-order directional derivative in the gradient direction of the height bitmap and translated back into world space to become a component of the building.
As soon as the reconstructed objects are finished the aerial images are further used to generate a compact texture atlas for visualization purposes. An optimized atlas bitmap is generated that allows perspectivecorrect multi-source texture mapping without prior rectification involving a partially parallel placement algorithm. Moreover, the texture atlases undergo object-based image analysis OBIA to detect window areas which get reintegrated into the building.
Computer-aided classification of forest cover types from small scale aerial photography. The US National Park Service must map forest cover types over extensive areas in order to fulfill its goal of maintaining or reconstructing presettlement vegetation within national parks and monuments. Furthermore, such cover type maps must be updated on a regular basis to document vegetation changes.
Computer-aided classification of small scale aerial photography is a promising technique for generating forest cover type maps efficiently and inexpensively. The results were encouraging, given the degraded quality of the photograph and the fact that features were not centered, as well as the lack of information on lens vignetting characteristics to make corrections.
Suggestions are made for resolving these problems in future research and applications. In addition, it is hypothesized that the overall accuracy is artificially low because the computer-aided classification more accurately portrayed the intermixing of cover types than the hand-drawn maps to which it was compared. Highway extraction from high resolution aerial photography using a geometric active contour model. Highway extraction and vehicle detection are two of the most important steps in traffic-flow analysis from multi-frame aerial photographs.
The traditional method of deriving traffic flow trajectories relies on manual vehicle counting from a sequence of aerial photographs, which is tedious and time-consuming. This research presents a new framework for semi-automatic highway extraction. The basis of the new framework is an improved geometric active contour GAC model. This novel model seeks to minimize an objective function that transforms a problem of propagation of regular curves into an optimization problem.
The implementation of curve propagation is based on level set theory. By using an implicit representation of a two-dimensional curve, a level set approach can be used to deal with topological changes naturally, and the output is unaffected by different initial positions of the curve.
However, the original GAC model, on which the new model is based, only incorporates boundary information into the curve propagation process. An error-producing phenomenon called leakage is inevitable wherever there is an uncertain weak edge. In this research, region-based information is added as a constraint into the original GAC model, thereby, giving this proposed method the ability of integrating both boundary and region-based information during the curve propagation.
Adding the region-based constraint eliminates the leakage problem. This dissertation applies the proposed augmented GAC model to the problem of highway extraction from high-resolution aerial photography. First, an optimized stopping criterion is designed and used in the implementation of the GAC model. It effectively saves processing time and computations. Second, a seed point propagation framework is designed and implemented.
This framework incorporates highway extraction, tracking, and linking into one procedure. A seed point is usually placed at an end node of highway segments close to the boundary of the. Research applications of night-time aerial photography , from local to global scales. The collection of digital color night photography from the International Space Station ISS presents an opportunity to rapidly map artificial lighting at a medium resolution and large extent, but radiance calibrated data do not yet exist.
We therefore used our ground surveys and aerial night photographs of London to reclassify pixels within an ISS image of SE England to represent upward radiant flux. In addition, we were able to explore whether the estimated radiance values for each pixel resulted from a few bright light sources or multiple dim lamps, raising the possibility of improved estimates of lighting character based on prior probability models. Given the global step-change underway in artificial lighting and the high demand for data on urban systems, our results suggest that a suite of complimentary lighting measurement techniques that includes night-time aerial photography would be beneficial.
This paper proposes an in-line method for the simplified reconstruction of city buildings from nadir and oblique aerial images that at the same time are being used for multi-source texture mapping with minimal resampling. As part of the process building reconstruction takes the oriented input images and transforms them into dense point clouds by semi-global matching SGM.
The point sets undergo local RANSAC-based regression and topology analysis to detect adjacent planar surfaces and determine their semantics. Based on this information the roof, wall and ground surfaces found get intersected and limited in their extension to form a closed 3D building hull. For texture mapping the hull polygons are projected into each possible input bitmap to find suitable color sources regarding the coverage and resolution.
Occlusions are detected by ray-casting a full-scale digital surface model DSM of the scene and stored in pixel-precise visibility maps. These maps are used to derive overlap statistics and radiometric adjustment coefficients to be applied when the visible image parts for each building polygon are being copied into a compact texture atlas without resampling whenever possible. Following multi-resolution segmentation and classification based on brightness and contrast differences potential window objects are evaluated against geometric constraints and.
This dissertation examines the region along the Stanegate frontier, just below Hadrian's Wall, on both a macroscopic and microscopic level, to analyze how landscape affected placement of forts, camps, and other military structures. It aims to explore known archaeological structures as well as expose new areas of interest, not yet discovered through traditional survey methods.
It asks the question of whether temporary structures helped lead to the development of permanent structures, as part of the overall limes defensive strategy. While a lack of archaeological dating on many of these structures often provides the greatest challenge, the aim is to determine what additional information can be deduced about how landscape affected this region and to set an agenda of future survey work, designed to improve our understanding of it.
In addition, this approach aims to improve understanding of the function of these installations and their relationship to the Wall and each other. Aerial photography and the construction of a geographic information system GIS can prove a valuable tool in surveying the region, to extract data from forts, camps, and recently discovered land depressions.
Measurements can be taken to determine if there is a similar building pattern which might reflect contemporaneous construction periods. Distances between structures can be taken to determine the significance of their spacing and arrangement. In addition, data sets containing information on bedrock, ancient woodlands, ecology, and hydrology can provide valuable insight on the topography of each site. This work is meant to serve as a foundational piece for future scholars to build upon to continue to expand our understanding of the region, as computational methods become more sophisticated and data access becomes more readily available across the globe.
The sky is the limit? One hundred years after the first publication on aerial photography taken from unmanned aerial platforms Arthur Batut , small-format aerial photography SFAP became a distinct niche within remote sensing during the s. Geographers, plant biologists, archaeologists and other researchers with geospatial interests re-discovered the usefulness of unmanned platforms for taking high-resolution, low-altitude photographs that could then be digitized and analysed with geographical information systems, softcopy photogrammetry and image processing techniques originally developed for digital satellite imagery.
Even before the ubiquity of digital consumer-grade cameras and 3D analysis software accessible to the photogrammetric layperson, do-it-yourself remote sensing using kites, blimps, drones and micro air vehicles literally enabled the questing researcher to get their own pictures of the world. As a flexible, cost-effective method, SFAP offered images with high spatial and temporal resolutions that could be ideally adapted to the scales of landscapes, forms and distribution patterns to be monitored.
During the last five years, this development has been significantly accelerated by the rapid technological advancements of GPS navigation, autopiloting and revolutionary softcopy-photogrammetry techniques. State-of-the-art unmanned aerial systems UAS now allow automatic flight planning, autopilot-controlled aerial surveys, ground control-free direct georeferencing and DEM plus orthophoto generation with centimeter accuracy, all within the space of one day. The ease of use of current UAS and processing software for the generation of high-resolution topographic datasets and spectacular visualizations is tempting and has spurred the number of publications on these issues - but which advancements in our knowledge and understanding of geomorphological processes have we seen and can we expect in the future?
This presentation traces the development of the last two decades. Suitability of low cost commercial off-the-shelf aerial platforms and consumer grade digital cameras for small format aerial photography. Many research projects require the use of aerial images. Wetlands evaluation, crop monitoring, wildfire management, environmental change detection, and forest inventory are but a few of the applications of aerial imagery.
Low altitude Small Format Aerial Photography SFAP is a bridge between satellite and man-carrying aircraft image acquisition and ground-based photography. The author's project evaluates digital images acquired using low cost commercial digital cameras and standard model airplanes to determine their suitability for remote sensing applications.
Images from two different sites were obtained. Several photo missions were flown over each site, acquiring images in the visible and near infrared electromagnetic bands. Images were sorted and analyzed to select those with the least distortion, and blended together with Microsoft Image Composite Editor.
By selecting images taken within minutes apart, radiometric qualities of the images were virtually identical, yielding no blend lines in the composites. A commercial image stitching program, Autopano Pro, was purchased during the later stages of this study.
Autopano Pro was often able to mosaic photos that the free Image Composite Editor was unable to combine. Using telemetry data from an onboard data logger, images were evaluated to calculate scale and spatial resolution. Despite the limitations inherent in consumer grade equipment, images of high spatial resolution were obtained.
Mosaics of as many as 38 images were created, and the author was able to record detailed aerial images of forest and wetland areas where foot travel was impractical or impossible. Agricultural cropland mapping using black-and-white aerial photography , Object-Based Image Analysis and Random Forests. Land-use and land-cover LULC conversions have an important impact on land degradation, erosion and water availability.
Information on historical land cover change is crucial for studying and modelling land- and ecosystem degradation. Most distinct is the conversion of natural vegetation into cropland. Historical LULC information can be derived from satellite imagery, but these only date back until approximately This photography is often visually interpreted, which is a very time-consuming approach.
Cropland acreage was mapped on two study sites in Ethiopia and in The Netherlands. A simple method for enhancing the spatial and spectral resolution of disparate data sets is presented. Two data sets, digitized aerial photography at a nominal spatial resolution 3,7 meters and TMS digital data at The two data sets were then subjected to intensity-saturation-hue ISH transformations in order to 'blend' the high-spatial-resolution 3. The resultant merged products make it possible to perform large-scale mapping, ease photointerpretation, and can be derived for any of the 12 available TMS spectral bands.
This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Sandy data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area since the last survey in The data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change. The photograph locations are an estimate of the position of the aircraft and do not indicate the location of the feature in the images.
Table 1 provides detailed information about the GPS location, image name, date, and time each of the 9, photographs were taken, along with links to each photograph. The photographs are organized in segments, also referred to as contact sheets, and represent approximately 5 minutes of flight time. The KML files were created using the photographic navigation files.
This study describes a hybrid technique of digitally classifying aerial photography used for mapping the intertidal habitat of eelgrass Zostera marina L. The large tidal range m in this region exposes most of this seagrass community at The identification of archaeological sites by false color infrared aerial photography. The study of color infrared photography of Tehuacan Valley, Mexico was made to determine the applicability of remotely sensed data to archeology.
Photography was interpreted without prior knowledge of the area, followed by a field check to determine accuracy of the original interpretations and to evaluate causes of successes and failures. Results indicate that the visibility of sites depends primarily on its environmental situation, and also that the delineation of environments and microenvironments is especially easy with this type of film.
Furthermore, the age and size of the sites are not necessarily the deciding factors in their discernment. Guy Will Wilburn Jeter Jr. Carter University of Southern Mississippi Geography and Geology Gulf Coast Geospatial Center The over-arching goal of this research is to assess habitat change over a seventy year period to better understand the combined effects of global sea level rise and storm impacts on the stability of Horn Island, MS habitats.
Historical aerial photography is often overlooked as a resource for use in determining habitat change. However, the spatial information provided even by black and white imagery can give insight into past habitat composition via textural analysis. This research will evaluate characteristic dimensions; most notably patch size of habitat types using simple geo-statistics and textures of brightness values of historical aerial imagery. It is assumed that each cover type has an identifiable patch size that can be used as a unique classifier of each habitat type.
Analytical methods applied to the imagery were developed using field data and USDA aerial imagery. Textural moving window methods and basic geo-statistics were used to estimate characteristic dimensions of each cover type in aerial photography. The moving window texture analysis was configured with multiple window sizes to capture the characteristic dimensions of six habitat types; water, bare sand , dune herb land, estuarine shrub land, marsh land and slash pine woodland.
Coefficient of variation CV , contrast, and entropy texture filters were used to analyze the spatial variability of the and imagery. CV was used to depict the horizontal variability of each habitat characteristic dimension. Contrast was used to represent the variability of bright versus dark pixel values; entropy was used to show the variation in the slash pine woodland habitat type. Results indicate a substantial increase in marshland habitat relative to other habitat types since Results also reveal each habitat-type, such as dune herb-land, marsh.
Reported cases of seagrass loss have increased over the last 40 years, increasing the awareness of the need for assessing seagrass health. In situ monitoring has been the main method to assess spatial and temporal changes in seagrass ecosystem.
Although remote sensing techniques with multispectral imagery have been recently used for these purposes, long-term analysis is limited to the sensor's mission life. The objective of this project is to determine long-term changes in seagrass habitat cover at Caja de Muertos Island Nature Reserve, by combining in situ data with a satellite image and historical aerial photography.
A current satellite imagery of the WorldView-2 sensor was used to generate a benthic habitat map for the study area. The multispectral image was pre-processed using: conversion of digital numbers to radiance, and atmospheric and water column corrections. Object-based image analysis was used to segment the image into polygons representing different benthic habitats and to classify those habitats according to the classification scheme developed for this project. The scheme include the following benthic habitat categories: seagrass sparse, dense and very dense , colonized hard bottom sparse, dense and very dense , sand and mix algae on unconsolidated sediments.
Field work was used to calibrate the satellite-derived benthic maps and to asses accuracy of the final products. In addition, a time series of satellite imagery and historic aerial photography from to provided data to assess long-term changes in seagrass habitat cover within the Reserve. Preliminary results show an increase in seagrass habitat cover, contrasting with the worldwide declining trend. The results of this study will provide valuable information for the conservation and management of seagrass habitat in the Caja de Muertos Island Nature Reserve.
General education students taking freshman-level physical geography and geomorphology classes at Arizona State University completed an online laboratory whose main tool was Google Earth. Early in the semester, oblique and planimetric views introduced students to a few volcanic, tectonic, glacial, karst, and coastal landforms. A 'digital' technique for manual extraction of data from aerial photography. The interpretation procedure described uses a grid cell approach. In addition, a random point is located in each cell.
The grid is then positioned on the photography by visual alignment to obvious features. Several alignments on one frame are sometimes required to make a precise match of all points to be interpreted. This system inherently corrects for distortions in the photography. Interpretation is then done cell by cell. In order to meet the time constraints, first order interpretation should be maintained. The data is put onto coding forms, along with other appropriate data, if desired. This 'digital' manual interpretation technique has proven to be efficient, and time and cost effective, while meeting strict requirements for data format and accuracy.
Following a humanitarian relief effort, one of the first informational needs was complete aerial photographic coverage of the storm ravaged areas so that the governments of the affected countries, the U. Between December 4 and 19, an Open Skies aircraft conducted five successful missions and obtained more than 5, high-resolution aerial photographs and more than 15, video images. The aerial data are being used by the Reconstruction Task Force and many others who are working to begin rebuilding and to help reduce the risk of future destruction.
This paper discusses the potential of current photogrammetric multi-head oblique cameras, such as UltraCam Osprey, to improve the efficiency of standard photogrammetric methods for surveying applications like inventory surveys and topographic mapping for public administrations or private customers. In collaboration with FBK Trento Italy , the data acquired at Imst a small town in Tyrol, Austria were analysed and processed to extract precise 3D topographic information.
The Imst block comprises images and covers an area of approx. The photogrammetric workflow, from flight planning to Dense Image Matching DIM and 3D building extraction, is described together with the achieved accuracy. For each step, the differences and innovation with respect to standard photogrammetric procedures based on nadir images are shown, including high overlaps, improved vertical accuracy, and visibility of areas masked in the standard vertical views.
Finally the advantages of using oblique images for inventory surveys are demonstrated. New techniques to measure cliff change from historical oblique aerial photographs and structure-from-motion photogrammetry. Oblique aerial photograph surveys are commonly used to document coastal landscapes. Here it is shown that adequate overlap may exist in these photographic records to develop topographic models with Structure-from-Motion SfM photogrammetric techniques.
Uncertainty was assessed by comparing point clouds with airborne LIDAR data, and these uncertainties were related to the number and spatial distribution of ground control points used in the SfM analyses. The SfM results had several benefits over traditional airborne LIDAR in that they included point coverage on vertical- to-overhanging sections of the cliff and resulted in 10— times greater point densities.
Time series of the SfM results revealed topographic changes, including landslides, rock falls, and the erosion of landslide talus along the Fort Funston beach. Thus, it was concluded that SfM photogrammetric techniques with historical oblique photographs allow for the extraction of useful quantitative information for mapping coastal topography and measuring coastal change. The new techniques presented here are likely applicable to many photograph collections and problems in the earth sciences.
Analysis of change in pinon-juniper woodlands based on aerial photography , 's's. Both increases and decreases in woodland cover were observed. Fractal dimensions of woodland patches and cover-type changes were analyzed following the method of Krummel and others The study encompasses extensive areas of seagrass, federally protected submersed, r Post-Hurricane Ike coastal oblique aerial photographs collected along the Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana barrier islands and the north Texas coast, September , On September , , the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey along the Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana barrier islands and the north Texas coast, aboard a Beechcraft Super King Air aircraft at an altitude of feet ft and approximately 1, ft offshore.
This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Ike data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area since the last survey, flown on September , , and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change. Post-Hurricane Isaac coastal oblique aerial photographs collected along the Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana barrier islands, September 2—3, On September , , the USGS conducted an oblique aerial photographic survey along the Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana barrier islands aboard a Cessna aircraft at an altitude of feet ft and approximately 1, ft offshore.
This mission was flown to collect post-Hurricane Isaac data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area since the last survey, flown in September central Louisiana barrier islands and June Dauphin Island, Alabama, to Breton Island, Louisiana , and the data can be used in the assessment of future coastal change. In addition to the photographs, a Google Earth Keyhole Markup Language KML file is provided and can be used to view the images by clicking on the marker and then clicking on.
This mission was conducted to collect post-Hurricane Joaquin data for assessing incremental changes in the beach and nearshore area since the last surveys, mission flown in September Virginia to New York: Morgan, , November northern North Carolina: Morgan and others, and May southern North Carolina: unpublished report , and the data can be used to assess of future coastal change.
Identification and measurement of shrub type vegetation on large scale aerial photography. Important range-shrub species were identified at acceptable levels of accuracy on large-scale 70 mm color and color infrared aerial photographs. Identification of individual shrubs was significantly higher, however, on color infrared. Photoscales smaller than had limited value except for mature individuals of relatively tall species, and then only if crown margins did not overlap and sharp contrast was evident between the species and background.
Larger scale photos were required for low-growing species in dense stands. The crown cover for individual species was estimated from the aerial photos either with a measuring magnifier or a projected-scale micrometer. These crown cover measurements provide techniques for earth-resource analyses when used in conjunction with space and high-altitude remotely procured photos.
Using aerial photography to estimate wood suitable for charcoal in managed oak forests. Mexican oak forests genus Quercus are frequently used for traditional charcoal production. Appropriate management programs are needed to ensure their long-term use, while conserving the biodiversity and ecosystem services, and associated benefits. A key variable needed to design these programs is the spatial distribution of standing woody biomass. A state-of-the-art methodology using small format aerial photographs was developed to estimate the total aboveground biomass AGB and aboveground woody biomass suitable for charcoal making WSC in intensively managed oak forests.
The CAap accuracy was validated using field measurements of the crown area CAf. Modeling vegetation heights from high resolution stereo aerial photography : an application for broad-scale rangeland monitoring. Vertical vegetation structure in rangeland ecosystems can be a valuable indicator for assessing rangeland health and monitoring riparian areas, post-fire recovery, available forage for livestock, and wildlife habitat.
Federal land management agencies are directed to monitor and manage rangelands at landscapes scales, but traditional field methods for measuring vegetation heights are often too costly and time consuming to apply at these broad scales. Most emerging remote sensing techniques capable of measuring surface and vegetation height e.
An alternative remote sensing approach that is potentially more practical for managers is to measure vegetation heights from digital stereo aerial photographs. As aerial photography is already commonly used for rangeland monitoring, acquiring it in stereo enables three-dimensional modeling and estimation of vegetation height.
The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and accuracy of estimating shrub heights from high-resolution HR, 3-cm ground sampling distance digital stereo-pair aerial images. Overlapping HR imagery was taken in March near Lake Mead, Nevada and 5-cm resolution digital surface models DSMs were created by photogrammetric methods aerial triangulation, digital image matching for twenty-six test plots.
We compared the heights of individual shrubs and plot averages derived from the DSMs to field measurements. We found strong positive correlations between field and image measurements for several metrics. Individual shrub heights tended to be underestimated in the imagery, however, accuracy was higher for dense, compact shrubs compared with shrubs with thin branches.
Plot averages of shrub height from DSMs were also strongly correlated to field measurements but consistently underestimated. Grasses and forbs were generally too small to be detected with the resolution of the DSMs. Estimates of. Sand dunes provide coastal communities critical protection from flooding and erosion, as well as a habitat for a range of species- some threatened or endangered. As such, it is of importance to develop a quantitative understanding of the processes through which these systems evolve at a variety of temporal and spatial scales.
During summer , a large field campaign in southwest Washington called the Sandbar-aEolian Dune EXchange EXperiment SEDEX2 focused on developing a suite of data sets fundamental to improving our understanding of the ways in which beaches and dunes grow during fair weather conditions. The spacing of the debutantes was preplanned to give the proper distancing.
The placement of the lights was also measured and recorded. The camera was set with tripod height noted and camera settings recorded. The position of the camera was carefully marked. The crew spaced the debutantes carefully, and took pictures with the masks, and then allowed the girls to briefly remove their masks for additional photos.
Bethany Erickson, deputy editor at People Newspapers, cut her teeth on community journalism, starting in Arkansas. She doesn't like lima beans, black licorice or the word synergy.
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Wallace S. He finally succumbed to the numerous complications that continued after his cardiac arrest. William Duane Ruybal, age 51, slipped away peacefully, surrounded in love and peace at Swedish Hospital on Sunday, February 7, after a long battle back from Cardiac Arrest on December 25, She was preceded in death by her parents, John William Sr.
Born June 21, , in She was preceded in death by her parents, John William James F. Amy L. Roberts, Sarita M Ronald Allen Born Oct St. Shaw, It is with great sadness that the family of Ron announces that he passed away on February 7, in Denver Colorado. Born Oct St. Shaw, It is with great sadness that the family of Ron announces that he passed away on February 7, Survived by her husband, Robert L. Survived by her Edwin Michael Meis Eddie. He was the 5th of 6 children born to Gisaburo and Taka Minamoto.
As a child, his family picked coffee beans for a living on a coffee farm. Soon after graduating from high school, he enlisted in the Army Air Corps and was assigned to post war Japan. While in the military, his fellow soldiers had difficulty pronouncing his name let alone remembering it, so they started calling him As a child, his family picked coffee Janice Myers Arvada Jan, 79 years old, passed away on February 4, after a short illness.
While she was Jan, 79 years old, passed away on February 4, after a short illness. She was at peace at home with her three children, Kim It is with great sadness that the LeRoy family, of Denver, Colorado announces the passing of our beloved and beautiful daughter Sam.
Judith attended St. Judith Marie Higson, age 88, passed away peacefully on February 3, Scott Van Cleave Please check back for the full obituary. Dennis Frank Jones, age 78 died at home on February 2, of cancer. He graduated from Moscoso, Mark A. A visitation will be Benjamin Moscoso passed away on February 2, at the age of He was born December 7, in Denver, spent most of his life in Colorado, and for the last 28 years has lived in Cherry Hills Village.
Rick started working as a golf caddie at Green Gables Country Club as a teenager and received an Evans Scholarship for golf caddies to attend the University of Colorado at Boulder, where he was a He was born December 7, in She retired from McGraw Hill, where she was blessed with a successful career and lifelong friendships. She enjoyed decades of singing in the choir at Bethany Lutheran church. Over time, Arla developed close relationships with choir members, and considered many of them to be more like family; some even Kathleen Snellgrove Kathleen Rae Snellgrove, beloved wife, mother, and grandmother, passed away at the age of 87, surrounded by her family.
The indoor studio offers a multitude of options for traditional family portraits, unique images of children, and business headshots. Bettinger also offers the option of creating portraits at the location of your choice. Bettinger can meet you at your home, a public park, or any location that has special meaning to you.
Second generation owner Daniel Bettinger has always loved photography. Raised in the business by his parents — Richard and Norma Bettinger — he was exposed to all facets of the business at an early age. From souping prints in the black and white darkroom as a child to mastering traditional portrait lighting to perfecting the use of digital technology, photography has been his lifelong passion.
Trained by his father and other top portrait artists, Bettinger has perfected his craft and is considered one of the best portrait photographers in Colorado.